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Explanation antj C^mlJuation 





i^int!) CFnition. 





(L. anv C CD^ittingtiam, College l^ott^e, €^i$i»ifl. 






A Servant of Jesus Christ, called of God to the 
Dispensation of the Gospel now again revealed, 
and, after a long and dark Night of Apostacy, 
commanded to be preached to all Nations, wisheth 
Health and Salvation. 

As the condition of kings and princes placeth 
them in a station more obvious to the view and 
observation of the world, than that of other 
men; of whom, as Cicero observes, neither 
any word or action can be obscure ; so are 
those kings during whose appearance upon 
the stage of this world it pleaseth the Great 
King of kings singularly to make known 
unto men the wonderful steps of his unsearch- 
able providence^ more signally observed, and 
their lives and actions more diligently re- 
marked, and inquired into by posterity ; espe- 
cially if those things be such as not only relate 
to the outw^ard transactions of this world, but 
also are signalized by the manifestation or 
revelation of the knowledge of God in matters 
spiritual and religious. These are the things 
that rendered the lives of Cyrus, Augustus 
Caesar, and Constantine the Great in former 
times, and of Charles the Fifth, and some 
other modern princes in these last ages, so 


But among all the transactions which it hath 
pleased God to permit, for the glory of his 
power, and the manifestation of his wisdom 
and providence, no age furnisheth us with 
things so strange and marvellous^ whether with 
respect to matters civil or religious, as these 
that have fallen out within the compass of thy 
time ; who, though thou be not yet arrived at 
the fiftieth year of thy age, hast yet been a 
witness of stranger things than many ages be- 
fore produced. So that whether we respect 
those various troubles wherein thou foundest 
thyself engaged while scarce got out of thy 
infancy; the many different afflictions where- 
with men of thy circumstances are often unac- 
quainted ; the strange and unparalleled for- 
tune that befell thy father ; thy own narrow 
escape, and banishment following thereupon, 
with the great improbability of thy ever re- 
turning, at least without very much pains and 
tedious combatings ; or finally the incapacity 
thou wert under to accomplish such a design, 
considering the strength of those that had pos- 
sessed themselves of thy throne, and the terror 
they had inflicted upon foreign states ; and 
yet that, after all this, thou shouldest be re- 
stored without stroke of sword, the help or 
assistance of foreign states, or the contrivance 
and work of human poHcy ; all these do suffi- 
ciently declare that it is the Ijynfs doing ; 
which, as it is marvellous in our eyes, so it 
will justly be a matter of wonder and astonish- 
ment to generations to come ; and may suffi- 
ciently serve, if rightly observed, to confute 
and confound that aiheiam wherewith tliis age 
doth so much abound. 


As the vindication of the liberty of conscience 
(which thy father, by giving way to the im- 
portunate clamours of the clergy, the answer- 
ing and fulfilhng of whose unrighteous wills 
has often proved hurtful and pernicious to 
princes, sought in some part to restrain), was 
a great occasion of those troubles and revolu- 
tions ; so the pretence of conscience was that 
which carried it on, and brought it to that 
pitch it came to. And though no doubt some 
that were engaged in that work designed good 
things, at least in the beginning, albeit always 
wrong in the manner they took to accomplish 
it, viz. by carnal weapons ; yet so soon as 
they had tasted the sweets of the possessions 
of them they had turned out, they quickly 
began to do those things themselves for which 
they had accused others. For their hands 
were found full of oppression, and they Jiated 
the reproof of instruction, which is the way of life ; 
and they evilly entreated the messengers of 
the Lord, and caused his prophets to be 
beaten and imprisoned, and persecuted his 
people, whom he had called and gathered out 
from among them, whom he had made to beat 
their swords into ploughshares, and their spears 
into pruning hooks, and not to learn carnal war 
any more : but he raised them up, and armed 
them with spiritual weapons, even with his own 
Spirit and power, whereby they testified in 
the streets and highways, and public markets 
and synagogues, against the pride, vanity, lusts, 
and hypocrisy of that generation, who were 
righteous in their own eyes ; though often 
cruelly entreated therefore : and they faith- 

tin TO I'll E KING. 

fully prophesied and foretold them of their 
judgment and downfall, which came upon 
them, as by several warnings and epistles de- 
livered to Oliver and Richard Cromwell, the 
parliament, and other then powers, yet upon 
record, doth appear. 

And after it pleased God to restore thee, 
what oppressions, what banishments, and evil 
entreatings they have met with, by men pre- 
tending thy authority, and cloaking their mis- 
chief with thy name, is known to most men in 
this island ; especially in England, where there 
is scarce a prison that hath not been filled 
with them, nor a judge before whom they have 
not been haled ; though they could never yet be 
found guilty of any thing that might deserve 
that usage. Therefore the sense of their in- 
nocency did no doubt greatly contribute to 
move thee, three years ago, to cause some 
hundreds of them to be set at liberty : for 
indeed their sufferings are singular, and obvi- 
ously distinguishable from all the rest of such 
as live under thee, in these two respects. 

First, In that among all the plots cmitrked by 
others against thee since thy return into Britain^ 
there was never any^ oumed of that people^ found 
or known to be guilt]/ (though many of them 
have been taken and imprisoned upon such 
kind of jealousies), but were always found inno- 
cent and harmless, as became the followers of 
Christ; not coveting after, nor contending for, 
the kingdoms of this zvorld, but subject to even/ 
ordinance of man, for conscience sake. 

Secondly, /;/ that in the hottest times of perse- 
cution, and the most violent prosecution of those 


laws made against meetings^ being clothed with 
innocency, they have holdly stood to their testi- 
mony for God, without creeping into holes or cor- 
ners, or once hiding themselves, as all other Dis- 
senters have done ; hut daily met, according to 
their custom, in the public places appointed for 
that end ; so that none of thy officers can say 
of them, that they have surprised them in a cor- 
ner, overtaken them in a private conventicle^ or 
catched them lurking in their secret chambers ; nor 
needed they to send out spies to get them, uhom 
they were sure daily to find in their open assemblies, 
testifying for God and his truth. 

By which those who have an eye to see 
may observe their Christian patience and 
courage, constancy and suffering, joined in 
one, more than in any other people that differ 
from them, or oppose them. And yet, in the 
midst of those troubles, thou canst bear wit- 
ness, that as on the one part they never sought 
to detract from thee, or to render thee and 
thy government odious to the people, by 
nameless and scandalous pamphlets and libels ; 
so on the other hand they have not spared to 
admonish, exhort, and reprove thee ; and have 
faithfully discharged their consciences towards 
thee, without flattering words, as ever the true 
prophets in ancient times used to do to those 
kings and princes, under whose power vio- 
lence and oppression were acted . 

And although it is evident by experience to 
be most agreeable both to divine truth and 
human policy to allow every one to serve God 
according to their consciences, nevertheless 
those other sects, who for the most part durst 


not peep out in the times of persecution, while 
these innocent people stood bold and faithful, 
do now combine in a joint confederacy, not- 
withstanding all the former janglings and con- 
tentions among themselves, to render us odi- 
ous ; seeking unjustly to wrest our doctrine 
and words, as if they were both inconsistent 
with Christianity and civil society : so that to 
effectuate this their work of malice against us, 
they have not been ashamed to take the help, 
and commend the labours, of some invidious 
Socinians against us. So do Herod and Pon- 
tius Pilate agree to crucify Christ. 

But our practice, known to thee by good 
experience to be more consistent with Chris- 
tianity and civil society, and the peace and 
welfare of this island, than that of those who 
thus accuse us, doth sufficiently guard us 
against this calumny; and we may indeed 
appeal to the testimony of thy conscience, as 
a witness for us in the face of the nations. 

These things moved me to present the 
world with a brief, but true account of this 
people's principles, in some short theoloirical 
propositions ; which, according to the will of 
God, proving successful, beyond my expec- 
tation, to the satisfaction of several, and to 
the exciting in many a desire of being farther 
informed concerning us, as being every where 
evil spoken of; and likewise meeting with 
public opposition by some, as such will al- 
ways do, so long as the dml inks in the chil- 
dren of disobedience ; I was thereby farther 
engaged, in the liberty of the Lord, to present 
to the world this Apology of the truth held by 


those people : which, because of thy interest 
in them, and theirs in thee, as having first 
appeared, and mostly increased, in these na- 
tions under thy rule, I make bold to present 
unto thee. 

Thou knowest, and hast experienced, their 
faithfulness towards their God^ their patience in 
suffering, their peaceableness towards their king, 
their honesty, plainness, and integrity in their 
faithfid warnings and testimonies to thee ; and if 
thou wilt allow thyself so much time as to read 
this, thou mayest find how consonant their prin- 1 
ciples are both to scripture, truth, and right reason, j 
The simplicity of their behaviour, the genera- 
lity of their condition, as being poor men and 
illiterate ; the manner of their procedure, 
being without the wisdom and policy of this 
world ; hath made many conclude them fools 
and madmen, and neglect them, as not being 
capable of reason. But though it be to them 
as their crown, thus to be esteemed of the 
wise, the great, and learned of this world, 
and though they rejoice to be accounted fools 
for Christ's sake ; yet of late some, even such 
who in the world's account are esteemed both 
wise and learned, begin to judge otherwise of 
them, and find that they hold forth things very 
agreeable both to scripture, reason, and true 

As it is inconsistent with the truth I bear, 
so it is far from me, to use this epistle as an 
engine lo flatter thee, the usual design of such 
works ; and therefore I can neither dedicate 
it to thee, nor crave thy patronage, as if 
thereby I might have more confidence to pre- 

3tll TO THE KING. 

sent it to the world, or be more hopeful of its 
success. To God alone I owe what 1 have, 
and that more immediately in matters spiri- 
tual ; and therefore to him alone, and to the 
service of his truth, I dedicate whatever work 
he brings forth in me ; to whom only the 
praise and honour appertain, whose truth 
needs not the patronage of worldly princes ; 
his arm and power being that alone by which 
it is propagated, established, and confirmed. 
But I found it upon my spirit to take occasion 
to present this book unto thee ; that as thou 
hast been often warned by several of that 
people, who are inhabitants of England; so 
thou mayest not want a seasonable advertise- 
ment from a member of thy ancient kingdom 
of Scotland; and that thou mayest know, 
which I hope thou wilt have no reason to be 
troubled at, that God is raising up and in- 
creasing that people in this nation. And the 
nations shall also hereby know, that the truth 
we profess is not a work of darkness, nor 
propagated by stealth; and that we are not 
ashamed of the gospel of Christy because we 
know it to be the power of God unto salvatwn ; 
and that we are no ways so inconsistent with 
government, nor such disturbers of the peace, 
as our enemies, by traducing us, have sought 
to make the world believe we are : for which 
to thee I dare appeal, as a witness of our 
peaceableness and Christian patience. 

Generations to come shall not more admire 
that singular step of Divine Providence, in 
restoring thee to thy throne, witliout outward 
bloodshed, than they shall admire the in- 


crease and progress of this truths without all 
outward help, and against so great opposition ; 
which shall be none of the least things render- 
ing thy memory remarkable. God hath done 
great things for thee ; he hath sufficiently 
shown thee, that it is by him princes ruk^ and 
that he can pull clown and set tip at his pleasure. 
He hath often faithfully warned thee by his 
servants, since he restored thee to thy royal 
dignity, that thy heart might not wax wanton 
against him, to forget his mercies and provi- 
dences towards thee ; whereby he might per- 
mit thee to be soothed up, and lulled asleep 
in thy sins, by the flattering of court parasites^ 
who, by their fawning, are the ruin of many 

There is no king in the world, who can so 
experimentally testify of God's providence 
and goodness ; neither is there any who rules 
so many free people, so many true Christians : 
which thing renders thy government more 
honourable, thyself more considerable, than 
the accession of many nations, filled with 
slavish and superstitious souls. 

Thou hast tasted of prosperity and adver- 
sity ; thou knowest what it is to be banished 
thy native country, to be overruled, as well as 
to rule, and sit upon the throne ; and being 
oppressed, thou hast reason to know how hate- 
fid the oppressor is both to God and man : if 
after all these warnings and advertisements, 
thou dost not turn unto the Lord with all thy 
heart, but forget him, who remembered thee 
in thy distress, and give up thyself to follow 


lust and vanity : surely great will be thy con- 

Against which snare, as well as the temp- 
tiition of those that may or do feed thee, and 
prompt thee to evil, the most excellent and 
prevalent remedy will be^ to apply thyself to 
that Light of Christy which shmetli in thy con- 
science ^)which neither can nor will flatter thee, 
nor suffer thee to be at ease in thy sins ; but 
doth and will deal plainly and faithfully with 
thee, as those that are followers thereof have 
also done. 

GOD Almghti/y who hath so signally hitherto 
visited tliee with his /ow, so touch and reach 
thy hearty eix the day of thy visitation be ex- 
pired^ that thou may est effectually turn to hirn^ 
so as to improve thy place and station for his 
name. So wisheth, so prayeth, 

Thy faithful friend and subject, 
i!'* V Robert Barclay. 

From \jrj, iu m^ nati?e oounlrjr 
of Scotlnnd. the 25tli of the 
tuoiith ciillod November, in itio 
;ear MIMfAW. 

R. B. 


Forasmuch as that, which above all things 
I propose to myself, is to declare and defend 
the truths for the service whereof I have given 
up and devoted myself, and all that is mine ; 
therefore there is nothing which for its sake 
(by the help and assistance of God) I may not 
attempt. And in this confidence, I did some 
time ago publish certain propositions of divi- 
nity, comprehending briefly the chief prin- 
ciples and doctrines of truth ; which appear- 
ing not unprofitable to some, and being be- 
yond my expectation well received by many, 
though also opposed by some envious ones, 
did so far prevail, as in some part to remove 
that false and monstrous opinion which lyin^ 
fame, and the malice of our adversaries, had 
implanted in the minds of some, concerning 
us and our doctrines. 

In this respect it seemed to me not fit to 
spare my pains and labour ; and therefore, 
being actuated by the same Divine Spirit, 
and the like intention of propagating the 
truth, by which I published the propositions 
themselves, I judged it meet to explain them 
somewhat more largely at this time, and de- 
fend them by certain arguments. 

Perhaps my method of writing may seem { 
not only different, but even contrary, to that 
which is commonly used by the men called 


divines^ with which I am not concerned : inas- 
much as I confess myself to be not only no 
imitator and admirer of the school-men^ but an 
opposer and despiser of them as such, by 
whose labour I judge the Christian religion to 
be so far from being bettered, that it is rather 
destroyed. Neither have I sought to accom- 
modate this my work to itching ears, w^ho 
desire rather to comprehend in their heads 
the sublime notions of truth, than to embrace 
it in their hearts : for what I have written 
comes more from my heart than from my 
head ; what 1 have heard with the ears of my 
soul, and seen with my inward eyes, and my 
hands have handled of the JVord of Life, and 
what hath been inwardly manifested to me of 
jhe things of Cod, that do I declare ; not so 
much regarding the eloquence and excellency 
of speech, as desiring to demonstrate the effi- 
cacy and operation of truth ; and if I err 
sometimes in the former, it is no great matter ; 
for I act not here the grammarian, or the 
orator, but the Christian; and therefore in 
this I have followed the certain rule of the 
Divine Light, and of the Holy Scriptures, 

And to make an end ; what I have written 
is written not to feed the uisdom and knozc' 
ledge, or rather vain pride of this uorld, but to 
starve and oppose it, ws the little preface pre- 
fixed to the propositions doth show; which, 
with the title of them, is as followeth. 






^0 tl)t 23oclot0, ^rofc^^or^, anlJ <^tuDcnt0 of IDibinitg 









Unto you these following propositions are 
offered ; in which, they being read and con- 
sidered in the fear of the Lord, you may per- 
ceive that simple naked truth, which man bj^ 
his wisdom hath rendered so obscure and 
mysterious, that the world is even burthened 
with the great and voluminous tractates which 
are made about it, and by their vain jangling 
and commentaries, by which it is rendered a 
hundred fold more dark and intricate than of 
itself it is : which great learning (so accounted 


ward revelations, which we make absolutely neces- 
sary for the building up of true faith, neither do nor 
can ever contradict the outward testimony of the 
scriptures, or right and sound reason. Yet from 
hence it will not follow, that these divine revelations 
are to be subjected to the examination, either of the 
outward testimony of the scriptures, or of the natural 
reason of man, as to a nwre noble or certain rule or 
touchstone ; for this divine revelation, and inward 
illumination, is that which is evident and clear of 
itself, forcing, by its own evidence and clearness, the 
well disposed understanding to assent, irresistibly 
moving the same thereunto ; even as the common 
principles of natural ti^uths move and incline the 
mind to a natural assent : as, that the whole is greater 
than its part ; that two contradictory sayings cannot 
be both true, nor both false ; which is also manifest, 
according to our adversaries' principle, who (sup- 
posing the possibility of inward divine relations) will 
nevertlieless confess with us, that neither scripture nor 
sound reason will contradict it : and yet it will not 
follow, according to them, that the scripture or sound 
reason should be subjected to the examination of the 
divine revelations in the heart. 


Concerning the Scriptures. 

From these revelations of the Spirit of God to the 
saints, have proceeded the scriptures of truth, which 
contain: 1. A faithful historical account of the act- 
ings of God's people in divers ages, with many sin- 
gular aid remarkable providences attending them. 
2. A prophetical account of several things, whereof 
some are already past, and some yet to come. 3. A 
full and ample account of all the chief principles of 
the doctrine of Christ, held forth in divers precious 
declarations, exhortations, and sentences, which, by 


the moving of God's Spirit, were at several times, 
and upon sundry occasions, spoken and written unto 
some churches and their pastors : nevertheless, be- 
cause they are only a declaration of the fountain, and 
not the fountain itself, therefore they are not to be 
esteemed the principal ground of all truth and know- 
ledge, nor yet the adequate primary rule oi faith and 
manners. Nevertheless, as that which giveth a true 
and faithful testimony of the first foundation, they are 
and may be esteemed a secondary rule, subordinate 
to the Spirit, from which they have all their excel- 
lency and certainty ; for as by the inward testimony 
of the Spirit we do alone truly know them, so they 
testify, that the Spirit is that guide by which the John xvi. 
saints are led into all truth : therefore, according to ^^^^ ^ij; 
the scriptures, the Spirit is the first and principal i4. 
leader. And seeing we do therefore receive and be- 
lieve the scriptures, because they proceeded from the 
Spirit; therefore also the Spirit is more originally 
and principally the rule, according to that received 
maxim in the schools. Propter quod unumquodque est 
tale, illud ipsuni est magis tale. Englished thus : 
That for which a thing is such, that thing itself is 
7nore such. 

Concernmg the Condition of Man in the Fall. 

All Adam's posterity (or mankind) both Jews and Rom. ▼. 12, 
Gentiles, as to the first Adam or earthly man, is fallen, ^^* 
degenerated, and dead, deprived of the sensation or 
feeling of this inward testimony or seed of Ood, and 
is subject unto the power, nature, and seed of the ser- 
pent, which he sows in men's hearts, while they abide 
in this natural and corrupted state ; from whence it 
comes, that not their words and deeds only, but all 
their imaginations are evil perpetually in the sight of 
God, as proceeding from this depraved and wicked 


seed. Man tlierefore, as he is in this state, can know 
nothing aright; yea, his thoughts and conceptions 
concerning God and things spiritual, until he be dis- 
joined from this evil seed, and united to the divine 
light, are unprofitable both to himself and others : 
hence are rejected the Socinian and Pelagian errors, 
in exalting a natural light; as also of the Papists, 
and most Protestants, who affirm, That man, without 
the true grace of God, may he a true minister of the 
gospel. Nevertheless, this seed is not imputed to 
Kpii. ii. 1. infants, until by transgression they actually join them- 
selves therewith ; for they are by nature the children 
of wrath, who walk according to the power of the 
prince of the air. 


Concer7iing the Universal Redemption by Christ, and 
also the Saving and Spiritual Light, wherewith 
every Man is enlightened. 


E7.ek. xviii. GOD, out of his infinite love, who delighteth not in 
!f^- ,. ^ the death of a sinfier, but that all should live aiul be 

IMS. XllXa 6. «/ ' 

John iii. 10- saved, hath so loved the world, that he hath given his 
mli^ii ^^^y '^^^^ ^ light, that whosoever believeth in him 
Eph.r.n. should be saved; who enlighteneth eveiy man that 
Heb. II. u. (^Q^f^iii if^iQ if^^ worid, a72d maketh manifest all things 
that are reproveable, and teacheth all temperance, 
ri^htcous7iess, and godliness : and this light enlighten- 
eth the hearts of all in a day*, in order to salvation, 
if not resisted : nor is it less universal than the seed 
1 Cor. XV. of sin, being the purchase of his death, who tasted 
^' death for every man ; for as in Adam all die, even so 

in Christ shall all be made alive. 

• Pro tenopore, for a time. 



According to which principle (or h3rpothesis) all the 
objections against the universality of Christ's death 
are easily solved ; neither is it needful to recur to the = 
ministry of angels, and those other miraculous means, i 
which, they say, God makes use of^ to manifest the \ 
doctrine and history of Christ's passion, unto such \ 
who (living in those places of the world where the i 
outward preaching of the gospel is unknown) have i 
well improved the first and common grace ; for hence ^ 
it well follows, that as some of the old philosophers ; 
might have been saved, so also may now some (who i 
by providence are cast into those remote parts of j 
the world, where the knowledge of the history is ] 
wanting) be made partakers of the divine mystery, 
if they receive and resist not that grace, a manifeS' \Cox.%\x.7. \ 
tation whereof is given to every man to profit withal. \ 
This certain doctrine then being received (to wit) i 
that there is an evangelical and saving light and 
grace in all, the universality of the love and mercy \ 
of God towards mankind (both in the death of \ 
his beloved Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, and in the I 
manifestation of the light in the heart) is established i 
and confirmed against all the objections of such as \ 
deny it. Therefore Christ hath tasted death for every Heb. ii. 9. \ 
man; not only /or all kinds of men, as some vainly \ 
talk, but for every one of all kinds ; the benefit of ; 
whose offering is not only extended to such who have ' 
the distinct outward knowledge of his death and suf- 1 
ferings, as the same is declared in the scriptures, but '; 
even unto those who are necessarily excluded from 
the benefit of this knowledge by some inevitable ac- 
cident; which knowledge we willingly confess to be *i 
very profitable and comfortable, but not absolutely \ 
needful unto such, from whom God himself hath \ 
withheld it ; yet they may be made partakers of the \ 


mystery of his death (though ignorant of the histoiy) 
if they suffer his seed and light (enlightening their 
hearts) to take place (in which light, communion 
with the Father and Son is enjoyed) so as of wicked 
men to become holy, and lovers of that power, by 
whose inward and secret touches they feel themselves 
turned from the evil to the good, and learn to do to 
others as they looiild be done by ; in which Christ 
himself affirms all to be included. As they then have 
falsely and erroneously taught, who have denied Christ 
to have died for all men ; so neither have they suffi- 
ciently taught the truth, who affirming him to have 
died for all, have added the absolute necessity of the 
outward knowledge thereof, in order to the obtaining 
its saving effect ; among whom the Remonstrants of 
Holland have been chiefly wanting, and many other 
assertors of universal redemption, in that they have 
not placed the extent of this salvation in that divine 
and evangelical principle of light and life, wherewith 
Christ hath enlightened every man that comes into 
the world, which is excellently and evidently held 
forth in these scriptures, Gen. vi. 3. Deut. xxx. 14. 
John, i. 7, 8, 9. Rom. x. 8. Tit. ii. 11. 


Concerning Justification. 

As many as resist not this light, but receive the same, 
in them is produced a holy, pure, and spiritual birth, 
bringing forth holiness, righteousnCvSS, purity, and all 
these other blessed fruits which are acceptable to 
God ; by which holy birth (to wit, Jesus Christ 
formed within us, and working his works in us) as 
we are sanctified, so are we justified in the sight of 
1 Cor.Ti.ii. God, according to the Apostle's words, But ye are 
washed, but ye are sanctified^ but ye arejuMiJied in the 
name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God. 
Therefore it is not by our works wrought in our will, 


nor yet by good as works, considered of themselves, 
but by Christ, who is both the gift and the giver, and 
the cause producing the effects in us ; who, as he 
hath reconciled us while we were enemies, doth also 
in his wisdom save us, and justify us after this man- 
ner, as saith the same Apostle elsewhere, Accord'mg Tit. iii. 5. 
to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regene- 
ration, and the renewitig of the Holy Ghost. 


Concerning Perfection. 

In whom this holy and pure birth is fully brought Rom. vi. 14 ; 
forth, the body of death and sin comes to be crucified g'.'l's!^' ^^' 
and removed, and their hearts united and subjected Uohn iii. 6. 
unto the truth, so as not to obey any suggestion or 
temptation of the evil one, but to be free from actual 
sinning, and transgressing of the law of God, and in 
that respect perfect. Yet doth this perfection still 
admit of a growth ; and there remaineth a possibility 
of sinning, where the mind doth not most diligently 
and watchfully attend unto the Lord. 



Concerning Perseverance, and the Possibility of 
Falling /ro?w Grace. 

Although this gift, and inward grace of God, be 
sufficient to work out salvation, yet in those in whom 
it is resisted it both may and doth become their con- 
demnation. Moreover, in whom it hath wrought in 
part, to purify and sanctify them, in order to their 
further perfection, by disobedience such may fall 
from it, and turn it to wantonness, making shipwreck 
of faith ; and after having tasted of the heavenly gift, 1 Tim. i. 6. 
and been made partakers of the Holy Ghost, again "^g* "'' ^' 


fall away. Yet such an increase and stability in the 
truth may in this life be attained, from which there 
cannot be a total apostacy. 


Concerning the Ministry. 

As by this gift, or light of God, all true knowledge 
in things spiritual is received and revealed ; so by the 
same, as it is manifested and received in the heart, 
by the strength and power thereof, every true minis- 
ter of the gospel is ordained, prepared, and supplied 
in the work of the ministry : and by the leading, 
moving, and drawing hereof, ought every evangelist 
and Christian pastor to be led and ordered in his 
labour and work of the gospel, both as to the place 
where, as to the persons to whom, and as to the times 
when he is to minister. Moreover, those who have 
this authority may and ought to preach tlie gospel, 
though without human commission or literature ; as 
on the other hand, those who want the authority of 
this divine gift, however learned or authorized by the 
commissions of men and churches, are to be esteemed 
but as deceivers, and not true minister's of the gospel. 
Also, who have received this holy and unspotted gift, 
Mat. X. 8. as they have freely received, so are they freely to give, 
without hire or bargaining, far less to use it, as a 
trade to get money by it : yet if God hath called any 
from their employments, or trades, by which they 
acquire their livelihood, it may be lawful for such 
(according to the liberty which they feel given them 
in the Lord) to receive such temporals (to wit, what 
may be needful to them for meat and clothing) as 
are freely given them by those to whom they have 
communicated spirituals. 



Concerning Worship. 

All true and acceptable worship to God is offered in 
the inward and immediate moving and drawing of his 
own Spirit, which is neither limited to places, times, 
or persons ; for though we be to worship him always, 
in that we are to fear before him, yet as to the out- 
ward signification thereof in prayers, praises, or 
preachings, we ought not to do it where and when 
we will, but where and, when we are moved there- 
unto by the secret inspirations of his Spirit in our 
hearts, which God heareth and accepteth of, and is 
never wanting to move us thereunto, when need is, of 
which he himself is the alone proper judge. All 
other worship then, both praises, prayers, and preach- 
ings, which man sets about in his own will, and at 
his own appointment, which he can both begin and 
end at his pleasure, do or leave undone as himself 
sees meet, whether they be a prescribed form, as a 
liturgy, or prayers conceived extemporarily by the 
natural strength and faculty of the mind, they are all E/ek. 
but superstitions, will-worship, and abominable ido- ^}^^' *• ?®' ' 
latry m the sight ot God ; which are to be denied, xTiu. 5. \ 

rejected, and separated from, in this day of his spiri- ^JjJ" j",;jj' 
tual arising : however it might have pleased him Jude la. | 

(who winked at the times of ignorance, with respect 23.*' ""'"• '' 

to the simplicity and integrity of some, and of his own 
innocent seed, which lay as it were buried in the \ 

hearts of men, under the mass of superstition) to blow 
upon the dead and dry bones, and to raise some breath- 
ings, and answer them, and that until the day should \ 
more clearly dawn and break forth. \ 



Concerning Baptism. 

£ph.iT. 5. As there is one Lord and one faith, so there is one 

1 Pet. Hi. hapfmn ; which is not the putting away of the filth of 

Rom. vi. 4. the flesh, hut the answer of a good conscience before 

r*M:"*i9'^* God, by the resurrection of Jesus Christ. And this 

John ui. 30. baptism IS a pure and spiritual thing, to wit, the oap- 

tisrn of the spirit and y/re, by which we are buried 

icor. 117. with him, that being washed and purged from our 

sins, we may walk in newness of life ; of which the 

baptism of John was a figure, which was commanded 

for a time, and not to continue for ever. As to the 

baptism of infants, it is a mere human tradition, for 

which neither precept nor practice is to be found in 

all the scripture. 


Concerning the Communion, or Participation of 
the Body and Blood (?/' Christ. 

1 Cor. X. 16, The communion of the body and blood of Christ is 

^^' inward and spiritual, which is the participation of 

John vi. 32, his flesh and blood, by which the i?iward 7nan is daily 

i^Cor. T. 8. nourished in the hearts of those in whom Christ 

dwells ; of which things the breaking of bread by 

Christ with his disciples was ?i figure, which they 

even used in the church for a time, who had received 

Acti XT. 20. the substance, for the cause of the weak ; even as ab- 

John XIII. staitiing from things strangled, and from blood ; the 

Jtmes T. vmshing one another's feet, and the anointing of the 

^' sick with oil ; all which are commanded with no less 

authority and solemnity than the former ; yet seeing 

they are but the shadows of better things, they cease 

in such as have obtained the substance. 



Concerning the Power of the Civil Magistrate, in 
Matters purely Religious, and pertaining to the 

Since God hath assumed to himself the power and 
dominion of the conscience, who alone can rightly 
instruct and govern it, therefore it is not lawful forLokeix.55. 
any whatsoever, by virtue of any authority or princi- ^^^^ .. 
pality they bear in the government of this world, to 29. ' 
force the consciences of others ; and therefore all kill- '^'*' "'• ^^* 
ing, banishing, fining, imprisoning, and other such 
things, which men are afflicted with, for the alone 
exercise of their conscience, or difference in worship 
or opinion, proceedeth from the spirit of Cain, the 
murderer, and is contrary to the truth; provided 
always, that no man, under the pretence of consci- 
ence, prejudice his neighbour in his life or estate ; or 
do any thing destructive to, or inconsistent with hu- 
man society ; in which case the law is for the trans- 
gressor, and justice to be administered upon all, with- 
out respect of persons. 

Concerning Salutations, Recreations, &c. 

Seeing the chief end of all religion is to redeem man Epb. v. 11. 
from the spirit and vain conversation of this world, \QY^^'y.'lll 
and to lead into inward communion with God, before Jer. x. 3. 
whom, if we fear always, we are accounted happy; mt.xv^ii. 
therefore all the vain customs and habits thereof, both ^o\. \i s. 
in word and deed, are to be rejected and forsaken by 
those who come to this fear ; such as the taking off 
the hat to a man, the boAvings and cringings of the 
body, and such other salutations of that kind, with 
all the foolish and superstitious formalities attending 


them ; all which man has invented in his degenerate 
state, to feed his pride in the vain pomp and glory of 
this world; as also the unprofitable plays, frivolous 
recreations, sportings, and gamings, which are invented 
to pass away the precious time, and divert the mind 
from the witness of God in the heart, and from the 
living sense of his fear, and from that evangelical 
Spirit wherewith Christians ought to be leavened, 
and which leads into sobriety, gravity, and godly fear ; 
in which, as we abide, the blessing of the Lord is felt 
to attend us in those actions in which we are neces- 
sarily engaged, in order to the taking care for the 
sustenance of the outward man. 








Seeing the height of all happiness is placed in the true know- I 
ledge of God (This is life eternal, to knoic thee the only tnte JobnxTii.3. | 

God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent), the true and right j 
understanding of this foundation and ground of knowledge is 

that which is most necessary to be known and believed in the | 
first place. 

He that desireth to acquire any art or science, seek- 

etli first those means by which that art or science is ' 

obtained. If we ouo^ht to do so in things natural and 

earthly, how much more then in spiritual? In this ] 

affair then should our inquiry be the more diligent, \ 

because he that errs in the entrance is not so easily ] 

brought back again into the right way ; he that miss- \ 

eth his road from the beginning of his journey, and is j 

deceived in his first marks, at his first setting forth, - J 

the greater his mistake is, the more difficult will be i 

his entrance into the right way. ' ] 

Thus when a man first proposeth to himself the The way to 
knowledge of God, from a sense of his own unwor- ^'nowi'edge i 

thiness, and from the great weariness of his mind, of tjod. ; 

occasioned by the secret checks of his conscience, and I 

the tender, yet real glances of God's light upon his H 

heart ; the earnest desires he has to be redeemed from j 

his present trouble, and the fervent breathings he has j 


to be eased of his disordered passions and lusts, 
and to find quietness and peace in the certain 
knowledge of God, and in the assurance of his love 
and good-will towards him, make his heart tender, 
and ready to receive any impression ; and so (not 
having then a distinct discerning) through forward- 
ness embraceth . any thing that brings present ease. 
If either through the reverence he bears to certain 
persons, or from the secret inclination to what doth 
comply with his natural disposition, he fall upon any 
principles or means, by which he apprehends he may 
come to know God, and so doth centre himself, it 
will be hard to remove him thence again, how wrong 
soever they may be : for the first anguish being over, 
he becomes more hardy ; and the enemy being near, 
creates a false peace, and a certain confidence, which 
is strengthened by the mind's unwillingness to enter 
again into new doubtfulness, or the former anxiety of 
a search. 

This is suflficiently verified in the example of the 
Jewish Doc- Pharisees and Jewish Doctors, who most of all re- 
PhLirels sisted Christ, disdaining to be esteemed ignorant; 
resist for this vain opinion they had of their knowledge 
ciirist. hindered them from the true knowledge; and the 
mean people, who were not so much preoccupied 
with former principles, nor conceited of their own 
knowledge, did easily believe. Wherefore the Pha- 
johnvu.48, risees upbraid them, saying, Have any of the Rulers 
^^' or Pharisees believed on hurt ? But this people, which 

kfiow not the law, are accused. This is also abun- 
dantly proved by the experience of all such, as being 
secretly touched with the call of God's grace unto 
them, do apply themselves to false teachei*s, where 
the remedy proves worse than the disease ; because 
instead of knowing God or the things relating to their 
salvation aright, they drink in wrong opinions of him; 
from which it is harder to be disentangled than while 
the soul remains a blank, or Tabula rasa. For they 
that conceit themselves wise, are worse to deal with 


than they that are sensible of their ignorance. Nor 
hath it been less the device of the devil, the great 
enemy of mankind, to persuade men into wrong no- 
tions of God, than to keep them altogether from ac- 
knowledging him ; the latter taking with few, because 
odious ; but the other having been the constant ruin 
of the world: for there hath scarce been a nation 
found, but hath had some notions or other of religion; 
so that not from their denying any Deity, but from their 
mistakes and misapprehensions of it, hath proceeded all 
the idolatry and superstition of the world ; yea, hence 
even atheism itself hath proceeded : for these many 
and various opinions of God and religion, being so 
much mixed with the guessings and uncertain judg- 
ments of men, have begotten in many the opinion, 
That there is no God at all. This, and much more 
that might be said, may show how dangerous it is to 
miss in this first step : All that come not in by the 
right door, are accounted as thieves a fid robbers. 

Again, How needful and desirable that knowledge 
is, which brings life eternal, Epictetus showeth, say- Epici«ti 
ing excellently well, cap. 38. tOi on to Kvpiwrarov, &c. 
Know, that the main foundation of piety is this, To 
have o^Qaq vTro\r\ypHq, right opinions and apprehen- 
sions of God. 

This therefore I judged necessary, as a first princi- 
ple, in the first place, to aflBrm ; and I suppose will 
not need much farther explanation or defence, as 
being generally acknowledged by all (and in these 
things that are without controversy I love to be brief) * 
as that which will easily commend itself to every man's 
reason and conscience ; and therefore I shall proceed 
to the next proposition ; which, though it be nothing 
less certain, yet by the malice of Satan, and ignorance 
of many, comes far more under debate. 




Ittat. xr. 27. Seeing no man knoweth the Father but the Son, and he to whom 
the Son revealeth him; and seeing the revelation of the So7i 
is in and by the Spirit; therefore the testimony of the Spirit is 
that alone by which the true knowledge of God hath been, is, 
and can be only revealed; who as, by the moving of his own 
Spirit, he disposed the chaos of this world into that wonderful 
order in which it was in the beginning, and created man a liv- 
ing soul, to rule and govern it, so by the revelation of the same 
Spirit he hath manifested himself all along unto the sons of 
men, both patriarchs, prophets, and apostles; which revela- 
tions of God by the Spirit, whether by outward voices and 
appearances, dreams, or inward objective manifestations in the 
heart, were of old the formal object of their faith, and remain 
yet so to be ; since the object of the saint's faith is the same in all 
ages, though held forth under divers adm inistraiions. Moreover, 
these divine inward revelations, which we make absolutely 
necessary for the building up of true faith, neither do nor can 
ever contradict the outward testimony of the scriptures, or 
right and sound reason. Yet from hence it will not tallow, 
that these divine revelations are to be subjected to the test, 
either of the outward testimony of the scriptures, or of the 
natural reason of man, as to a more noble or certain rule and 
touchstone; for this divine revelation, and inward illumina- 
tion, is that wliich is evident and clear of itself, forcing by its 
own evidence and clearness, the well disposed understanding 
to assent, irresistibly moving the same thereunto, even as the 
common principles of natural truths do move and incline the 
mind to a natural assent: as, that the whole is greater than 
its part ; that two contradictories can neither be both true, nor 
both false. 

Rereiation §. I. It is vciy probable, that many carnal and natu- 
^zlllllt '*^ ^^ Christians will oppose this proposition ; who being 
Christians, wholly unacquaintcd with tl)e movings and actings of 
God s Spirit upon their hearts, judge the same nothing 
necessary ; and some are apt to flout at it as ridicu- 
lous : yea, to that heighf are the generality of Chris- 
tians apostatized and degenerated, that though there 
be not any thing more plainly asserted, more seriously 
recommended, or more certainly attested, in all the 
writings of the holy scriptures, yet nothing is less 

REVELATION. 19 , '^ 

minded and more rejected by all sorts of Chris- l 
tians, than immediate and divine revelation ; insomuch i 
that once to lay claim to it is matter of reproach. \ 
Whereas of old none were ever judged Christians, [ 
but such as had the Spirit of Christ, Rom. viii. 9. 
But now many do boldly call themselves Christians, '\ 
who make no difficulty of confessing they are without j 
it, and laugh at such as say they have it. Of old | 
they were accounted the Sons of God, who %vere led \ 
hy the Spirit of God, Rom. viii. 14. But now many 
aver themselves sons of God, who know nothing 
of this leader ; and he that affirms himself so led is, 
by the pretended orthodox of this age, presently pro- 
claimed an heretic. The reason hereof is very mani- 
fest, viz. Because many in these days, under the name \ 
of Christidns, do experimentally find, that they are \ 
not actuated nor led by God's Spirit ; yea, many great 
doctors, divines, teachers, and bishops of Christianity 
(commonly so called), have wholly shut their ears \ 
from hearing, and their eyes from seeing, this inward \ 
guide, and so are become strangers unto it ; whence ' \ 
they are, by their own experience, brought to this \ 
strait, either to confess that they are as yet ignorant of \ 
God, and have only the shadow oi knoivledge, and not I 
the true kmowledge of him, or "that this knowledge is i 
acquired without immediate revelation. ] 

For the better understanding then of this proposi- Knowledge \ 

tion, we do distinguish betwixt the certain knowledge nte'r'ai'tiis-' i 

I of God, and the uncertain ; betwixt the spiritual tinguisUed. , 

knowledge, and the literal ; the saving heart-know- [ 

ledge, and the soaring airy head-knowledge. The I 

last, we confess, may be divers ways obtained ; but \ 

the first, by no other way than the inward immediate ^ 

manifestation and revelation of God's Spirit, shining ] 

in and upon the heart, enlightening and opening the \ 

understanding. \ 

§. II. Having then proposed to myself, in these : 

propositions, to affirm those things which relate to the , ■ 

true and effectual knowledge which brings life eter- i 

c2 ■ ■ 1 


nal with it, therefore I have truly affirmed, that this 
knowledge is no otherways attained, and that none 
have any true ground to believe they have attained it, 
who have it not by this revelation of God's Spirit. 

The certainty of whicli truth is such, that it hath 
been acknowledged by some of the most refined and 
famous of all sorts of professors of Christianity in all 
ages; who being truly upright-hearted, and earnest 
seekers of the Lord (however stated under the disad- 
vantages and epidemical errors of their several sects 
or ages), the true seed in them hath been answered by 
God's love, who hath had regard to the good, and hath 
had of his elect ones among all ; who finding a dis- 
taste and disgust in all other outward means, even in 
the very principles and precepts more particularly 
relative to their own forms and societies, have at last 
concluded, with o?ie voice, that there was no. true 
knowledge of God, but that which is revealed in- 
wardly by his own Spirit. Whereof take these fol- 
lowing testimonies of the ancients. 
Aug. ex 1. "It is the inward master (saith Augustine) that 

JoTs.^^ teacheth, it is Christ that teacheth, it is inspiration 
that teacheth : where this inspiration and unction is 
wanting, it is in vain that words from without are 
beaten in." And thereafter: " For he that created 
us, and redeemed us, and called us by faith, and dwell- 
eth in us by his Spirit, unless he speaketh unto us 
inwardly, it is needless for us to cry out." 
Clem. Alex. 2. "There is a difference (saith Clemens Alexan- 
I. I.Strom, drinus) betwixt that which any one saith of the truth, 
and that which the truth itself, interpreting itself, 
saith. A conjecture of truth differeth from the truth 
itself; a similitude of a thing differeth from the thing 
itself; it is one thing that is acquired by exercise and 
discipline, and another thing, which by power and 
Pa-dag. faith." Lastly, the same Clemens saith, " Truth is 
neither hard to be arrived at, nor is it impossible to 
apprehend it ; for it is most nigh unto us, even in our 
houses, as the most wise Moses hath insinuated." 


3. '^ How is it (saith Tertullian) that since the devil Tertuiiia- 
always worketh, and stirreth up the mind to iniquity, ""f^.^j'^vfr- 
that the work of God should either cease, or desist to ginibas.cap. 
act ? Since for this end the Lord did send the Com- ^' 
forter, that because human weakness could not at 

once bear all things, knowledge might be by little 
and little directed, formed, and brought to perfection 
by the Holy Spirit, that vicar of the Lord. / have • 
7nanii thhigs yet (saith he) to speak unto you, but ye 
cannot as yet bear them; but tvhen that Spirit of 
truth shall come, he shall lead you into all truth, and 
shall teach you these things thaf are to come. But of 
this his work we have spoken above. What is then 
the administration of the Comforter, but that disci- 
pline be directed, and the scriptures revealed?" &c. 

4. "• The law (saith Hierom) is spiritual, and there Hieron.Ep. 
is need of a revelation to understand it." And in his ^*a"''»-i<>3. 
Epistle 150, to Hedibia, Quest. 11. he saith, "The 
whole epistle to the Romans needs an interpretation; 

it being involved in so great obscurities, that for the 
understanding thereof we need the help of the Holy 
Spirit, who through the apostle dictated it." 

5. " So great things (saith Athanasius) doth our Athanasius 
Saviour daily : he draws unto piety, persuades unto Y*^.*b^D"i* 
virtue, teaches immortality, excites to the desire of 
heavenly things, reveals the knowledge of the Father, 
inspires power against deatli, and shows himself unto 
every one." 

6. Gregory the Great, upon these words [i/e shall oieg. Mag. 
teach you all things'] saith, "That unless the same "°'^-^,^^' 
Spirit is present in the heart of the hearer, in vain is oospei. 
the discourse of the doctor; let no man then ascribe 

unto the man that teacheth, what he understands from 
the mouth of him that speaketh ; for unless he that 
teacheth be within, the tongue of the doctor, that is 
without, laboureth in vain." 

7. Cyrillus Alexandrinus plainly affirmeth, "Thatc^yrii. aicx. 
men know that Jesus is the Lord by the Holy Ghost, y.y^^-^^ll 


no otlierwise, than they who taste honey know that it 
is sweet, even by its proper quality." 
Bernard, in 8. " Therefore (saith Bernard) we daily exhort 
PmI. 84. yQ^^ brethren, that ye walk the ways of the heart, and 
that your souls be always in your hands, that ye may 
hear what the Lord saith in you." And again, upon 
these words of the apostle [Let him that gloriethy 
ghfy in the Lord], " With which threefold vice (saith 
he) all sorts of religious men are less or more danger- 
ously affected, because they do not so diligently attend, 
with the ears of the heart, to what the Spirit of truth, 
which flatters none, inwardly speaks." 

This was the very basis, and main foundation upon 
which the primitive reformers built. 
Luther, Luther, in his book to the nobility of Germany, 

^om. y. p. gaith, " This is certain, that no man can make him- 
self a teacher of the holy scriptures, but the Holy Spi- 
rit alone." And upon the Magnificat he saith, " No 
man can rightly know God, or understand the word 
of God, unless he immediately receive it from the 
Holy Spirit ; neither can any one receive it from the 
Holy Spirit, except he find it by experience in him- 
self; and in this experience the Holy Ghost teacheth, 
as in his proper school ; out of which school nothing 
is taught but mere talk." 
Phil. Me- Philip Melancthon, in his annotations upon John 
janctbon. yj^ " Thosc who hear only an outward and bodily 
voice, hear the creature ; but God is a Spirit, and is 
neither discerned, nor known, nor heard, but by the 
3j the Spi- Spirit ; and therefore to hear the voice of God, to see 
God'u * ^o<i> is to know and hear tlie Spirit. By the Spirit 
known. alone God is known and perceived. Which also the 
more serious to this day do acknowledge, even all such 
who satisfy themselves not with the superficies of re- 
ligion, and use it not as a cover or art. Yea, all those 
who apply themselves effectually to Christianity, and 
are not satisfied until they have foimd its effectual 
work upon their hearts, redeeming them from sin, do 


feel that no knowledge effectually prevails to the pro- . j 
ducing of this, but that which proceeds from the warm 
influence of God's Spirit upon the heart, and from i 
the comfortable shining of his light upon their under- 
standing." i 
And therefore to this purpose a modern author, viz. ] 
T>'r. Smith of Cambridge, in his Select Discourses, Dr. Smiih 
saith well : " To seek our divinity merely in books tri^^^'con. 1 
and writings, is to seek the living among the dead ; ceruin^ i 
we do but in vain many times seek God in these, uJ^*"^'''" ? 
where his truth is too often not so much enshrined as 1 
entombed. Intra te qucere Dmm, Seek God within , 
thine own soul. He is best discerned vosp^ ^Tra(j>ii (aJs - 
Plotinus phraseth it) by an intellectual touch of him. 
We must see with mir eyes, and hear with our ears, ' ; 
and our hands must handle the word of life (to express \ 

it in St. John's words), icrn koi \pvy^riQ aiOrjGig riq, &C. 

The soul itself hath its sense, as well as the body. 

And therefore David when he would teach us to know 

what the divine goodness is, calls not for speculation, ' 

but sensation : Taste, a?td see hoiv good the Lord is. ] 

That is not the best and truest knowledo^e of God i 

which is wrought out by the labour and sweat of the 

brain, but that which is kindled within us by a hea- ] 

venly warmth in our hearts." And again : " There 

is a knowing of the truth as it is in Jesus, as it is in a \ 

Christ-like nature; as it is in that sweet, mild, hum- i 

ble, and loving Spirit of Jesus, which spreads itself, ; 

like a morning sun, upon the souls of good men, full 

of light and life. It profits little to know Christ him- ; 

self after the flesh ; but he gives his Spirit to good \ 

men that searcheth the deep things of God.'' And j 

again : " It is but a thin airy knowledge that is got 1 

by mere speculation, which is ushered in by syllo- ^ 

gisms and demonstrations; but that which springs J 

forth from true goodness, is Oeiore^ov n Traaiig vTToSei^ewg \ 

(as Origen speaks). It brings such a divine light into 

the soul, as is more clear and convincing than any de- | 




Apo«taojr §. III. That this certain and imdoubted method of 
k'nowild" ^^^ t^^^ knowledge of God hath been brought out of 
introduced, use, hath been none of the least devices of the devil, 
to secure mankind to his kingdom. For after the 
light and glory of the Christian religion had prevailed 
over a good part of the world, and dispelled the thick 
mists of the heathenish doctrine of the plurality of 
gods, he that knew there was no probability of delud- 
ing the world any longer that way, did then puff man 
up with a false knowledge of the true God ; setting 
him on work to seek God the wrong way, and per- 
suading him to be content with such a knowledge as 
was of his own acquiring, and not of God's teaching. 
And this device hath proved the more successful, be- 
cause accommodated to the natural and corrupt spirit 
and temper of man, who above all things affects to 
.exp,lt himself; in which exaltation, as God is greatly 
dishonoured, so therein the devil hath his end ; who 
is not anxious how much God is acknowledged in 
words, provided himself be but always served ; he 
matters not how great and high speculations the na- 
tural man entertains of God, so long as he serves his 
own lusts and passions, and is, obedient to his evil 
Christianity suggestions and temptations, -^hus Christianity is 
"n wt!*Tc* become as it were an art, acquired by human science 
quired by aud iudustry, like any other art or science; and men 
eloeLdln- ^^^c uot ouly assumcd the name of Christ iafis, but 
dustry. evcu havc procured themselves to be esteemed as ifias- 
ters of Christianity, by certain artificial tricks, though 
altogether strangers to the spirit and life of Jesus. 
But if we make a right definition of a Christiatt, ac- 
cording to the scripture, That he is one who hath the 
Spirit, and is led by it, how many Christians, yea, 
and of these great masters and doctors of Christianity, 
so accounted, shall we justly divest of that noble 

If those therefore who have all the other means of 
knowl(3dge, and are sufficiently learned tlierein, whe- 
ther it be the letter of the scripture, the traditions of 


churches, or tlie works of creation and providence, 
whence they are able to deduce strong and undeni- 
able arguments (which may be true in themselves) 
are not yet to be esteemed Christ icms, according to 
the certain and infallible definition abovementioned ; 
and if the inward and immediate revelation of God's 
Spirit in the heart, in such as have been altogether 
ignorant of some, and but very little skilled in others, 
of these means of attaining knowledge, hath brought 
them to salvation ; then it will necessarily and evi- By reveia- 
dently follow, that inward and immediate revelation JJ.°° '^^^Jj^^ 
is the only sure and certain way to attain the true and ledge of 
saving knowledge of God. ^°^' 

But the first is true : therefore the last. 

Now as this argument doth very strongly conclude 
for this way of knowledge, and against such as deny 
it, so in this respect it is the more to be regarded, as 
the propositions from which it is deduced are so clear, 
that our very adversaries cannot deny them. For as 
to the first, it is acknowledged, that many learned men 
may be, and have been, damned. And as to the 
second, who will deny but many illiterate men may 
be, and are, saved? Nor dare any affirm, that none 
come to the knowledge of God and salvation by the 
inward revelation of the Spirit, without these other 
outward means, unless they be also so bold as to ex- 
clude Abel, Seth, Noah, Abraham, Job, and all the Abei, Seiii, 
holy patnarchs from true knowledge and salvation. jJstt'nced.' 

§. IV.vL would however not be understood, as if 
hereby I excluded those other means of knowledge 
from any use or service to man ; it is far from me so 
to judge, as concerning the scriptures, as in the next 
proposition will more plainly appear. The question 
is not, what may be profitable or helpful, but what is 
absolutely necessary. Many things may contribute 
to further a work, which yet are not the main thing 
that makes the work go on. 

The sum then of what is said amounts to this : That ^ 
where the true inward knowledge of God is, through 



the revelation of his Spirit, there is all ; neither is 
there an absolute necessity of any other. But where 
the best, highest, and most profound knowledge is 
without this, there is nothing, as to the obtaining the 
great end of salvation. This truth is very effectually 
confirmed by the first part of the proposition itself, 
which in few words comprehendeth divers unques- 
tionable arguments, which I shall in brief subsume. 
I. First, That there is no knowledge of the Father 

but by the Son. 
J I. Secondly, That there is no knowledge of the Son 

but by the Spirit. 
III. Thirdly, That by the Spirit God hath always 

revealed himself to his children, 
jv. Fourthly, That these revelations were the formal 

object of the saints' faith. 
V. And Lastly, That the same continueth to be the 

object of the saints' faith to this day. 
Of each of these I shall speak a little particularly, 
and then proceed to the latter part. 
Assert. 1. §. V. As to the first, viz. That there is no know- 
proved. Yedge of the Father but by the Son, it will easily be 
proved, being founded upon the plain words of scrip- 
ture, and is therefore a fit medium from whence to de- 
duce the rest of our assertions. 

For the infinite and most wise God, who is the 
foundation, root, and spring of all operation, hath 
wrought all things by his eternal Word and Son. 
3ohn\,\,2,This is that Word that was in the beginning with 
^* God ajid was God, by whom all things were made, and 

without whom was not any thing made that was made, 
Eph.iii. 9. This is that Jesus Christ, by whom God created all 
things, by whom, and for whom, all things were created, 
that are in heaven and in earthy visible and invisible, 
whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principali- 
ties, or powers, Col. i. 16. who therefore is called. 
The first boi^ of every creature. Col. i. 15. As then 
that infinite and incomprehensible fountain of life and 
motion operateth in the creatures by his own eternal 


word and power, so no creature has access again 
unto him but in and by the Son, according to his own 
express words, No man hioweth the Father, but the 
Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal him, Mat. xi. 
27. Luke, x. 22. And again, he himself saith, I am 
the way, the truth, and the life : no man cometh unto 
the Father but by me, John, xiv. 6. 

Hence he is fitly called. The 7nediator hetioijct God 
and man : for having been with God from all eter- 
nity, being himself God, and also in time partaking of 
the nature of man, through him is the goodness and 
love of God conveyed to mankind, and by him again 
man receiveth and partaketh of these mercies. 

Hence is easily deduced the proof of this first asser- 
tion, thus : 

If no man knoweth the Father but the Son, and 
he to whom the Son will reveal him, then there is no 
knowledge of the Father but by the Son. 

But, no man knoweth the Father but the Son : 

Therefore, there is no knowledge of the Father but 
by the Son. 

The first part of the antecedent are the plain words 
of scripture : the consequence thereof is undeniable ; 
except one would say, that he hath the knowledge of 
the Father, while yet he knows him not ; which were 
an absurd repugnance. 

Again, If the Son be the way, the truth, and the 
life, and that no man cometh unto the Father but by 
him ; then there is no knowledge of the Father but 
by the Son. 

But the first is true : therefore the last. 

The antecedent are the very scripture words : the 
consequence is very evident : for how can any know 
a thing, who useth not the way, without which it is 
not knowable ? But it is already proved, that there is 
no other way but by the Son ; so that whoso uses not 
that way, cannot know him, neither come unto him. 

§. VI. Having then laid down this first principle. Assert. 2. 
I come to the second, viz. That there is no knowledge p'^*'****- 


of the Son but by the Spirit ; or, That the revelation 
of the Son of God is by the Spirit. 

Where it is to be noted, that I always speak of the 
having, certain, and necessary knowledge of God ; 
which that it cannot be acquired otherways than by 
the Spirit, doth also appear from many clear scrip- 
tures. For Jesus Christ, in and by whom the Father 
is revealed, doth also reveal himself to his disciples 
and friends in and by his Spirit. As his manifesta- 
tion was outward, when he testified and witnessed for 
the truth in this world, and approved himself faithful 
throughout, so being now withdrawn, as to the out- 
ward man, he doth teach and instruct mankind in- 
wardly by his own Spirit ; He standcth at the door 
and knocketh, and whoso heareth his voice and openeth, 
he comes in to such. Rev. iii. 20. Of this revelation 
of Christ in him Paul speaketh, Gal. i. 16; in which 
he placeth the excellency of his ministry, and the cer- 
tainty of his calling. And the promise of Christ to 
his disciples, Lo, I am with you to the end of the 
world, confirmeth the same thing ; for this is an in- 
ward and spiritual presence, as all acknowledge : but 
what relates hereto will again occur. I shall deduce 
the proof of this proposition from two manifest places 
Proof I. of scripture: the first is, 1 Cor. ii. 11, 12. Whatman 
knowcth the thifigs of a man, save the spirit of man 
The things which is i?i him? Even so the things of God knotceth 
ko^wnbr ^'^ ^'^''' ^^^ ^^'^ Spirit of God. Now we have received 
the Spirit of not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit which is of 
^°**' God, that we inight know the things which are freely 
given us of God. The apostle in the verses before, 
speaking of the wonderful things which are prepared 
for the saints, after he hath declared, that the natural 
man cannot reach them, adds, that they are revealed 
by the Spirit of God, ver. 9, 10; giving this reason, 
For the Spirit searcheth all things, eveii the deep 
things of God. And then he bringeth in the compa- 
rison, in the verses abovementioned, very apt, and 
answerable to our purpose and doctrine, that as the 


things of a man are only knoivn by the spirit of man^ 
so the things of God are only knoivn by the Spirit of 
God ; that is, that as nothing below the spirit of 
man (as the spirit of brutes, or any other creatures) 
can properly reach unto or comprehend the things of 
a man, as being of a nobler and higher nature, so 
neither can the spirit of man, or the natural man, as 
the apostle in the fourteenth verse subsumes, receive 
nor discern the things of God, or the things that are 
spiritual, as being also of a higher nature ; which 
the apostle himself gives for the reason, saying. Nei- 
ther can he know them, because they are spiritually 
discerned. So that the apostle's words, being reduced 
to an argument, do very well prove the matter under 
debate, thus : 

If that which appertaineth properly to man can- 
not be discerned by any lower or baser principle than 
the spirit of man; then cannot those things, that 
properly relate unto God and Christ, be known or 
discerned by any lower or baser thing than the Spirit 
of God and Christ. 

But the first is true : therefore also the second. 

The whole strength of the argument is contained 
in the apostle's words before-mentioned ; which there- 
fore being granted, I shall proceed to deduce a second 
argument, thus: 

That which is spiritual can only be known and 
discerned by the Spirit of God. 

But the revelation of Jesus Christ, and the true 
and saving knowledge of him, is spiritual : 

Therefore the revelation of Jesus Christ, and the 
true and saving knowledge of him, can only be known 
and discerned by the Spirit of God. 

The other scripture is also a saying of the same Proof ir. 
apostle, 1 Cor. xii. 3. No man can say that Jesus No man can 
is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost, This Scripture, LoId,'&c. 
which is full of truth, and answereth full well to the 
enlightened understanding of the spiritual and real 
Christian, may perhaps prove very strange to the 


carnal and pretended follower of Christ, by whom 

perhaps it hath not been so diligently remarked. 

Here the apostle doth so much require the Holy 

Spirit in the things that relate to a Christian, that he 

positively avers, we cannot so much as affirm Jesus 

to be the Lord without it; which insinuates no less, 

Spiritaai than that the spiritual truths of the Gospel are as 

Ues spoken ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ mouths of camal and unspiritual men; 

by carnal for though iu themsclvcs they be true, yet are they 

not true as to them, because not known nor uttered 

forth in and by that principle and spirit that ought 

to direct the mind and actuate it; in such things 

they are no better than the counterfeit representations 

of things in a comedy; neither can it be more truly 

and properly called a real and true knowledge of 

God and Christ, than the actions of Alexander the 

Great and Julias Caesar, &c. if now transacted upon a 

stage, might be called truly and really their doings, or 

the persons representing them might be said truly and 

really to have conquered Asia, overcome Pompey, &c. 

This knowledge then of Christ, which is not by 

the revelation of his own Spirit in the heart, is no 

more properly the knowledge of Christ, than the 

i.ike the prattling of a parrot, which has been taught a few 

prattling of -yvords, may be said to be the voice of a man ; for^as 

a parrot. 1*^11.1 , i 1 

that, or some other bird may be taught to sound or 
utter forth a rational sentence, as it hath learned it 
by the outward ear, and not from any living principle 
of reason actuating it; so just such is that knowledge 
of the things of God, which the natural and camal 
man hath gathered from the words or writings of 
spiritual men, which are not true to him, because 
conceived in the natural spirit, and so brought forth 
by the wrong organ, and not proceeding from the 
spiritual principle; no more than the words of a 
man acquired by art, and brought forth by the mouth 
of a bird, not proceeding from a rational principle, 
are true with respect to the bird which utters them. 
Wherefore from this scripture I shall further add this 
argument : 


If no man can say Jesus is the Lord, but by the 
Holij Ghost; then no man can know Jesus to be the 
Lord, but by the Holy Ghost. 

But the first is true : therefore the second. 

From this argument there may be another deduced, 
concluding in the very terms of this assertion : thus, 

If no man can know Jesus to be the Lord, but by 
the Holy Ghost, then there can be no certain know- 
ledge or revelation of him but by the Spirit. 

But the first is true : tj^refore the second. 

§. VII. The third thing aflBrmed is, That by the Assert. 3. 
Spirit God always revealed himself to his children. pro»e<^- 

For making the truth of this assertion appear, it 
will be but needful to consider God's manifesting 
himself towards and in relation to his creatures from 
the beginning, which resolves itself always herein. 
The first step of all is ascribed hereunto by Moses, 
Gen. i. 2. And the Spirit of God vioved upon the 
face of the waters. I think it will not be denied, 
that God's converse with man, all along from Adam Timt reve- 
to Moses, was by the immediate manifestation of his IJe s^nirit'of 
Spirit: and afterwards, through the whole tract of God. 
the law, he spake to his children no .otherways; 
which, as it naturally followeth from the principles 
above proved, so it cannot be denied by such as 
acknowledge the Scriptures of truth to have been 
written by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost : for 
these writings, from Moses to Malachi, do declare, 
that during all that time God revealed himself to his 
cTiildren by his Spirit. 

But if any will object That, after the dispensation object. 
of the law, God's method of speaking was altered ; 

I answer: First, That God spake always imme-ANsw. 
diately to the Jews, in that he spake always imme- 
diately to the High Priest from betwixt the Cheru- 
bims; who, when he entered into the Holy of Holies, Sancinm 
returning, did relate to the whole people the voice ^'"'^"'""'• 
and will of God, there immediately revealed. So that 
this immediate speaking never ceased in any age. 


Secondly, from this immediate fellowship were 
none shut out, who earnestly sought after and waited 
for it; in that many, besides the High Priest^ who 
were not so much as of the kindred of Levi, nor of 
the prophets, did receive it and speak from it ; as it 
is written. Numb. xi. 25 ; where the Spirit is said to 
None shot havc vestecl upon the seventy elders; which Spirit 
tM/[mme- ^^^ rcachcd unto two that were not in the taber- 
diate fei- uaclc, but iu the camp ; whom, when some would 
lowsiup. forbidden, Moses wotiid not, but rejoiced, wish- 
ing that all the Lord's people were prophets, and that 
he would put his Spirit upon them, ver. 29. 

This is also confirmed, Neh. ix. where the elders 
of the people, after their return from captivity, when 
they began to sanctify themselves by fasting and 
prayer, numbering up the many mercies of God to- 
wards their fathers, say, verse 20, Thougavest also thy 
good Spirit to instruct them; and verse 30, Yet many 
years didst thou forbear, and testify against them by 
thy Spirit in thy prophets. Many are the sayings of 
spiritual David to this purpose, as Psalm li. 11, 12, 
Take not thy holy Spirit from me; uphold me with 
thy free Spirit. Psalm cxxxix. 7, Whither shall I 
go from thy Spirit? Hereunto doth the prophet 
Isaiah ascribe the credit of his testimony, saying, 
chap, xlviii. 16, And now the Lord God and his 
Spirit hath sent me. And that God revealed himself 
to his children under the New Testament, to wit, to 
the apostles, evangelists, and primitive disciples, is 
confessed by all. How far now this yet continueth, 
and is to be expected, comes hereafter to be spoken to. 
Assert. 4. §. VIII. The fourth thing affiimed is, That these 
revelations were the object of the saints' faith of old. 
Proved. This will easily appear by the definition of faith, 

and considering what its object is; for which we 
shall not dive into the curious and various notions 
of the school-men, but stay in the plain and positive 
words of the apostle Paul, who, Iieb. xi. describes 
What faith it two ways. Faith (saith he) is the substance of 



things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen : 

which, as the apostle illustrateth it in the same I 

chapter by many examples, is no other but a firm 1 

and certain belief of the mind, whereby it resteth, \ 

and in a sense possesseth the substance of some things ] 

hoped for, through its confidence in the promise of \ 

God : and thus the soul hath a most firm evidence, I 
by its faith, of things not yet seen nor come to pass. 

The object of this faith is the promise, word, or testi- \ 

mony of God, speaking in the mind. Hence it hath I 

been generally aflSrmed, that the object of faith is \ 

Deus loquens, &c. ; that is, God speaking, Sec. which tlc object \ 

is also manifest from all those examples deduced by ^^^fl^, I 

the apostle throughout that whole chapter, whose qaens. ' 

faith was founded neither upon any outward testi- \ 

mony, nor upon the voice or writing of man, but i 

upon the revelation of God's will, manifest unto them, l 

and in them ; as in the example of Noah, ver. 7, i 

thus, By faith Noah, being warned of God of things \ 

not seen as yet, moved with fear, prepared an ark to \ 

the saving of his house ; by the which he condemned . j 

the world, and became heir of the righteousness which \ 

is by faith. What was here the object of Noah's Noab's ' \ 

faith, but God speaking unto him? He had not the^'^'"* \ 

writings nor prophesyings of any going before, nor \ 

yet the concurrence of any church or people to •] 

strengthen him; and yet his faith in the word, by J 

which he contradicted the whole world, saved him \ 
and his house. Of which also Abraham is set forth Abraham'* 

as a singular example, being therefDre called the '^'^''' \ 

Father of the Faithful, who is said against hope to \ 

have believed in hope, in that he not only willingly \ 
forsook his father's country, not knowing whither he 

went ; in that he believed concerning the coming of .^ 

Isaac, though contrary to natural probability; but ^ 

above all, in that he refused not to offer him up, not = 

doubting but God was able to raise him from the : 

dead ; of whom it is said, that in Isaac shall thy \ 

seed be called. And, last of all, in that he rested in J 


the promise, that his seed should possess the land 
wherein he himself was but a pilgrim, and which to 
them was not to be fulfilled while divers ages after. 
The object of Abraham's faith in all this was no 
other but inward and immediate revelation, or God 
signifying his will unto him inwardly and immedi- 
ately by his Spirit. 

But because, in this part of the proposition, we 
made also mention of external voices, appearances, and 
dreams in the alternative, I think also fit to speak here- 
of, what in that respect may be objected ; to wit. 
Object. That those who found their faith now upon imme- 
diate and objective revelation, ought to have also outr 
ward voices or visions, dreams or appearances for it. 
answ. It is not denied but God made use of the ministry 

u7^'la- ^^ angels, who, in the appearance of men, spake out- 
geis speak- wardly to the saints of old, and that he did also 
appearlnce r^veal somc thiugs to them in dreams and visions; 
of mep to none of which we will affirm to be ceased, so as to 
oro?d!°** limit the power and liberty of God in manifesting 
himself towards his children. But while we are 
considering the object of faith, we must not stick to 
that which is but circumstantially and accidentally so, 
but to that which is universally and substantially so. 
Next again, we must distinguish betwixt that 
which in itself is subject to doubt and delusion, and 
therefore is received for and because of another ; and 
that which is not subject to any doubt, but is received 
simply for and because of itself, as being prima 
Veritas, the very Jirst and origiftal truth. Let us 
Revelation* then considcr how or how far these outward voices, 
>od viiHoni. appearances, and dreams were the object of the saints* 
faith : was it because they were simply voices, ap- 
pearances, or dreams ? Nay, certainly ; for they were 
not. ignorant that the devil might form a sound of 
words, convey it to the outward ear, and deceive the 
outward senses, by making things to appear that are 
not. Yea, do we not see by daily experience, that 
the jugglers and mountebanks can do as much as all 


that by their legerdemain ? God forbid then that the 
saints' faith should be founded upon so fallacious a 
foundation as man's outward and fallible senses. 
What made them then give credit to these visions ? 
Certainly nothing else but the secret testimony of 
God's Spirit in their hearts, assuring them that the 
voices, dreams, and visions were of and from God. 
Abraham believed the angels ; but who told him that 
these men were angels ? We must not think his faith 
then was built upon his outward senses, but pro- 
ceeded from the secret persuasion of God's Spirit in 
his heart. This then must needs be acknowledged 
to be originally and principally the object of the 
saints' faith, without which there is no true and 
certain faith, and by which many times faith is be- 
gotten and strengthened without any of these outward 
or visible helps ; as we may observe in many pas- 
sages of the holy scripture, where it is only men 
tioned, AjkI God said, &c. . And the tvord of the 
Lord came unto such and such, saying, &c. 

But if any one should pertinaciously affirm. That object. 
this did import an outward audible voice to the car- 
nal ear ; 

I would gladly know what other argument such an$v, 
a one could bring for this his affirmation, saving his 
own simple conjecture. It is said indeed. The Spirit The SpiHt 
witnesseth with our spirit ; but not to our outward ^fe*''^i/i? 
ears, Rom. viii. 16. And seeing the Spirit of God tuai ear, not 
is within us, and not without us only, it speaks to ^^.^^^ °"^' 
our spiritual, and not to our bodily ear. Therefore 
I see no reason, where it is so often said in scripture, 
The Spirit said, moved, hindered, called such a one 
to do or forbear such or such a thing, that any have 
to conclude, that this was not an inward voice to the 
ear of the soul, rather than an outward voice to the 
bodily ear. If any be otherwise minded, let them, if 
they can, produce their arg-uments, and we may fur- 
ther consider of them. 

From all therefore which is above declared, I shall 



deduce an argument to conclude the proof of this 
assertion, thus : 

That which any one firmly believes, as the ground 
and foundation of his hope in God, and life eternal, 
is the formal object of his faith. 

But the inward and immediate revelation of God's 
Spirit, speaking in and unto the saints, was by them 
believed as the ground and foundation of their hope 
in God, and life eternal. 

Therefore these inward and immediate revelations 
were the formal object of their faith. 
Assert. 5 §. IX. That which now cometh under debate is 
vroy<ii\. Yf\^2ii y^Q asserted in the last place, to wit, That the 
same continueth to be the object of the saints' faith 
unto this day. Many will agree to what we have 
said before, who differ from us herein. 

There i^ nevertheless a very firm argument, con- 
firming the truth of this assertion, included in the 
proposition itself, to wit, That the object of the saints* 
faith is the same in all ages, though held forth under 
divers administrations ; which I shall reduce to an 
argument, and prove thus : 

First, Where the faith is one, the object of the 
faith is one. 

But the faith is one : therefore, &c. 

That the faith is one, is the express words of the 
apostle, Eph. iv. 5, who placeth the o?w faith with 
the 07ie God; importing no less than that to aflSrm 
tivo faiths is as absurd as to aflfirm two gods. 

Moreover, if the faith of the ancients were not one 
and the same with ours, i. e. agreeing in substance 
therewith, and receiving the same definition, it had 
The faith been impertinent for the apostle, Heb. xi. to have 
ofddihl"*' illustrated the definition of our faith by the examples 
with of that of the ancients, or to go about to move us by 
the example of Abraham, if Abraham's faith were 
different in nature from ours. Nor doth any differ- 
ence arise hence, because thei/ believed in Christ 
with rospoct to Itis ttpponmnre otitwardlv as future, 



and we as already appeared : for neitlier did they 
then so believe in him to come, as not to feel him 
present with them, and witness him near ; seeing the 
apostle saith, They all dra?ik of that spiritual rock 
which followed them, which j^ock was Christ ; nor do 
we so believe concerning his appearance past, as not 
also to feel and know him pjxsent with us, and to 
feed upon him ; except Chiist (saith the apostle) be 
in you, ye are reprobates ; so that both our faith is 
one, terminating in one and the same thing. And 
as to the other part or consequence of the antecedent, 
to wit. That the object is one where the faith is one, 
the apostle also proveth it in the forecited chapter, 
where he makes all the worthies of old examples to 
us. Now wherein are thej imitable, but because 
they believed in God? And what was the object of 
their faith, but inward and immediate revelation, as 
we have before proved ? Their example can be no 
ways applicable to us, except we believe in God, as 
they did ; that is, by the same object. The apostle 
clears this yet further by his own example. Gal. i. 16, 
where he saith, So soon as Christ was revealed in 
him, he consulted 7iot with flesh and blood, but forth- 
with believed and obeyed. The same apostle, Heb. 
xiii. 7, 8, where he exhorteth the Hebrews to follow 
the faith of the elders, adds this reason. Considering 
the end of their conversation, Jesus Christ, the same 
to-day, yesterday, and for ever : Hereby notably insi- 
nuating, that in the object there is no alteration. 

If any now object the diversity of ad fJiinist ration; object. 

I answer ; That altereth not at all the object : for answ. 
the same apostle mentioning this diversity three times, 
1 Cor. xii. 4, 5, 6, centreth always in the same object, 
the same Spirit, the same Lord, the same God. 

But further ; If the object of faith were not one 
and the same both to us and to them, then it would 
follow that we were to know God some other way 
than by the Spirit. 

But this were absurd : Therefore, Sec. 


Lastly, This is most tirnily proved from a common 
and received maxim of the schoolmen, to wit, Omnis 
actus spccijicatur ab objtcto, Every act is specified 
from its object: from which, if it be true, as they 
acknowledge (though for the sake of many I shall 
not recur to this argument, as being too nice and scho- 
lastic, neither lay I much stress upon those kind of 
things, as being that whicli commends not the sim- 
plicity of the gospel) it would follow, that if the object 
were different, then the faith would be different also* 
Such as deny this proposition nowadays use here 
a distinction ; granting that God is to be known by 
his Spirit, but again denying that it is immediate or 
inward, but in and by the scriptures ; in which the 
mind of the Spirit (as they say) being fully and amply 
expressed, we are thereby to know God, and be led 
in all things. 

As to the negative of this assertion, That the scrip- 
tures are not sufficient, neither were ever appointed 
t,o be the adequate and only rule, nor yet can guide 
or direct a Christian in all those things that are 
needful for him to know, we shall leave that to the 
next proposition to be examined. What is proper 
in this place to be proved is, That Christians now 
are to be led inw^ardly and immediately by the Spirit 
of God, even in the same manner (though it befall 
not many to be led in the same measure) as the saints 
were of old. 
( iiriHiiatis ^. X, I shall prove this by divers arguments, and 
b/iild by° first from the promise of Christ in these words, John, 
iiie Spirit, viv. 15 ^nd I will pray the Father, and he Ufill 

III Ihe same ^. , r^ /^ i » i ' i - i 

give you another Comforter, that he may abide with 
ii.e.«iut» ^you for ever. Ver. 17. Even the Spirit of truth, 
whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him 
not, 7ieither knotoeth him; but ye know him, for he 
dwelleth with you, and shall be in you. Again, ver. 
26. But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, 
whom the Father will scml in my name, he shall teach 
you all things, and bring all things la your rcmcm- 

inanner as 
Ihe sni 
uf old. 

HE VELA Ti ox. 39 

hrance. And xvi. 13. Sut when the Spirit of truth 
shall come^ he shall lead you into all truth : for he 
shall not speak of Jiiniself; but whatsoever he shall 
hear he shall speak, and shall declare unto you things 
to come. We have here first who this is, and that is 
divers ways expressed, to wit. The Comforter, the 
Spirit of truth, the Holy Ghost, the sent of the Fa- 
ther in the name of Christ. And hereby is suffici- 
ently proved the sottishness of those Socinians, and 
other carnal Christians, who neither know nor ac- 
knowledge any internal Spirit or power but that 
which is merely natural ; by which they sufficiently 
declare themselves to be of the world, who cannot 
receive the Spirit, because they neither see him nor 
know him. Secondly, Where this Spirit is to be. 
He dwelleth vnth you, and shall be in you. And 
Thirdly, What his work is. — He shall teach you all 
things, and bring all things to your remembrance, 

and guide you into all truth, ^nynoH Vfiaq uq naaav 
Trfv aXr^deiav. 

As to the first, Most do acknowledge that there is Q»erj- 1. 
nothing else understood than what the plain words comforted'? 
signify ; which is also evident by many other places 
of scripture that will hereafter occur; neither do I 
see how such as affirm otherways can avoid blas- 
phemy : for, if the Comforter, the Holy Ghost, and 
Spirit of truth, be all one with the scriptures, then 
it will follow that the scriptures are God, seeing it is 
true that the Holy Ghost is God. If these men's Nonsensical 
reasoning might take place, wherever the Spirit is ^esfrom^ihe 
mentioned in relation to the saints, thereby might be Sodnians' 
truly and properly understood the scriptuixs; which, ^cr|p[„°eg'^ 
what a nonsensical monster it would make of the heing tha 
Christian religion, will easily appear to all men. As ^'"** 
where it is said, A manifestation of the Spirit is given 
to every man to profit withal; it might be rendered 
thus, A manifestation of the scriptures is given to 
every man to profit withal : what notable sense this 
would make, and what a curious interpretation, let 

40 OF 1MM£DIATE PROP. 11. 

US consider by the sequel of the same chapter, 1 Cor. 
xii. 9, 10, 11. To anotlier the gifts of healing, hy 
the same Spirit; to another the working of 7niracles, 
&c. But all these worketh that one ajid the selfsame 
Spirit, dividing to every man severally as he will. 
What would now these great masters of reason, the 
Socinians, judge, if we should place the scriptures 
here instead of the Spirit 1 Would it answer their 
reason, which is the great guide of their faith? Would 
it be good and sound reason in their logical schools, to 
affirm that the scripture divideth severally as it will, 
and giveth to some the gift of healing, to others the 
workmg of miracles ? If then this Spirit, a manifes- 
tation whereof is given to every man to profit withal, 
be no other than that Spirit of truth before-men- 
tioned which guideth into all truth, this Spirit of truth 
cannot be the scripture. I could infer a hundred 
more absurdities of this kind upon this sottish opi- 
nion ; but what is said may suffice. For even some 
of themselves, being at times forgetful or ashamed of 
their own doctrine, do acknowledge that the Spirit 
of God is another thing, and distinct from the scrip- 
tures, to guide and influence the saints. 
Query 2. Sccondly, That this Spirit is inward, in my opinion 
Lu'ird*^? ^^^^s ^^ interpretation or commentary. He dwelleth 
with you, and shall be in you. This indwelling of 
the Spirit in the saints, as it is a thing most needful 
to be known and believed, so is it as positively as- 
serted in the scripture as any thing else can be. If 
so he that the Spirit of God dwell in you, saith the 
apostle to the Romans, chap. viii. 9. And again, 
Know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy 
Ghost, 1 Cor. vi. 19. And that the Spirit of God 
dwelleth in you? 1 Cor. iii. 16. Without this the 
apostle reckoneth no man a Christian. If any man 
(saith he) have not the Spirit of Christ, he is fione of 
his. These words immediately follow those above- 
mentioned out of the epistle to the Romans, But ye 
arc not in the Jlcsh, but in the Spirit , if so be the 


Spirit of God dwell in you. The context of which The Spirit 
showeth, that the apostle reckoneth it the main token ^a^' "oken 
of a Christian, both positively and negatively : for in of aChris- 
the former verses he showeth how the carnal mind is 
enmity against God, and that such as are in the Jlesh 
cannot v lease him. Where subsuming, he adds, con- 
cerning the Romans, that they are not in thejlesh, if 
the Spirit of God dwell in them. What is this but 
to affirm, that they in whom the Spirit dwells are no 
longer in the flesh, nor of those who please not God, 
jDut are become Christians indeed? Again, in the 
next verse he concludes negatively, that If any man 
have not the Spirit of Christ he is none of his; that 
is, he is no Christian. He then that acknowledges 
himself ignorant and a stranger to the inward in- 
being of the Spirit of Christ in his heart, doth thereby 
acknowledge himself to be yet in the carnal mind, 
which is enmity to God; to be yet in the flesh, where 
God cannot be pleased ; and in short, whatever he 
may other ways know or believe of Christ, or how- 
ever much skilled or acquainted with the letter of 
the holy scripture, not yet to be, notwithstanding all 
that, attained to the least degree of a Christian ; yea, 
not once to have embraced the Christian religion. 
For take but away the Spirit, and Christianity re- 
mains no more Christianity than the dead carcass of 
a man, when the soul and spirit is departed, remains 
a man; which the living can no more abide, but do 
bury out of their sight, as a noisome and useless 
thing, however acceptable it hath been when actuated 
and moved by the soul. Lastly, Whatsoever is ex- 
cellent, whatsoever is noble, whatsoever is worthy, 
whatsoever is desirable in the Christian faith, is as- 
cribed to this Spirit, without which it could no more 
subsist than the outward world without the sun. 
Hereunto have all true Christians, in all ages, attri- 
buted their strength and life. It is by this Spirit 
that they avouch themselves to have been converted 
to God, to have been redeemed from the world, to 


have been strengthened in their weakness, comforted 
in their afflictions, confirmed in their temptations, 
emboldened in their suft'erings, and triumphed in 
The great thc midst of all their persecutions. Yea, the writings 
IcuThLf * ^^^^^ *^^^ Christians are full of the great and notable 
have been thiugs wliich tlicy all affirm themselves to have done, 
fo^Vdbj'^y ^^^^ power, and virtue, and efficacy of this Spirit 
the Spirit of God working in them. // is the Spirit that quiek- 
iges. ^^^^^y^^ John, vi. 63. It was the Spirit that gave theni 
utterance, Acts, ii. 4. It was the Spirit by which 
Stephen spake, that the Jews were twt able to resist^ 
Acts, vi. 10. It is such as walk after the Spirit that 
receive no condemnation, Rom. viii. 1. It is the law 
of the Spirit that makes free, ver. 2. It is by the 
Spirit of God dwelling in its that ^ve are i^edeemed 
from thejlesh, and from the carnal mind, ver. 9. It 
is the Spirit of Christ dwelling in us that quickeneth 
our mortal bodies, ver. 11. It is through this Spirit 
that the deeds of the body are mortified, and life 
obtained, ver. 13. It is by this Spirit that we are 
adopted, and cry ABBA Father, ver. 15. It is this 
Spirit that beareth witness with our spirit that we 
are the children of God, ver. 16. It is this Spirit 
that helpeth our infirmities, and maketh intercession 
for us, ivith groanings which cannot be uttet^ed, ver. 
26. It is by this Spirit that the glorious things 
which God hath laid up for us, which neither out- 
ward ear hath heard, nor outward eye hath seen, nor 
the heart of man conceived by all his reasonings, are 
revealed unto us, 1 Cor. ii. 9, 10. It is by this 
Spirit that both ivisdom and knowledge, and faith, 
and miracles, and tongues, and prophecies, are ob- 
tained, 1 Cor. xii. 8, 9, 10. It is by this Spirit that 
we are all baptized into one body, ver. 13. In short, 
what thing relating to the salvation of the soul, and 
to the life of a Christian, is rightly performed, or 
effectually obtained without it? And what shall I 
say more? -For the time would fail me to tell of all 
those tilings which the holy men of old have de- 


clared, and the saints of this day do themselves 
enjoy, by the virtue and power of this Spirit divdling 
in them. Truly my paper could not contain the 
many testimonies whereby this truth is confirmed ; 
wherefore, besides what is abovementioned out of 
the fathers, whom all pretend to reverence, and those 
of Luther and Melancthon, I shall deduce yet one 
observable testimony out of Calvin, because not a 
few of the followers of his doctrine do refuse and 
deride (and that, as it is to be feared, because of 
their own nonexperience thereof) this way of the 
Spirit's indwelling, as uncertain and dangerous; 
that so, if neither the testimony of the scripture, nor 
the sayings of others, nor right reason can move 
them, they may at least be reproved by the words of 
their own master, who saith, in the third book of his 
Institutions, cap. 2, on this wise : 

" But they allege. It is a bold presumption for any Caivin of 
to pretend to an undoubted knowledge of God's will ; ^^* ''^^m 
which (saith he) 1 should grant unto them, if we spirit's in- 
should ascribe so much to ourselves as to subject the ug^*""^ " 
incomprehensible counsel of God to the rashness of 
our understandings. But while we simply say with 
Paul, that v^e have received not the spirit of this world, 
but the Spirit which is of God, by whose teaching 
we know those things that are given us of God, what 
can they prate against it without reproaching the 
Spirit of God ? For if it be a horrible sacrilege to 
accuse any revelation coming from him, either of a 
lie, of uncertainty or ambiguity, in asserting its cer- 
tainty wherein do we offend ? But they cry out, That 
it is not without great temerity that we dare so boast 
of the Spirit of Christ. Who would believe that the 
sottishness of these men were so great, who would 
be esteemed the masters of the world, that they should 
so fail in the first principles of religion? Verily I 
could not believe it, if their own writings did not . 
testify so much. Paul accounts those the Sojis of 
God, who are actuated by the Spirit of God; but 


these will have the children of God actuated by their 
own spirits without the Spirit of God. He will have 
us call God Father, the Spirit dictating that term 
unto us, which only can witness to our spirits that 
we are the So7is of God, These, though they cease 
not to call upon God, do nevertheless dismiss the 
Spirit, by whose guiding he is rightly to be called 
upon. He denies them to be the Sons of God, or 
the Sefvants of Cfmst, who are not led by his Spirit; 
but these feign a Christianity that needs not the 
Spirit of Christ. He takes away the hope of a 
blessed resui^rectio??, unless we feel the Spirit re- 
siding in us ; but these feign a hope without any 
such a feeling; but perhaps they will answer, that 
they deny not but that it is necessary to have it, only 
of modesty and humility we ought to deny and not 
acknowledge it. What means he then, when he 
commands the Corinthians to //v/ thanselves, if they 
be in the faith ; to e.vamine themselves, whether they 
have Christ, whom whosoever acknowledges not 
dwelling in him, is a reprobate ? By the Spirit which 
he hath given us (saith John), we knmv that he 
abideth in us. And what do we then else but call 
in question Christ's promise, while we would be 
esteemed the servants of God without his Spirit, 
which he declared he would pour out upon all his? 
Seeing these things are the first grounds of piety, it 
is miserable blindness to accuse Christians of pride, 
because they dare glory of the presence of the Spirit; 
witiout without which glorying, Christianity itself could not 
P^rLence!' ^^' ^"^ ^Y ^^^^^^ cxamplc they declare, how truly 
Chmiianiij Christ spakc, saying, That his Spirit was unknown 
to the world, and that those only acknowledge it witli 
whom it remains." Thus far Calvin. 

If therefore it be so, why should any be so foolish 
as to deny, or so unwise as not to seek after this 
Spirit, which Christ hath promised shall dwell in 
his children? They then that do suppose the in- 
dwelling and leading of his Spirit to be ceased, must 

Bost cease. 


also suppose Christianity to be ceased, which cannot 
subsist without it. 

Thirdly, What the work of this Spirit is, is partly Query n. 
before shown, which Christ compriseth in two or ^^^Jj^^^'j^/jJ^^ 
three things, He will guide you into all truth; //e Spirit?' 
will teach you all things, and bring all things to your\f^^^l'^iy^ 
remembrance. Since Christ hath provided for us so ^«- 
good an instructor, why need we then lean so much 
to those traditions and commandments of men where- 
with so many Christians have burthened themselves? 
Why need we set up our own carnal and corrupt 
reason for a guide to us in matters spiritual, as some The spirit 
will needs do ? May it not be complained of all such, ^^^ ^'"*'*'* 
as the Lord did of old concerning Israel by the pro- 
phets, Jer. ii. 13. For my people have committed two. 
evils, they have forsaken me, the fountain of living 
waters, and hewed them out cisterns, broken cisterns, 
that can hold no water! Have not many forsaken, 
do not many deride and reject this inward and im- 
mediate guide, this Spirit that leads into all truth, 
and cast up to themselves other ways, broken ways 
indeed, which have not all this while brought them 
out of the flesh, nor out of the world, nor from under 
the dominion of their own lusts and sinful aifections, 
whereby truth, which is only rightly learned by this 
Spirit, is so much a stranger in the earth ? 

From all then that hath been mentioned concern- 
ing this promise, and these words of Christ, it will 
follow that Christians are always to be led inwardly a perpetual 
and immediately by the Spirit of God dwelling in °^'^^";;°« 
them, and that the same is a standing and perpetual church and 
ordinance, as well to the church in general in all p^"^*'^- 
ages, as to every individual member in particular, as 
appears from this argument : 

The promises of Christ to his chil,dren are Yea and 
Amen, and cannot fail, but must of necessity be ful- 

But Christ hath promised, that the Comforter, the 
Holy Ghost, the Spirit of truth, shall abide with his 


children for ever, shall dwell with them, shall be in 
them, shall lead them into all truth, shall teach them 
all things, and bring all things to their remembrance : 

Therefore the Comforter, the Holy G)wst, the Spi- 
rit of truth, his abiding with his children, &c. is Yea 
and Amen, Sec. 

Again : No man is redeemed from the carnal mind, 
which is at enmity with God, which is not subject to 
the law of God, neither can be : no man is yet in the 
Spirit, but in the flesh, and cannot please God, except 
he in whom the Spirit of God dwells. 

But every true Christian is in measure redeemed 
from the carnal mind, is gathered out of the enmity, 
and can be subject to the law of God ; is out of the 
flesh, and in the Spirit, the Spirit of God dwelling in 

Therefore every true Christian hath the Spirit of 
God dwelling in him. 

Again : Whosoever hath not the Spirit ofChiist, is 
none of his ; that is, no child, no friend, no disciple 
of Christ. 

But every true Christian is a child, ^friend, a dis- 
ciple of Christ : 

Therefore every true Christian hath the Spirit of 

Moreover : Whosoever is the temple of the Holy 
Ghost, in him the Spirit of God dwelleth and abideth. 

But every true Christian is the temple of the Holy 

Therefore in every true Christian the Spirit of God 
dwelleth and abideth. 

But to conclude : He in whom the Spirit of God 
dwelleth, it is not in him a lazy, dumb, useless thing; 
but it moveth, actuateth, govemeth, instructeth, and 
teacheth him all things whatsoever are needful for 
him to know ; yea, bringeth all things to his remem- 

But the Spirit of God dwelleth in every true Chris- 
tian : 


Therefore the Spirit of God leadeth, instructeth, 
and teacheth every true Christian whatsoever is need- 
ful for him to know. 

§. XI. But there are some that will confess, That ouject. 
the Spirit doth now lead and influence the saints, but 
that he doth it only subjectively, or in a blind man- 
ner, by enlightening their understandings, to under- 
stand and believe the truth delivered in the scrip- 
tures ; but not at all by presenting those truths to the 
mind by way of object, and this they call Medium 
incognitum assentiendi, as that of whose working a 
man is not sensible. 

This opinion, though somewhat more tolerable than answ. 
the former, is nevertheless not altogether according to 
truth, neither doth it reach the fulness of it. 

1. Because there be many truths, which, as they Arg. i. 
are applicable to particulars and individuals, and most 
needful to be known by them, are in no wise to be 
found in the scripture, as in the following propositiori 
shall be shown. 

Besides, the arguments already adduced do prove 
that the Spirit doth not only subjectively help us to 
discern truths elsewhere delivered, but also objectively 
present those truths to our minds. For that which 
teacheth me all things, and is given me for that end, 
without doubt presents those things to my mind which 
it teacheth me. It is not said. It slialt teach you how 
to understand those things that are tvritten; but, // 
shall teach you all things. Again, That which brings 
all things to my remembrance nuist needs present 
them by way of object ; else it were improper to say, 
It brought them to my remembrance ; but only, that 
it helpeth to remember the objects brought from else- 

My second argument shall be drawn from the na- Arg. 2. 
ture of the neio covenant ; by which, and those that 
follow, I shall prove that we are led by the Spirit both 
immediately and objectively. The nature of the new 
covenant is expressed in divers places ; and 


Proof 1. First, Isa. lix. 21. As for me, this is mi/ covenant 

with them, saith the Lord ; My Spirit that is upon 
thee, and vixj words which I have put iiito thy mouth, 
shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth 
of thy seed, nor out of the mouth of thy seed^s seed. 
The le.d- saith the Lord, from henceforth and for ever. By 
M»g»_of ihe (|jg latter part of this is sufficiently expressed the per- 
petuity and continuance of this promise, It shall not 
depart, saith the Lord, from henceforth and for ever. 
In the former part is tlie promise itself, which is the 
Spirit of God being upon them, and the words of God 
being put into their mouths. 

1. humedi- First, This was immediate, for there is no mention 
"*''^* made of any medium ; he saith not, I shall, by the 

means of. such and such writings or books, convey 
such and such words into your mouths ; but Jily 
words, I, even I, saith the Lord, have put into your 

2. Objec- Secondly, This must be objectively ; for [the woi^ds 
t'veiy. ^^^ y^^^ ^^^ iHouth] arc the object presented by him. 

He saith not, The words which ye shall see written, 
my Spirit shall only enlighten your understandings 
to assent unto ; but positively, Jlly words, which I 
have put into thy mouth, &c. From whence I argue 
thus : 

Upon whomsoever the Spirit remaineth always, 
and putteth words into his mouth, him doth the Spi- 
rit teach i?fwiediately, objectively, and continually. 

But the Spirit is always upon the seed of the righte- 
ous, and putteth words into their mouths, neither de- 
parteth from them. 

Therefore the Spirit teacheth the righteous immC' 
diately, objectively, and continually. 
Proof 2. Secondly, The nature of the new covenant is yet 

more amply expressed, Jer. xxxi. 33. which is again 
repeated and reasserted by the apostle, Heb. viii. 10, 
11, in these words, For this is the covenant that I 
will inahe with the house of Israel ; after those days, 
saith the Lordy I will put my laws into their mind, 


and write them in their hearts, a?id I will be to them a 
God, and they shall be to me a people. And they shall 
not teach every man his neighbour, and every man his 
brother, saying, Know the Lord; for they shall all 
know me, from the least to the greatest. 

The object here is God's law placed in the heart, 
and written^ in the mind ; from whence they become 
God's people, and are brought truly to know him. 

In this then is the law distinguished from the gos- The diflVr- 
pel; the law before was outward, written in tables of f"'"'^*': 
stone, but now is mward, written m the heart : oi old oai«ardaiid 
the people depended upon their priests for the know- "*''*''^ '*** 
ledge of God, but now they have all a certain and 
sensible knowledge of Him ; concerning which Au- 
gustine speaketh well, in his book De Litcra et Spi- 
ritu ; from whom Aquinas first of all seems to have 
taken occasion to move this question, Whether the 
new law be a written law, or an implanted law ? Lex 
scripta, vel lea: indita ? Which he thus resolves, affirm- 
ing, That the new law, or gospel, is not properly a law 
written, as the old was, but Lex indita, an implanted 
law ; and that the old law was written without, but the 
new law is written within, on the table of the heart. 

How much then are they deceived, who, instead 
of making the gospel preferable to the law, have made 
the condition of such as are under the gospel far 
worse? For no doubt it is a far better and more de- Tiie gospsi 
sirable thing to converse with God immediately, than Ji'*,^^^ore 
only mediately, as being a higher and more glorious piorious 
dispensation : and yet these men acknowledge that 
many under the law hdid immediate converse with God, 
whereas they now cry it is ceased. 

Again : Under the law there was the holy of holies, 
into which the high priest did enter, and received the 
word of the Lord immediately from betwixt the cheru- 
bims, so that the people could then certainly know the 
mind of the Lord ; but now, according to these men's 
judgment, we are in a far worse condition, having 
nothing but the outward letter of the scripture to guess 

than that of 
the law. 


and divine from ; concerning the sense or meaning of 
one verse of which scarce two can be found to agree. 
But Jesus Christ hath promised us better things, 
though many are so unwise as not to believe him, 
even to guide us by his own unerring Spirit, and hath 
rent and removed the veil, whereby not only one, and 
that once a year, may enter ; but all of us, at all times, 
have access unto him, a;s often as we draw near unto 
him with pure hearts : 4e reveals his will to us by his 
Spirit, and writes his laws in our hearts. These 
things then being thus premised, I argue. 

Where the law of God is put into the mind, and 
written in the heart, there the object of faith, and re- 
velation of the knowledge of God, is imvard, imme- 
diate, and objective. 

But the law of God is put into the mind, and writ- 
ten in the heart of every true Christian, under the new 

Therefore the object of faith, and revelation of the 
knowledge of God to every true Christian, is inward, 
immediate, and objective. 

The assumption is the express words of scripture : 
the proposition then must needs be true, except that 
which is put into the 7nind, and written in the heart, 
were either not imvard, not immediate, or not objec- 
tive, which is most absurd. 
Arg. 3. §. XII. The third argument is from these words of 

The anoint- Johu, 1 Joliu, ii. 27 : But the anointing, which ye 
mLdJdTus ^^^'^^ received of him, abideth in you, and ye need not 
that any man teach you : but the same anointing teach- 
eth you of all things, and is truth, and is no lie; and 
even as it hath taught you, ye shall abide in him. 

1. First, This could not be any special, peculiar, or 
ComraoD. extraordinary privilege, but that which is common to 

all the saints, it being a general epistle, directed to all 
them of that age. 

2. Secondly, The apostle proposeth this anointing in 
Ceriwn. ^\^^,^^ ^ ^ TdOTe Certain touchstone for them to dis- 
cern and try seducers by, even than his own writings; 



for having" in the former verse said, that he had writ- 
ten some things to them concerning such as seduced 
them, he begins the next verse. But the anointings kc. 
and ye need not that any man teach you, &c. which 
infers, that having said to them what can be said, he 
refers them for all to the inward anointing, which 
teacheth all things, as the most firm, constant, and 
certain bulwark against all seducers. 

And Lastly, That it is a lasting and continuing s. 
thing; the anointing which abideth. If it had not 
been to abide in them, it could not have taught them 
all things, neither guarded them against all hazard. 
From which I argue thus, 

He that hath an anointing abiding in him, which 
teacheth him all things, so that he needs no man to 
teach him, hath an inward and immediate teacher, 
and hath some things inwardly and immediately re- 
vealed unto him. 

But the saints have such an anointing : 

Therefore, &c. 

I could prove this doctrine from many more places 
of scripture, which for brevity's sake I omit ; and now 
come to the second part of the proposition, where the 
objections usually formed against it are answered. 

§. XIII. The most usual is, that thest j evelations are object. 

But this bespeaketh much ignorance in the op-ANsw. 
posers ; for we distinguish between the thesis and the 
hypothesis ; that is, between the p?'opositio?i and sup- 
position. For it is one thing to affirm, that the true 
and undoubted revelation of God's Spirit is certain and 
infallible; and another thing to affirm, that this or 
that particular' person or people is led infallibly by 
this revelation in what they speak or write, because , 
they affirm themselves to be so led by the inward and 
immediate revelation of the Spirit. The first is only 
asserted by us, the latter may be called in question. 
The question is not who are or are not so led ? But 
whether all ought not or may not be so led ? 



Tiieoerttin- Seeing then we have already proved that Christ 
jfpirit'" gu«- ^^^^^ promised his Spirit to lead his children, and that 
dance pro»- evcry oHe of them both ought and may be led by it, 
*^* if any depart from this certain guide in deeds, and 

yet in words pretend to be led by it into things that 
are not good, it will not from thence follow, that the 
true guidance of the Spirit is uncertain, or ought not 
to be followed ; no more than it will follow that the 
sun showeth not light, because a blind man, or one 
who wilfully shuts his eyes, falls into a ditch at noon- 
day for want of light ; or that no words are spoken, 
because a deaf man hears them not ; or that a gar- 
den full of fragrant flowers has no sweet smell, be- 
cause he that has lost his smelling, doth not smell it ; 
the fault then is in the organ, and not in the object. 

All these mistakes therefore are to be ascribed to 
the weakness or wickedness of men, and not to that 
Holy Spirit. Svich as bend themselves most against 
this certain and infallible testimony of the Spirit, use 
commonly to allege the example of the old Gnosticks, 
and the late monstrous and mischievous actings of the 
Anabaptists of Munster, all which toucheth us nothing 
at all, neither weakens a whit our most true doctrine. 
Wherefore, as a most sure bulwark against such kind 
of assaults, was subjoined that other part of our pro- 
position thus : Moreover these divine and inward re- 
velations^ which we establish as absolutely necessary for 
the founding of the true faith, as they do not, so nei- 
ther can they at any time, contradict the scrijitur£s 
testimony, or sound reason. 
By experi- Bcsidcs thc iutriusick and undoubted truth of this 
assertion, we can boldly affirm it from our certain and 
blessed experience. For this Spirit never deceived 
us, never acted nor moved us to any thing that was 
amiss; but is clear and manifest in its revelations, 
which are evidently discerned by us, as we wait in 
that pure and unde/iled light of God (that proper and 
fit organ) in which they are received. Therefore if 
any reason after this nianner, 



(That because some wicked, ungodly, devilish men 
have committed wicked actions, arul have yet more 
wickedly asserted, that they were led into these things 
by the Spirit of God; 

Therefore, No man ought to lean to the Spirit of 
God, or seek to be led by it.) 

I utterly deny the consequence of this proposition, The absnr- 
which, were it to be received as true, then would all *^'^^ ""^^^^ 


faith in God and hope of salvation become uncertain, qaenoe. 
and the Christian religion be turned into mere Scep- 
ticism. For after the same manner I might reason 
thus : 

Because Eve was deceived by the lying of the ser- 
pent ; 

Therefore she ought not to have trusted to the pro- 
mise of God. 

Because the old world was deluded by evil spirits ; 

Therefore ought neither Noah, nor Abraham, nor 
Moses, to have trusted the Spirit of the Lord. 

Because a lying spirit spake through the four hun- 
dred prophets, that persuaded Ahab to go up and fight 
at Ramoth Gilead ; 

Therefore the testimony of the true Spirit in Mi- 
caiah was uncertain, and dangerous to be followed. 

Because there were seducing spirits crept into the 
church of old ; 

Therefore it was not good, or it is uncertain, to fol- 
low the anointing, which taught all things, and is 
truth, and is no lie. 

Who dare say, that this is a necessary consequence? 
Moreover, not only the faith of the saints, and church 
of God of old, is hereby rendered uncertain, but also 
the faith of all sorts of Christians now is liable to the 
like hazard, even of those who seek a foundation for 
their faith elsewhere than from the Spirit. For I 
shall prove by an inevitable argument, ab incommodo, 
i. e. from the inconveniency of it, that if the Spirit be 
not to be followed upon that account, and that men 


may not depend upon it as their guide, because some, 
while pretending thereunto, commit great evils ; that 
then, neither tradition, nor the scriptures, nor reason, 
which the Papists, Protestants, and Socinians do re- 
spectively make the rule of their faith, are any whit 
i.intiaDcc. more certain. The Romanists reckon it an error to 
of traditioD. ^.gig^rj^tg Easter any other ways than that church doth. 
This can only be decided by tradition. And yet the 
Greek church, which equally layeth claim to tradi- 
tion with herself, doth it otherwise. Yea, so little 
Eateb. effectual is tradition to decide the case, that Polycar- 
Bwiii. lib. P^s, the disciple of John, and Anicetus, the bishop of 
5. c. 26. Rome, who immediately succeeded them, according 
to whose example both sides concluded the question 
.ought to be decided, could not agree. Here of neces- 
sity one of them must err, and that following tradition. 
Would the Papists now judge we dealt fairly by them, 
if we should thence aver, that tradition is not to be 
regarded ? Besides, in a matter of far greater impor- 
tance the same difficulty will occur, to wit, in the pri- 
macy of the bishop of Rome ; for many do affirm, and 
that by tradition, that in the first six hundred years 
the Roman prelates never assumed the title of Uni- 
versal Shepherd^ nor were acknowledged as such. 
And, as that which altogether overtumeth this pre- 
sidency, there are that allege, and that from tradi- 
tion also, that Peter never saw Rome; and that 
therefore the Bishop of Rome cannot be his succes- 
sor. Would you Romanists think this sound rea- 
soning, to say as you do ? 

Many have been deceived, and erred grievously, 
in trusting to tradition ; 

Therefore we ought to reject all traditions, yea, 

even those by which we affirm the contrary, and, as, 

we think, prove the truth. 

• Cone. Lastly, In the council of Florence, the chief doc- 

rd'ccreto"* ^^^ ^^ ^^ Romish and Greek churches did debate 

qaodam wholc scssioDS long conccming the interpretation of 


one sentence of the council of Ephesus, and of Epi- Conc Eph. 
phanius, and Basilius, neither could they ever agree fj gn^j^i"" 

about it. Cone. Flor. 

Secondly, As to the scripture, the same difficulty cw^fio?.* 
occurreth : the Lutherans affirm they believe consub- sess.21. p. 
stantiation by the scripture ; which the Calvinists '^^^' ""^ **'**' 
deny, as that which, they say, according to the same 
scripture, is a gross error. The Calvinists again 
affirm absolute predestination, which the Arminians 
deny, affirming the contrary; wherein both affirm 
themselves to be ruled by the scripture and reason in 
the matter. Should I argue thus then to the Calvin- 

Here the Lutherans and Arminians grossly err, by 
following the scripture ; 

Therefore the scripture is not a good nor certain 
rule ; and ^ contra. 

Would either of them accept of this reasoning as 
good and sound ? What shall I say of the Episcopa- 
lians, Presbyterians, Independents, and Anabaptists 
of Great Britain, who are continually buffeting one 
another with the scripture? To whom the same argu- 
ment might be alleged, though they do all unani- 
mously acknowledge it to be the rule. 

And Thirdly, As to reason, I shall not need to say 8. or rea- 
much ; for whence come all the controversies, conten- '*"'• 
tions, and debates in the world, but because every man The debates 
thinks he follows riffht reason ? Hence of old came !'^'";^ *".''", 
the jangles between the Stoicks, Platonists, Peripate- the oui and 
ticks, Pythagoreans, and Cynicks, as of late betwixt ' her8^''°'°" 
the Aristotelians, Cartesians, and other naturalists : 
Can it be thence inferred, or will the Socinians, those 
great reasoners, allow us to conclude, because many, 
and those very wise men have erred, by following, as 
they supposed, their reason, and that with what dili- , 
gence, care, and industry they could, to find out the 
truth, that therefore no man ought to make use of it 
at all, nor be positive in what he knows certainly to 
be rational ? And thus far as to opinions ; the same 


uncertainty is no less incident unto tliose other prin- 
Anabapti.ts ^. XIV. But if wc comc to practiccs, though I con- 
for their £ J ^^ ^j^j^ ^y y^rhole licart abhor and detest those 

wild pnio- -I • 1 • 1 A 

tices. and wild practiccs which are written concerning the Ana- 
Tnd Papi" u baptists of Munster ; I am bold to say, as bad, if not 
for their worsc thiugs, havc been committed by those that lean 
bloodshed, to tradition, scripture, and reason : wherein also they 
each pre- ^ave avcrrcd themselves to have been authorized by 
fic'ripufre thcsc rulcs. I uccd but mention all the tumults, sedi- 
for it. tions, and horrible bloodshed, wherewith Europe hath 
been afflicted these divers ages; in which Papists 
against Papists, Calvinists against Calvinists, Luthe- 
rans against Lutherans, and Papists, assisted by Pro- 
testants, against other Protestants assisted by Papists, 
have miserably shed one another's blood, hiring and 
forcing men to kill each other who were ignorant of 
the quarrel, and strangers one to another : all, mean- 
while, pretending reason for so doing, and pleading 
the lawfulness of it from scripture. 

For what have the Papists pretended for their many 
massacres, acted as well in France as elsewhere, but 
Tradition, tradit'wu, scripture, and reason ? Did they not say, 
Ind'Jlason ^^^^ reuson persuaded them, tradition allowed them, 
made a CO- and scHpture commanded them to persecute, destroy, 
secaUouMd ^^^ ^"^^ hcrcticks, such as denied this plain scrip- 
murder, ture. Hoc est corpus meum, This is my body? And 
are not the Protestants assenting to this bloodshed, 
who assert the same thing, and encourage them, by 
burning and banishing, while their brethren are so 
treated for the same cause ? Are not the islands of 
Great Britain and Ireland, yea, and all the Christian 
world, a lively example hereof, which were divers 
years together as a theatre of blood ; where many lost 
their lives, and numbers of families were utterly de- 
stroyed and ruined? For all which no other cause 
was principally given, than the precepts of tlie scrip- 
ture. If we then compare these actings with those of 
Munster, we shall not find great difference ; for both 


affirmed and pretended they were called, and that it ! 

was lawful to kill, burn, and destroy the wicked. We i 

7nus't kill all the wicked, said those Anabaptists, that [ 
we, that are the saints, may possess the earth. We must 

burn obstinate hejxticks, say the Papists, that the holy j 

church of Rome may be purged of rotten members, \ 

and may live in peace. We must cut off seducing sepa- j 

ratists, say the Prelatical Protestants, who trouble the ' 

peace of the church, and refuse the divine hierarchy, \ 

and religious ceixmonies thereof. We must kill, say ] 

the Calvinistic Presbyterians, the profane malig- \ 

nants, who accuse the Holy Consistorial and Presby- \ 
terian government, and seek to defend the Popish and 

Prelatick hierarchy ; as abso those other sectaries that \ 

trouble the peace of our church. What difference, I j 

pray thee, impartial reader, seest thou betwixt these ? ] 

If it be said, The Anabaptists went without, ^w^ object. \ 

against the authority of the magistrate ; so did not the '\ 

other ; \ 

I might easily refute it, by alleging the mutual tes- answ. ^ 
timonies of these sects against one another. The 

behaviour of the Papists towards Henry the Third Exampiesof \ 

and Fourth of France ; their designs upon James the ^^^^^If' '"^°" \ 

Sixth in the gunpowder treason ; as also their prin- ^ 

ciple of the Pope's power to depose kings for the * 
cause of heresy, and to absolve their subjects from 
their oath, and give them to others, proves it against 

And as to the Protestants, how much their actions Proteutant ] 

differ from those other abovementioned, may be seen ^J,d^I^- ^ 

by the many conspiracies and tumults which they cutions in ] 

have been active in, both in Scotland and England, England' »; 

and which they have acted within these hundred »«"! ^'oi- ; 

years in divers towns and provinces of the Nether- *" ' ^ 

lands. Have they not oftentimes sought, not only \ 

from the Popish magistrates, but even from those \ 

that had begun to reform, or that had given them ? 

some liberty of exercising their religion, that they \ 

might only be permitted, without trouble or hinder- \ 


ance, to exercise their religion, promising they would 
not hinder or molest the Papists in the exercise of 
theirs ? And yet did they not, on the contrary, so 
soon as they had power, trouble and abuse those fel- 
low citizens, and turn them out of the city, and, which 
is worse, even such who together with them had for- 
saken the Popish religion? Did they not these things 
in many places against the mind of the magistrates ? 
Have they not publicly, with contumelious speeches, 
assaulted their magistrates, from whom they had but 
just before sought and obtained the free exercise of 
their religion ? Representing them, so soon as they 
opposed themselves to their hierarchy^ as if they re- 
garded neither God nor religion ? Have they not by 
violent hands possessed themselves of the Popish 
churches, so called, or by force, against the magis- 
trate's mind, taken them away ? Have they not turned 
out of their office and authority whole councils of ma- 
gistrates, under pretence that they were addicted to 
Popery ? Which Popish magistrates nevertheless they 
did but a little before acknowledge to be ordained by 
God ; affirming tliemselves obliged to yield them obe- 
dience and subjection, not only for fear, but for con- 
science' sake ; to whom moreover the very preachers 
and overseers of the reformed church had willingly 
sworn fidelity; and yet afterwards have they not 
said, that the people are bound to force a wicked 
prince to the observation of God's word ? There are 
many other instances of this kind to be found in their 
histories^ not to mention many worse things, which 
we know to have been acted in our time, and which 
for brevity's sake I pass by. 
Lutiieran I might Say much of the Lutherans, whose tumul- 
IgaiMnhe tuous actious against their magistrates not professing 
reformed the Luthcrau proftJisioHy are testified of by several 
Ind MSMit historians worthy of credit. Among others, I shall 
upon the propose only one example to the reader s considera- 
BrVndeu-' tiou, which fcll out at Berlin in the year 1615. « Where the seditious multitude of the Lutheran citi- 



zens, being stirred up by the daily clamours of their 
preachers, did not only with violence break into the 
houses of the reformed teachers, overturn their libra- 
ries, and spoil their furniture ; but also with reproach- 
ful words, yea, and with stones, assaulted the Mar- 
quis of Brandenburg, the elector's brother, while he 
sought by smooth words to quiet the fury of the mul- 
titude ; they killed ten of his guard, scarcely sparing 
himself, who at last by flight escaped out of their 
hands." All which sufficiently declares, that the 
concurrence of the magistrate doth not alter their 
principles, but only their method of procedure. So 
that, for my own part, I see no difference betwixt the 
actings of those at Munster, and these others (whereof 
the one pretended to be led by the Spirit, the other 
by tradition, scriptinx, and reason), save this, that the 
former were rash, heady, and foolish in their proceed- 
ings, and therefore were the sooner brought to nothing, 
and so into contempt and derision : but the other, 
being more politic and wise in their generation, held 
it out longer, and so have authorized their wicked- 
ness more, with the seeming authority of law and rea- 
son. But both their actings being equally evil, the 
difference appears to me to be only like that which is 
between a simple silly thief, that is easily catched, 
and hanged without any more ado ; and a company 
of resolute bold robbers, who being better guarded, 
though their offence be nothing less, yet by violence 
do, to shun the danger, force their masters to give 
them good terms. 

From all which then it evidently follows, that they 
argue very ill, who despise and reject any principle 
because men pretending to be led by it do evil ; in 
case it be not the natural and consequential tendency 
of that principle to lead unto those things that are 

Again : It doth follow from what is above asserted, 
that if the Spirit be to be rejected upon this account, 
all those other principles ought on the same account 




Spirit of 
God, be- 
caose of 
false pre- 
tenders to 

to be rejected. And for my part, as I have never a 
whit the lower esteem of the blessed testimony of the 
holy scriptures, nor do the less respect any solid tradi- 
tion, that is answerable and according to truth ; nei- 
ther at all despise reason, that noble and excellent 
Let none re- faculty of the mind, because wicked men have abused 
tS'nt^ofTbe ^^^ name of them, to cover their wickedness, and de- 
noerrinjf ccivc thc simplc ; SO would I not have any reject or 
doubt the certainty of that unerring Spirit which God 
hath given his children, as that which can alone 
guide them into all truth, because some have falsely 
pretended to it. 

§. XV. And because the Spirit of God is the foun- 
tain of all truth and sound reason, therefore we have 
well said, That it cannot contradict either the testimoni/ 
of the scripture, or right reason : " Yet (as the propo- 
sition itself concludeth, to the last part of which I 
now come) it will not from thence follow, that these 
divine revelations are to be subjected to the examina- 
tion either of the outward testimony of scripture, or 
of the human or natural reason of a man, as to a more 
noble and certain rule or touchstone ; for the divine 
revelation, and inward illumination, is that which is 
evident by itself, forcing the well disposed under- 
standing, and irresistibly moving it, to assent by its 
own evidence and clearness, even as the common 
principles of naturar truths do bend the mind to a 
natural assent." 

He that denies this part of the proposition must 
needs affirm, that the Spirit of God neither can, nor 
ever hath manifested itself to man without the scrip- 
ture, or a distinct discussion of reason ; or that the 
efficacy of this supernatural principle, working upon 
the souls of men, is less evident than natural prin- 
ciples in their common operations; both which are 

For, First, Through all the scriptures we may ob- 
serve, that the manifestation and revelation of God by 
his Spirit to the patriarchs, prophets, and apostles, 


was immediate and objective, as is above proved ; 
which they did not examine by any other principle, 
but their own evidence and clearness. 

Secondly, To say that the Spirit of God has less The seif- 
evidence upon the mind of man than natural princi- ul'g'^lplrlt!^ 
pies have, is to have too mean and too low thoughts 
of it. How comes David to invite us to taste and see 
that God is good, if this cannot be felt and tasted ? 
This were enough to overturn the faith and assurance 
of all the saints, both now and of old. How came 
Paul to be persuaded, that nothing could separate him 
from the love of God, but by that evidence and clear- 
ness which the Spirit of God gave him ? The apostle 
John, who knew well wherein the certainty of faith 
consisted, judged it no ways absurd, without further 
argument, to ascribe his knowledge and assurance, and 
that of all the saints, hereunto in these words, Herebif 
hiow we that we dwell in him, and he in us, because 
he hath given us of his Spirit, 1 John, iv. 13. And 
again, chap. v. 6, It is the Spirit that beareth wit- 
ness, because the Spirit is truth. 

Observe the reason brought by him. Because the 
Spirit is truth ; of whose certainty and infallibility I 
have heretofore spoken. We then trust to and con- 
fide in this Spirit, because we know, and certainly 
believe, that it can only lead us aright, and never 
mislead us ; and from this certain confidence it is 
that we affirm, that no revelation coming from it can TheSpiri* 

ever contradict the scripture's testimonv nor riffht <^o"'f»d'ct* 

r, . "^ . o not scrip- 

reason : not as makmg this a more certam rule to ture nor 

ourselves, but as condescendino^ to such, who not dis- ''^„^^ '■®*' 

' O ' SOD. 

ceming the revelations of the Spirit, as they proceed, 
purely from God, will try them by these mediums. Yet 
those that have their spiritual senses, and can savour 
the things of the Spirit, as it were in prirna instantia, 
i. e. at the first blush, can discern them without, or 
before they apply them either to scripture or reason : 
just as a good astronomer can calculate an eclipse in- Natural de- 
fallibly, by which he can conclude (if the order of '"°°'*»'^«- 


(ioD> from nature continue, and some strange and unnatural re- 
•stronoinr yolution intervene not) there will be an eclipse of the 
trj/ °" sun or moon such a day, and such an hour; yet can 
he not persuade an ignorant rustick of this, until he 
visibly see it. So also a muthematician can infallibly 
know by the rules of ait, that the three angles of a 
right triangle are equal to two right angles ; yea, can 
know them more certainly than any man by measure. 
And some geometrical demomtrations are by all ac- 
knowledged to be infallible, which can be scarcely 
discerned or proved by the senses ; yet if a geometer 
be at the pains to certify some ignorant man concern- 
ing the certainty of his art, by condescending to mea- 
sure it, and make it obvious to his senses, it will not 
thence follow, that that measuring is so certain as the 
demonstration itself, or that die demonstration would 
be uncertain without it. 

§. XVI. But to make an end, I shall add one argu- 
ment to prove, that this inward, immediate, objective 
revelation, which we have pleaded for all along, is the 
only sure, certain, and unmovable foundation of all 
Christian faith ; which argument when well weighed, 
I hope will htive weight with all sorts of Christians, 
and it is this : 
irameui ite That whlch all professors of Christiamtii, of what 
•thehnmo". ^^^^ socvcr, arc forced ultimately to recur unto, when 
able founda- prcsscd to the last ; that for and because of which all 
Thr\J\u!l other foundations are recommended, and accounted 
faitb. worthy to be believed, and without which they are 
granted to be of no weight at all, must needs be tlie 
only most true, certain, and unmovable foundation of 
all Christian faith. 

But inward, immediate, objective revelation by the 
Spirit, is that which all professors of Christianity/, of 
what kind soever, are forced ultimately to recur unto, 

Therefore, &c. 

The proposition is so evident, that it will not be 
denied ; the assumption shall be proved by parts. 


And First, As to the Papists, they place their foun- Papisu 
dation in the iude^ment of the church and tradition, [^''i^'i'it'on 
It we press them to say. Why they beheve as the and tradi- 
church doth? Their answer is, Because the church ?**'''"' '"''^^ 
always led by the infallible Spirit. So here the leading 
of the Spirit is the utmost foundation. Again, if 
we ask them, Why we ought to trust to traditionl 
They answer. Because these traditions were delivered 
us by the doctors and fathers of the church ; which doc- 
tors and fathers^ by the revelation of the Holy Ghost, 
commanded the church to observe them. Here ao:ain 
all ends in the revelation of the Spirit. 

And for the Protestants and Socinians, both which Protestants 
acknowledge the scriptures to be the foundation and alls make' 
rule of their faith ; the one as subjectively influenced t^^e scrip- 
by the Spirit of God to use them, the other as ma- ^rmmd aid 
naging them with and by their own reason ; ask both, <o"ndation, 
or either of them. Why they trust in the scriptures, ^ '^ ' 
and take them to be their rule ? Their answer is. Be- 
cause we have in them the mind of God delivered tmto 
us by those to whom these things were inwardly, imme- 
diately, and objectively ^xvealed by the Spirit of God; 
and not because this or that man wrote them, but be- 
cause the Spirit of God dictated them. 

It is strange then that men should render that so christians 
uncertain and dangerous to follow, upon which alone ^n^i"^)!)'^,', 
the certain ground and foundation of their own faith nature, hold 
is built ; or that they should shut themselves out from celsld cm.- 
that holy fellowship with God, which only is enjoyed trarj to 
in the Spirit, in which we are commanded both to ^'^'^'p'"^®' 
walk and live. 

If any reading these things find themselves moved, 
by. the strength of these scripture arguments, to assent 
and believe such revelations necessary, and yet find 
themselves strangers to them, which, as I observed in 
the beginning, is the cause that this is so much gain- 
said and contradicted, let them know, that it is not 
because it is ceased to become the privilege of every 
true Christian that they do not feel it, but rather be- 


cause they are not so much Christians by nature as 
by name ; and let such know, that the secret light 
which shines in the heart, and reproves unrighteous- 
ness, is the small beginning of the revelation of God's 
Spirit, which was first sent into the world to reprove 
it of sin, John, xvi. 8. And as by forsaking iniquity 
thou comest to be acquainted with that heavenly 
voice in thy heart, thou shalt feel, as the old man, or 
the natural man, that savoureth not the things of God's 
kingdom, is put off, with his evil and corrupt affec- 
tions and lusts ; I say, thou shalt feel the new man, or 
the spiritual birth and babe raised, which hath its spi- 
ritual senses, and can see, feel, taste, handle, and smell 
the things of the Spirit; but till then the knowledge 
of things spiritual is but as un historical faith. But 
AVbo wants as the description of the light of the siin, or of curi- 
see^ifoujie ^^^ colours to a blind man, who, though of the largest 
light. capacity, cannot so well understand it by the most 
acute and lively description, as a child can by seeing 
them ; so neither can the natural man, of the largest 
> capacity, by the best words, even scripture words, 
so well understand the mysteries of God's kif/gdom, as 
the least and weakest child who tasteth them, by hav- 
ing them revealed inwardly and objectively by the 

Wait then for this in the small revelation of that 
pure light which first reveals things more known ; 
and as thou becomest fitted for it, thou shalt receive 
more and more, and by a living experience easily re- 
fute their ignorance, who ask, How dost thou know 
that thou art actuated by the Spirit of God ? Which 
will appear to thee a question no less ridiculous, than 
to ask one whose eyes are open, How he knows the 
sun shines at noonday ? And though this be the surest 
and certainest way to answer all objections ; yet by 
what is above written it may appear, that the mouths 
of all such opposers as deny this doctrine may be shut, 
. by unquestionable and unanswerable reasons. 




From these revelations of the Spirit of God to the saints have 
proceeded the Scriptures of Truth, which contain, 

I. A faithful historical account of the actings of God's people in 
divers ages; with many singular and remarkable providences 
attending them. 

II. A prophetical account of several thingfi, whereof some are 
already past, and some yet to come. 

III. A full and ample account of all the chief principles of the 
doctrine of Christ, held forth in divers precious declarations, 
exhortations, and sentences ; which, by the moving of God's 
Spirit, were at several times, and upon sundry occasions, 
spoken and written unto some churches and their pastors. 

Nevertheless, because they are only a declaration of the foun- 
tain, and not the fountain itself, therefore they are not to be 
esteemed the principal ground of all truth and knowledge, nor 
yet the adequate primary rule of faith and manners. Yet be- 
cause they give a true and faithful testimony of the first foun- 
dation, they are and may be esteemed a secondary rule, subor- 
dinate to the Spirit, from which they have all their excellency 
and certainty : for as by the inward testimony of the Spirit we 
do alone truly know them, so they testify. That the ispirit is John xvi. 
that guide by which the saints arc led into all truth ; there- 13. 
fore, according to the scriptures, the Spirit is the first and ]*^°*' *'"• 
principal leader. Seeing then that we do therefore receive ' 
and believe the scriptures because they proceeded from the 
Spirit, for the very same reason is the Spirit more originally 
and principally the rule, according to the received maxim 
in the schools. Propter quod unumquodque est tale^ illud 
ipsum est magis tale: That for which a thing is such, that 
thing itself is more such. 

§. I. The former part of this proposition, though it 
needs no apology for itself, yet it is a good apology 
for us, and will help to sweep away that, among many 
other calumnies, wherewith we are often loaded, as if 
we were vilifiers and deniers of the scriptures ; for in 
that which we athrm of them, it doth appear at what 
high rate we value them, accounting them, without xhe hoij 
all deceit or equivocation, the most excellent writings *Jg'^"f 
in the world ; to which not only no other writings excellent 
are to be preferred, but even in divers respects not Ji"*^frid! 



comparable thereto. For as we freely acknowledge 
that their authority doth not depend upon the appro- 
bation or canons of any church or assembly ; so nei- 
ther can we subject them to the fallen, corrupt, and 
defiled reason of man : and therein as we do freely 
agree with the Protestants against the error of the Ro- 
manists, so on the other hand, we cannot go the length 
of such Protestants as make their authority to depend 
' upon any virtue or power that is in the writings them- 
selves ; but we desire to ascribe all to that Spirit from 
which they proceeded. 

We confess indeed there wants not a majesty in 
the style, a coherence in the parts, a good scope in 
the whole ; but seeing these things are not discerned 
by the natural, but only by the spiritual man, it is the 
Spirit of God that must give us that belief ofThe 
scriptures which may satisfy our consciences ; there- 
fore some of the chief among Protestants, both in their 
particular writings and public confessions, are forced 
to acknowledge this. 
Calvin's tes- Hcncc Calviu, though he saith he is able to prove 
thTscriJJ** that if there be a God in heaven, these writings have 
tare ccr- procccded from him, yet he concludes another know- 
from^ie ledge to be necessary. Instit. lib. i. cap. 7. sect. 4. 
Spirit. " But if (saith he) we respect the consciences, that 

they be not daily molested with doubts, and hesitate 
not at every scruple, it is requisite that this persuasion 
which we speak of be taken higher than human rea- 
son, judgment, or conjecture ; to wit, from the secret 
testimony of the Spirit." And again, " To those who 
ask, that we prove unto them, by reason^ that Moses 
ami the prophets were inspired of God to speak, I 
answer. That the testimony of the Holy Spirit is more 
excellent than all reajson.'' And again, "Let this 
remain a firm truth, that he only whom the Holy 
Spirit hath persuaded, can repose himself on the 
scriptures with a tnie certainty." And lastly, " This 
then is a judgment which cannot be begotten but by 
a heavenly revelation," &c. 


The same is also affirmed in the first public con- The confe$- 
fession of the French churches, published in the year prend/^^ 
1559. A?^. 4. " We know these books to be canoni- chorcbes. 
cal, and the most certain rule of our faith, not so 
much by the common accord and consent of the 
church, as by the testimony and inward persuasion 
of the Holy Spirit." 

Thus also in the 5th article of the confession of churches of 
faith, of the churches of Holland, confirmed bv the "°"f°^ *** 
Synod of Dort. *' We receive these books only for same. 
holy and canonical, — not so much because the church 
receives and approves them, as because the Spirit of 
God doth witness in our hearts that they are of 

And lastly. The divines, so called at Westminster, westmin- 
who beoran to be afraid of and eruard aofainst the '!^' 7"'"*'"" 
testimony 01 the Spirit, because they perceived a dis- same, 
pensation beyond that which they were under bec^in- 
ning to dawn, and to eclipse them ; yet could they 
not get by this, though they have laid it down neither 
so clearly, distinctly, nor honestly as they that went 
before. It is in these words, chap. i. sect. 5. " Ne- 
vertheless our full persuasion and assurance of the 
infallible truth thereof, is from the inward work of 
the Holy Spirit, bearing witness by and with the word 
in our hearts." 

By all which it appeareth how necessary it is to 
seek the certainty of the scriptures from the Spirit, 
and nowhere else. The infinite janglings and end- 
less contests of those that seek their authority else- 
where, do witness to the truth hereof. 

For the ancients themselves, even of the first cen- Apocrypha. 
turies, were not agreed among themselves concerning Conc.Laod. 
them; while some of them rejected books which we^^'^^^*'" 
approve, and others of them approved those which ics. 
some of us reject. It is not unknown to such as are heT/iifX'^ 
in the least acquainted with antiquity, what great year 3C4, 
contests are concerning the Second Epistle of Peter, fro^Veca- 
that of James, the Second and Third of John, and "on EccI. 



the Wis- the Revelations, which many, even very ancient, deny 

foTon!^. *® ^^^^ ^^^" vi^ritten by the beloved disciple and bro- 

diih.Tibia*. ther of James, but by another of that name. What 

bMsfwhiTh should then become of Christians, if they had not re- 

the ooancii ccivcd that Spirit, and those spiritual senses, by which 

*hei<nli 'he** they know how to discern the true from i\\e false 1 It 

jear 3i>9, jg \\^q privilege of Christ's sheep indeed that they 

hear his voice, and refuse that of a stranger ; which 

privilege being taken away, we are left a prey to all 

manner of wolves. 

^. II. Though then we do acknowledge the scrip- 
tures to be very heavenly and divine writings, the use 
of them to be very comfortable and necessary to the 
church of Christ, and that we also admire and give 
praise to the Lord, for his wonderful providence in 
preserving these writings so pure and uncorrupted as 
we have them, through so long a night of apostacy, 
to be a testimony of his truth against the wicked- 
ness and abominations even of those whom he made 
instrumental in preserving them, so that they have 
The scrip- kept them to be a witness against themselves ; yet we 
ioMhe**^!; "^^y ^^^ ^'^^ them the principal fountain of all truth 
cipaipround and kuowlcdgc, nor yet the first adequate rule of faith 
©f truth. ^^^ manners ; because the principal fountain of truth 
must be the truth itself; i. e. that whose certainty 
and authority depends not upon another. When we 
doubt of the streams of any river or flood, we recur to 
the fountain itself; and having found it, there we 
desist, we can go no farther, because there it springs 
out of the bowels of the earth, which are inscrutable. 
Even so the writings and sayings of all men we must 
bring to the word of God, I mean the eternal word, 
and if they agree hereunto, we stand there. For this 
word always proceedeth, and doth eternally proceed 
from God, in and by which the unsearchable wisdom 
of God, and unsearchable counsel and will conceived 
in the heart of God, is revealed unto us. That then 
the scripture is not the principal ground of faith and 
knowledge, as it appears by what is above spoken, so 


it is proved in the latter part of the proposition ; which 

being reduced to an argument, runs thus : ] 

That whereof the certainty and authority depends 
upon another, and which is received as truth because 

of its proceeding from another, is not to be accounted j 
the principal ground and origin of all truth and know- 
ledge : 

But the scriptures' authority and certainty depend i 
upon the Spirit by which they were dictated ; and 

the reason why they were received as truth is, because \ 

they proceeded from the Spirit : * ; 

Therefore they are not the principal ground of \ 

truth. J 

To confirm this argument, I added the school 

maxim. Propter (jiiod unumquodque est tale, illud ip- ] 

sum magis est tale. Which maxim, though I confess • 

it doth not hold universally in all things, yet in this ] 

it doth and will very well hold, as by applying it, as \ 
we have above intimated, will appear. 

The same argument will hold as to the other branch Neither are i 
of the proposition, That it is not the primary adequate ^^H^^l^^l'^ \ 

rule of faith and manners ; ihxxs, faith and i 

That which is not the rule of my faith in believing '"»"°«'^*- 

the scriptures themselves, is not the primary adequate \ 

rule of faith and manners : '\ 

But the scripture is not, nor can it be, the rule of | 

that faith by which I believe them, &c. \ 

Therefore, &c. 

But as to this part, we shall produce divers argu- : 

ments hereafter. As to what is affirmed, that the That ihe j 

Spirit, and not the scriptures, is the rule, it is largely f^^c"* " ^''* ^ 
handled in the former proposition ; the sum whereof 

I shall subsume in one argument, thus : I 

If by the Spirit we can only come to the true know- ; 

ledge of God ; if by the Spirit we are to be led into i 

all truth, and so be taught of all things ; then the \ 

Spirit, and not the scriptures, is the foundation and ] 
ground of all truth and knowledge, and the primary 

rule of faith and manners : \ 


But the first is true, therefore also the last. 
Next, the veiy nature of the gospel itself declareth 
that the scriptures cannot be the only and chief rule 
of Chjistians, else there should be no diiference be- 
twixt the law and the gospel; as from the nature of 
the new covenant, by divers scriptures described in 
the former proposition, is proved. 
Wherein But besidcs thcsc which are before mentioned, 
* o» dVf"^ herein doth the law and the gospel ditfer, in that the 
fer. law, being outwardly written, brings under condemmi- 

tion, but hath not life in it to save ; whereas the gos- 
pel, as it declares and makes manifest the evil, so, 
being an inward powerful thing, it gives power also 
to obey, and deliver from the evil. Hence it is called 
EuayyfXiov, which is glad tidings. The law or letter, 
which is without us, kills ; but the gospel, which is 
the inward spiritual law, gives life; for it consists 
not so much in words as in virtue. Wherefore such 
as come to know it, and be acquainted with it, come 
to feel greater power over their iniquities than all out- 
vv^ard laws or rules can give them. Hence the apostle 
concludes, Rom. vi. 14, Sm shall not have dominion 
over you: for ye are not under the law, but under 
grace. This grace then that is inward, and not an 
outivard law, is to be the rule of Christians. Here- 
unto the apostle commends tlie elders of the church, 
saying. Acts, xx. 32, Aiui now. Brethren^ I comniettd 
you to God, aiul to the word of his grace, which is able 
to build you up, and to give you an inheritance anwjig 
all them which are sanctified. He doth not commend 
them here to outward laws or writings, but to the 
wot^d of grace, which is inward ; even the spiritual 
law, which makes free, as he elsewhere affirms, Rom. 
viii. 2, The laiv of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus, 
hath fnade me free from the law of sin and death. 
This spiritual law is that which the apostle declares 
he preached and directed people unto, which was 
not outward, as by Rom. x. 8, is manifest ; where 
distinguishing it from the law, he saith, The wonl is 

ture uot tbo 


7iigh thee, in thy heart, and in thy mouth ; and this is 
the word of faith which we preach. From what is 
above said I argue thus : 

The principal rule of Christians under the gospel 
is not an outward letter, nor law outwardly written 
and delivered, but an inward spiritual law, engraven 
in the heart, the law of the Spirit of life, the word that 
is nigh in the heart and in the mouth. 

But the letter of the scripture is outward, of itself 
a dead thing, a mere declaration of good things, but 
not the things themselves : 

Therefore it is not, nor aan be, the chief or princi- 
pal rule of Christians. 

§. III. Thirdly, That which is given to Christians The scrip- 
for a rule and guide must needs be so full, that it 
may clearly and distinctly guide and order them in 
all things and occurrences that may fall out. 

But in that there are numberless things, with re- 
gard to their circumstances, which particular Chris-- 
tians may be concerned in, for which there can be no 
particular rule had in the scriptures ; 

Therefore the scriptures cannot be a rule to them. 

I shall give an instance in two or three particulars 
to prove this proposition. It is not to be doubted 
but some men are particularly called to some particu- 
lar services ; their being not found in which, though 
the act be no general positive duty, yet in so far as it 
may be required of them, is a great sin to omit ; for- 
asmuch as God is zealous of his glory, and every act 
of disobedience to his will manifested, is enough not 
only to hinder one greatly from that comfort and in- 
ward peace which otherwise he might have, but also 
bringeth condemnation. 

As for instance, Some are called to the ministry of 
the word : Paul saith. There teas a necessity upon him 
to preach the gospel; wo unto me, if I preach not. 

If it be necessary that there be now ministers of the 
church, as well as then, then there is the same neces- 
sity upon some, more than upon others, to occupy 


this place ; which necessity, as it may be incumbent 
upon particular persons, the scripture neither doth 
nor can declare. 

Object. If it be said, That the qualijications of a minister 
are found in the scripture, and by applying these quali- 
fications to myself I may hum whether I be fit for such 
a place or not ; 

ANsvr. I answer, The qualifications of a bishop, or minister, 

as they are mentioned both in the Epistle to Timothy 
and Titus, are such as may be found in a private 
Christian ; yea, which ought in some measure to be 
in every true Christian : so that this giveth a man no 
certainty. Every capacity to an office giveth me not 
a sufficient call to it. 

Next again. By what rule shall I judge if I be so 
qualified ?-^ How do 1 know that I am sober, ineek, 
holy, harmlessl Is it not the testimony of the Spirit in 
my conscience that must assure me hereof? And sup- 
pose that I was qualified and called, yet what scrip- 
ture rule shall inform me. Whether it be my duty to 
preach in this or that place, in France or England, 
Holland or Germany ? Whether I shall take up my 
time in confirming the faithful, reclaiming hereticks, 
or converting infidels, as also in writing epistles to 
this or that church I 

The general rules of the scripture, viz. To be dili- 
gent in my duty, to do all to the glory of God, and for 
the good of his church, can give me no light in this 
thing. Seeing two different things may both have a 
respect to that way, yet may I commit a great error 
and offence in doing the one, when I am called to the 
other. If Paul, when his face was turned by the 
Lord toward Jerusalem, had gone back to Achaia or 
Macedonia, he might have supposed he could have 
done God more acceptable service, in preaching and 
confirming the churches, than in being shut up in 
prison in Judea; but would God have been pleased 
herewith ? Nay, certainly. Obedience is better than 
sacri/icc ; and it is not our doing that which is good 


simply that pleaseth God, but that good which he 
willeth us to do. Every member hath its particular 
place in the body, as the apostle showeth, 1 Cor. xii. 
If then, I being the foot, should offer to exercise the 
office of the hand ; or being the hand, that of the 
tongue; my service would be troublesome, and not 
acceptable ; and instead of helping the body, I should 
make a schism in it. So that that which is good for That which 
another to do, may be sinful to me : for as masters *^ g«o*^/«'^ 

•' , , , . one JO do, 

will have their servants to obey them, according to maj be sin- 
their good pleasure, and not only in blindly doing [jj^^^° ''°°" 
that which may seem to them to tend to their mas- 
ter's profit, whereby it may chance (the master having 
business both in the field and in the house) that the 
servant that knows not his master's will may go to the 
field, when it is the mind of the master he should stay 
and do the business of the house, would not this ser- 
vant then deserve a reproof, for not answering his 
master's mind ? And what master is so sottish and 
careless, as, having many servants, to leave them in 
such disorder as not to assign each his particular 
station, and not only the general terms of doing that 
which is profitable ? which would leave them in vari- 
ous doubts, and no doubt end in confusion. 

Shall we then dare to ascribe unto Christ, in the 
ordering of his church and servants, that which in 
man might justly be accounted disorder and confu- 
sion? The apostle showeth this distinction well, Rom. 
xii. 6, 7, 8 ; Having then gifts differing according to Diversities 
the grace that is given to us ; whether propheci/, let us °^ s'*^^"*- 
prophesy according to the proportion of faith ;. or minis- 
try, let us icait on our viinistring ; or he that teacheth, 
c7i teaching; or he that eahoiieth, on exhortation. 
Now what scripture rule showeth me that I ought to 
exhort, rather than prophesy ? or to minister, rather 
than teach ? Surely none at all. Many more difficul- 
ties of this kind occur in the life of a Christian. 

Moreover, that which of all things is most needful of faith and 
for him to know, to wit, whether he really be in the »*'^*^**'° 


oan the faith, and an heir of salvation, or not, the scripture 
I^J*re7bee? ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^"^ ^^ Certainty in, neither can it be a rule 
to him. That this knowledge is exceedingly desira- 
ble and comfortable all do unanimously acknowledge ; 
besides that it is especially commanded, 2 Cor. xiii. 
6 ; Ed'amine yourselves whethei* ye be in the faith, 
prove yourselves; hurw ye not your owmelves, how 
that Jesus Christ is iu you, except ye be reprobates ? 
And 2 Pet. i. 10, Wherefore the ratha\ brethren, 
give all diligence to make your calling and election 
sure. Now I say. What scripture rule can assure me 
that I have true faith ? That my calling and election 
is sure I 

If it be said. By compaiing the scripture marks of 
tt^e faith with mi tie : 

I demand, Wherewith shall I make this observa- 
tion? What shall ascertain me that I am not mis- 
taken i It cannot be the scripture : that is the matter 
under debate. 

If it be said, Aly own heart : 

How unfit a judge is it in its own case ? And how 
like to be partial, especially if it be yet unrenewed ? 
Thehenrtof Doth uot the scripturc say, that // h deceitful above 
^^^^^'^^^- all things 1 I find the promises, I find the threaten- 
ings in the scripture ; but who telleth me that the one 
belongs to me more than the other? The scripture 
gives me a mere declaration of these things, but 
makes no application ; so that the assumption must 
be of my own making, thus ; us for example : I find 
this proposition in scripture ; 

He that believes shall be saved: thence I draw the 

But 1, Robert, believe ; 

Therefore, / shall lye saved. 

The minor is of my own making, not expressed in 
the scripture ; and so a human conclusion, not a 
divine position ; so that my faitli and assurance here 
is not built upon a scripture proposition, but upon a 
human principle ; which, unless I be sure of else- 


where, the scripture gives me no certainty in the I 

matter. \ 

Again, If I should pursue the argument further, 
and seek a new 77iedium out of the scripture, the same 

difficulty would occur : thus, ' ' 

He that hath the true and certain marks of true i 

faith, hath true faith : \ 

But I have those marks : 

Therefore I have true faith. \ 

For the assumption is still here of my own making, ] 

and is not found in the scriptures; and by conse- 1 

quence the conclusion can be no better, since it still J 

fblloweth the weaker proposition. This is indeed so ^ 
pungent, that the best of Protestants, who plead for 
this assurance, ascribe it to the inward testimony of Tbe in^vard \ 
the Spirit; as Calvin, in that large citation, cited in l^es^''^ \ 
the former proposition. So that, not to seek farther the seal of : 
into the writings of the primitive Protestants, which prom-ges. "\ 

are full of such expressions, even the Westminster \ 

confession of faith affirmeth, chap, xviii. sect. 12. I 

" This certainty is not a bare conjecture and proba- \ 

ble persuasion, grounded upon fallible hope, but an \ 

infallible assurance of faith, founded upon the divine \ 

truth of the promise of salvation ; the inward evi- I 

dences of these graces, unto which these promises are \ 

made ; the testimony of the Spirit of adoption, wit- . : 
nessing to our spirits that we are the children of God ; 

which Spirit is the earnest of our inheritance, whereby \ 

we arc sealed to the day of redemption ^ i 

Moreover, the scripture itself, wherein we are so | 

earnestly pressed to seek after this assurance, doth not ! 
at all affirm itself a rule sufficient to give it, but 

wholly ascribeth it to the Spirit, as Rom. viii. 16, i 

The Spirit itself bearetk ivitness ivith our spirit, that I 

tve are the childi^en of God, 1 John, iv. 13, Hereby \ 
know we that we dwell in him, and he in as, because he 

hath given us of his Spirit ; and chap. v. 6, And it is ] 

the Spirit that bearcth witness, because the Spirit is \ 

truth, J 


That the §. IV. Lastly, That cannot be the only, principal, 

Ire CThe ^^^ chief rule which doth not universally reach every 
chief rule, individual that needeth it to produce the necessary 
effect; and from the use of which, either by some 
innocent and shiless defect, or natural yet harmless 
and blameless imperfection, many who are within the 
compass of the visible church, and may, without ab- 
surdity, yea, with great probability, be accounted of 
the elect, are necessarily excluded, and that either 
wholly, or at least from the immediate use thereof. 
But it so falls out frequently concerning the scrip- 

1. Deafpeo- tures, in the case of deaf people, children, and idiots 
d'renl'and ^^^^ ^^^ % ^^ mcaus havc the benefit of the scrip- 
idiot* in- tures. Shall we then affirm, that they are without 

any rule to God-ward, or that they are all damned? 
As such an opinion is in itself very absurd, and incon- 
sistent both with the justice and mercy of God, so I 
know no sound reason can be alleo^ed for it. Now if 
we may suppose any such to be under the new cove- 
nant dispensation, as I know none will deny but that 
we may suppose it without any absurdity, we cannot 
suppose them without some rule and means of know- 
ledge ; seeing it is expressly affirmed, They shall all be 
taught of God, John, vi. 45. And they shall all know 
me from the least to the greatest, Heb. viii. 11. But 
secondly. Though we were rid of this difficulty, how 
many illiterate and yet good men are there in the 
church of God, who cannot read a letter in their own 
mother tongue? Which imperfection, though it be 
inconvenient, I cannot tell whether we may safely 
affirm it to be sinful. These can have no immediate 
knowledo:e of the rule of their faith : so their faitli 
must needs depend upon the credit of other men s 
reading or relating it unto them ; where either the 
altering, adding, or omitting of a little word may be 
a foundation in the poor hearer of a very dangerous 
mistake, whereby he may either continue in some 

2. Papists iniquity ignorantly, or believe a lie confidently. As 
cooceai the f^^ examplc, The Papists in all their catechisms, and 


public exercises of examinations towards the people, second com 
have boldly cut away the second command, because "om 0^* 
it seems so expressly to strike against their adoration people. 
and use of images ; whereas many of these people, in 
whom by this omission this false opinion is fostered, 
are under a simple impossibility, or at least a very 
great difficulty, to be outwardly informed of this 
abuse. But further; suppose all could read the scrip- 
tures in their own language ; where is there one of a 
thousand that hath that thorough knowledge of the 
original languages in which they are written, so as 
in that respect immediately to receive the benefit of 
them ? Must not all these here depend upon the ho- 3. The on- 
nesty and faithfulness of the interpreters ? Which l^XTel""^ 
how uncertain it is for a man to build his faith upon, preters of 
the many corrections, amendments, and various essays, lure^^mi 
which even among Protestants have been used (where- their adui- 
of the latter have constantly blamed and corrected the ^^'^^""^ '^' 
former, as guilty of defects and errors) doth suffi- 
ciently declare. And that even the last translators 
in the vulgar languages need to be corrected (as I , 
could prove at large, were it proper in this place) 
learned men do confess. 

But last of all, there is no less difficulty occurs even 
to those skilled in the original languages, who cannot 
so immediately receive the mind of the authors in 
these writings, as that their faith doth not at least 
obliquely depend upon the honesty and credit of the 
transcribers, since the original copies are granted by 
all not to be now extant. Of which transcribers Je- Hieron. 
rom in his time complained, saying, That they wrote ^p'^'- t^- 
not what theij found, but what they understood. And 247. 
Epiphanius saith. That in the good and correct copies Epiph. in 
of Luke it was written, that Christ wept, and that Ire- An^^cho.. 

II'' 11 1 r^ I I' 1 1 I • iom. oper. 

7i(Eus doth Cite it ; but that the Latholics blotted it out, 
fearing lest heretics should have abused it. Other 
fathers also declare, That whole verses were taken out 
of Mark, because of the Manichees. 

But further, the various readings of the Hebrew The various 


readingH of character by reason of the points, which some plead 
Ihwicurr ^or, as coeval with the first writings, which others, 
*«o- with no less probability, allege to be a later invention ; 

the disagreement of divers citations of Christ and the 
apostles with those passages in the Old Testament 
they appeal to ; the great controversy among the 
fathers, whereof some highly approve the Greek Sep- 
tuagint, decrying and rendering very doubtful the 
Hebrew copy, as in many places vitiated, and altered 
by the Jews ; other some, and particularly Jerom, 
exalting the certainty of the Hebrew, and rejecting, 
yea even deriding, the history of the Septuagint, 
which the primitive church chiefly made use of; and 
some fathei-s that lived centuries before him, affirmed 
to be a most certain thing; and the many various 
readings in divers copies of the Greek, and the great 
altercations among the fathers of the first three centu- 
ries, who had greater opportunity to be better in- 
formed than we can now lay claim to, concerning the 
books to be admitted or rejected, as is above observed ; 
I say, all these and much more which might be al- 
leged, puts the minds even of the learned into infinite 
doubts, scruples, and inextricable difficulties : whence 
we may very safely conclude, that Jesus Christ, who 
promised to be always with his children, to lead tliem 
into all truth, to guard them against the devices of 
the enemy, and to establish their faith upon an un- 
movable rock, left them not to be principally ruled by 
that which was subject in itself to many uncertain- 
ties : and therefore he gave them his Spirit, as their 
principal guide, which neither moth nor time can 
wear out, nor transcribers nor translators corrupt; 
which none are so young, none so illiterate, none in 
so remote a place but they may come to be reached, 
and rightly informed by it. 

Through and by the clearness which that Spirit 
gives us it is that we are only best rid of those diffi- 
culties that occur to us concerning the scriptures. 
The real and undoubted experience whereof I myself 


have been a witness of, with great admiration of the 
love of God to his children in these latter days : for I Wrong 
have known some of my friends, who profess the same o7scHpui"e 
faith with me, faithful servants of the Most High discerned in 
God, and full of divine knowledge of his truth, as itb^^theun- 
was immediately and inwardly revealed to them by learned in 
the Spirit, from a true and living experience, who ^ 
not only were ignorant of the Greek and Hebrew, 
but even some of them could not read their own vul- 
gar language, who being pressed by their adversaries 
with some citations out of the English translation, 
and finding them to disagree with the manifestation 
of truth in their own hearts, have boldly affirmed the 
Spirit of God never said so, and that it was certainly 
wrong ; for they did not believe that any of the holy 
prophets or apostles had ever written so ; which when 
I on this account seriously examined, I really found 
to be errors and corruptions of the translators ; who 
(as in most translations) do not so much give us the 
genuine signification of the words, as strain them to 
express that which comes nearest to that opinion and 
notion they have of truth. i\nd this seemed to me to 
suit very well with that saying of Augustine, Epist. 19. 
ad Hier. tom. ii. fol. 14, after he has said, " That he 
gives only that honour to those books which are called 
ca?2onicalj as to believe that the authors thereof did in 
writing not err," he adds, *' And if I shall meet with 
any thing in these writings that seemeth repugnant 
to truth, I shall not doubt to say, that either the 
volume is faulty or erroneous ; that the expounder 
hath not reached what was said ; or that I have in 
no wise understood it." So that he supposes that in 
the transcription and translation there may be errors. 

§ V. If it be then asked me, Whether I think Objfxt. 
hereby to render the scriptures altogether uncertain, 
or useless 1 

I answer ; Not at all. The proposition itself de- Answ. 
dares how much I esteem them ; and provided that 
to the Spirit from which they came be but granted 


that place the scriptures themselves give it, I do freely 
concede to the scriptures the second place, even what- 
soever they say of themselves; which the apostle 
Paul chiefly mentions in two places, Rom. xv. 4, 
Whatsoever things were ivritten aforetime, were writ- 
ten for our learning, that we through patience and 
comfort of the scriptures might have hope. 2 Tim. 
iii. 15, 16, 17, The holy scriptures are able to make 
wise unto salvation, through faith which is in Jesus 
Christ. All scripture given bij inspiration of God, 
is profitable for correction, for instruction in righte- 
ousness, that the man of God mat/ be perfect, tho- 
roughlij fur)iished unto everij good work. 

For though God doth principally and chiefly lead 
us by his Spirit, yet he sometimes conveys his com- 
fort and consolation to us through his children, whom 
he raises up and inspires to speak or write a word in 
season, whereby the saints are made instruments in 
the hand of the Lord to strengrthen and encouraore 
one another, which doth also tend to perfect and 
make them wise unto salvation ; and such as are led 
The saints' by the Spirit cannot neglect, but do naturally love, 
IbrTif thT" ^"^ are wonderfully cherished by that which pro- 
same Spirit ceedeth from the same Spirit in another; because 
" *"■ such mutual emanations of the heavenly life tend to 
quicken the mind, when at any time it is overtaken 
with heaviness. Peter himself declares this to have 
been the end of his writing, 2 Pet. i. 12, 13 : Where- 
fore I will not be negligent to put you always in re- 
membrance of these things, though ye know them, and 
be established in the present truth ; yea, I think it 
meet, as long as 1 am in this tabernacle, to stir you 
up, by putting you in remembrance. 

God is teacher of his people himself; and there is 
nothing more express than that such as are under the 
new covenant need no man to teach them : yet it was 
a fruit of Christ's ascension to send teachers and pas- 
tors for perfecting of the saints. So that the same 
work is ascribed to the scriptures as to teachers ; the 


one to make the man of God perfect, the other for the 
perfection of the saints. 

As then teachers are not to go before the teaching 
of God himself under the new covenant, but to follow 
after it ; neither are they to rob us of that great pri- 
vilege which Christ hath purchased unto us by his 
blood; so neither is the scripture to go before the 
teaching of the Spirit, or to rob us of it. 

Secondly, God hath seen meet that herein we answ. 2. 
should, as in a lookingglass, see the conditions and The scrip- 
experiences of the saints of old ; that finding our ex-j"^^!^*^ 
perience answers to theirs, we might thereby be the glass, 
more coniirmed and comforted, and our hope of ob- 
taining the same end strengthened ; that observing 
the providences attending them, seeing the snares 
they were liable to, and beholding their deliverances, 
we may thereby be made wise unto salvation, and sea- 
sonably reproved and instructed in righteousness. 

This is the great work of the scriptures, and their The scri|>- 
service to us, that we may witness them fulfilled in a'J.Tser'lici. 
us, and so discern the stamp of God's Spirit and ways 
upon them, by the inward acquaintance we have with 
the same Spirit and work in our hearts. The prophe- 
cies of the scriptures are also very comfortable and 
profitable unto us, as the same Spirit enlightens us to 
observe them fulfilled, and to be fulfilled ; for in all this 
it is to be observed, that it is only the spiritual man 
that can make a right use of them : they are able to 
make the man of God perfect (so it is not the natural 
man) and whatsoever was written aforetime, was writ- 
ten for our comfort, [our'] that are the believers, [our] 
that are the saints ; concerning such the apostle 
speaks : for as for the others, the apostle Peter plainly 
declares, that the unstable and unlearned ivrest them • 
to their own destruction : these were they that were 
unlearned in the divine and heavenly learning of the 
Spirit, not in human and school literature ; in which 
we may safely presume that Peter himself, being a 
fisherman, had no skill ; for it may with great proba- 


bility, yea, certainty, be affirmed, that he had no 
Logic. knowledge of Aristotle's logic, which both Papists 
• 1076. and Protestants now*, degenerating from the simpli- 
city of truth, make the handmaid of divinity, as they 
call it, and a necessary introduction to their carnal, 
natural, and human ministry. By the infinite ob- 
scure labours of which kind of men, intermixing their 
heathenish stuff, the scripture is rendered at this day 
of so little service to the simple people : whereof if 
Jerome complained in his time, now twelve hundred 
years ago, Hierom. Epist. 134, ad Gypr. tom. 3, say- 
ing. It is want to befall the most part of leai^ned 
men, that it is harder to understaiid th^ir expositions, 
than the things tvhich they go about to expound; 
what may we say then, considering those great heaps 
of commentaries since, in ages yet far more cor- 
rupted ? 

§. VI. In this respect abovementioned then we 
have shown what service and use the holy scriptures, 
as managed in and by the Spirit, are of to the church 
The scrip- of God ; whercforc we do account them a secondaiy 
tures a se- p^lg Morcovcr, bccausc they are commonly acknow- 
roie. ledged by all to have been written by the dictates of 

the Holy Spirit, and that the errors which may be 
supposed by the injury of times to have slipped in, 
are not such but that there is a sufficient clear testi- 
mony left to all the essentials of the Christian faith ; 
we do look upon them as the only fit outward judoe 
of controversies among Christians ; -and that whatso- 
ever Qoctrine is contrary unto their testimony, may 
therefore justly be rejected as false. And, for our 
parts, we are very willing that all our doctrines and 
practices be tried by them ; which we never refused, 
nor ever shall, in all controversies with our adversa- 
ries, as the judge and test. We shall also be veiy 
willing to admit it as a positive certain maxim, That 
ivhatsoever a?ti/ do, pretending to the Spirit, which is 
contrary to the scriptures, oe accounted and reckoned 
a delusion of the devil. For as we never lay claim to 


the Spirit's leadings, that we may cover ourselves in 
any thing that is evil ; so we know, that as every 
evil contradicts the scriptures, so it doth also the 
Spirit in the first place, from which the scriptures 
came, and whose motions can never contradict one 
another, though they may appear sometimes to be 
contradictory to the blind eye of the natural man, as 
Paul and James seem to contradict one another. 

Thus far- we have shown both what we believe, 
and what we believe hot, concerning the holy scrip- 
tures, hoping we have given them their due place. 
But since they that will needs 'have them to be the 
only, certain, and principal rule, want not some show 
of arguments, even from the scripture itself (though 
it no where calls itself so) by which they labour to 
prove their doctrine ; I shall briefly lay them down 
by way of objections, and answer them, before I make 
an end of this matter. 

§. VII. Their first objection is usually drawn from object, i. 
Isaiah, viii. 20 : To the law and to the testimony ; if 
they speak not according to this word, it is because ' 
there is no light in them. Now this law, testimony, 
and word, they plead to be the scriptures. 

To which I answer ; That that is to beg the thing answ. 
in question, and remains yet unproved. Nor do I 
know for what reason we may not safely affirm this 
l^iw and word to be inward : but suppose it was o^t' 
ward, it proves not the case at all for them, neither 
makes it against us : for it may be confessed, without 
any prejudice to our cause, that the outward law was 
more particularly to the Jews a rule, and more prin- 
cipally than to us; seeing their law was outward and 
literal, but ours under the new covenant (as hath 
been already said) is expressly affirmed to be inward 
and spiritual; so that this scripture is so far from 
making against us, that it makes for us. For if the To try aii 
Jews were directed to try all things by their law, ^^[^^^^ ^^ 
which was without them, written in tables of stone ; 
then if we will have this advice of the prophet to 

G 2 


reach us, we must make it hold parallel to that dis- 
pensation of the gospel which we are under ; so that 
we are to try all things, in the first place, by that 
word of fait li which is preached unto us, which the 
apostle saith is in the heart : and by that law which 
God hath given us, which the apostle saith also ex- 
pressly is IV r it ten and placed in the mind. 

Lastly, If we look to this place according to the 
Greek interpretation of the Septuagint, our adversa- 
ries shall have nothing from thence to carp ; yea, it 
will favour us much ; for there it is said, that the lata 
is given us for a help ; which very well agrees with 
what is above asserted. 

Object. 2. Their sccoud objection is from John, v. 39 : Search 
the scriptures, &c. 

Heix, say they, we are commanded, by Christ him- 
self, to search the scriptures. 

answ.i. I answer. First, That the scriptures ought to be 
searched, we do not at all deny ; but are very willing 
to be tried by them, as hath been above declared : 
but the question is, Whethei^ they be the only and 
principul rule! Which this is so far from proving, 
that it proveth the contrary ; for Christ checks them 
here for too high an esteem of the scriptures, and 
neglecting of him that was to be preferred before 
them, and to whom they bore witness, as the folio w- 

search the iug words dcclarc ; for in them ye think ye have eter- 

scriptarei, ^^^ ^j-^^ ^^^^ ^j^^^ ^^.^ ^^^^ which tcstify of mc I ttud 

ye will not come unto me, that ye might have life. 
This shows, that while they thought they had eternal 
life in the scriptures, they neglected to come unto 
Christ to have life, of which the scriptures bore wit- 
ness. This answers well to our purpose, since our 
adversaries now do also exalt the scriptures, and think 
to have life in them ; which is no more than to look 
upon them as the only principal rule and way to life, 
and yet refuse to come unto the Spirit of which they 
testify, even the inward spiritual law, which could 
give them life: so that the cause of this people's 


ignorance and unbelief was not their want of respect 
to the scriptures, which though they knew, and had 
a high esteem of, yet Christ testifies in the former 
verses, that they had neither seen the Father, nor 
heard his voice at any time; neither had his word 
abiding in them ; which had they then had, then they 
had beheved in the Son. Moreover, that place may Answ. 2. 
be taken in the indicative mood, Ye search the scrip- 
tures ; which interpretation the Greek word will bear, 
and so Pasor translateth it: which by the reproof 
following seemeth also to be the more genuine inter- 
pretation, as Cyrillus long ago hath observed. 

§. VIII. Their third objection is from these words, object. 3. 
Acts, xvii. 1 1 : These were more noble than those in 
Tliessalonica, in that they received the word with all 
readiness of mind, and searched the scriptures daily, 
whether those things were so. 

Here, say they, the Bereans are commended for 
searching the scriptures, and making them the rule. 

I answer. That the scriptures either are the prin- Answ. 1. 
cipal or only rule, will not at all follow from this ; 
neither will their searching the scriptures, or being 
commended for it, infer any such thing : for we re- 
commend and approve the use of them in that respect 
as much as any ; yet will it not follow, that we affirm 
them to be the principal and only rule. 

Secondly, It is to be observed that these were the answ. 2. 
Jews of Berea, to whom these scriptures, which were 
the law and the prophets, were more particularly a The Bere- 
rule ; and the thing under examination was, whether f^ * f^r*^ 
the birth, life, works, and sufferings of Christ did scriptures, 
answer to the prophecies that went before him ; so ™*t IL o'ni'y 
that it was most proper for them, beino^ Jews, to exa- ^»'« *° ^''y 

, 1 > 1 • 1 1 • • doctrines. 

mme the apostle s doctrme by the scriptures ; seemg 
he pleaded it to be a fulfilling of them. It is said 
nevertheless, in the first place. That they received the 
word with cheerfulness; and, in the second place, 
They searched the scriptures : not that they searched 
the scriptures, and then received the word ; for then 



could they not have prevailed to convert them, had 
they not first minded the word abiding in thern^ vt^hich 
opened tlieir understandings ; no more than the Scribes 
and Pharisees, who (as in the former objection we 
observed) searched the scriptures, and exalted them, 
and yet remained in their unbelief, because they had 
not the word abiding in them. 
answ.3. But lastly, If this commendation of the Jewish Be- 
reans might infer that the scriptures were the only 
and principal rule to try the apostles' doctrine by, 
what should have become of the Gentiles? How 
should they ever have come to have received the 
faith of Christ, who neither knew the scriptures, nor 
believed them ? We see in the end of the same chap- 
The Aihe- tcr, how the apostle, preaching to the Athenians, took 

another method, and directed them to somewhat of 

God within themselves, that they might feel after 
him. He did not go about to proselyte them to the 
Jewish religion, and to the belief of the law and the 
prophets, and from thence to prove the coming of 
Christ ; nay, he took a nearer way. Now certainly 
the principal and only rule is not different; one to 
the Jews, and another to the Gentiles ; but is univer- 
sal, reaching both: though secondary and subordi- 
nate rules and means may be various, and diversely 
suited, according as the people they are used to are 
stated and circumstantiated : even so we see that the 
apostle to the Athenians used a testimony of one of 
their own poets, which he judged would have credit 
with them ; and no doubt such testimonies, whose 
authors they esteemed, had more weight with them 
than all the sayings of Moses and the profjhets, whom 
they neither knew nor would have cared for. Now 
because the apostle used the testimony of a poet to 
the Athenians, will it therefore follow he made that 
the principal or only rule to try his ddctrine by ? So 
neither will it follow, that though he made use of 
the scriptures to the Jews, as being a principle al- 
rfeady believed by them, to try his dofctrine, that from 


thence the scriptures may be accounted the principal 
or only rule. 

§. IX. The last, and that which at first view seems 
to be the greatest objection, is this : 

If the scripture be not the adequate, principal, and object. 4. 
only rule, then it would follow that the scripture is 
not complete, nor the canon filled ; that if men be now 
immediately led arid ruled by the Spirit, they may add 
new scriptures of equal authority with the old; whereas 
every one that adds is cursed: yea, what assurance 
have we, but at this rate every one may bring in a new 
gospel according to his fancy ? 

The dangerous consequences insinuated in this ob- answ. 
jection were fully answered in the latter part of the 
last proposition, in what was said a little before, 
offering freely to disclaim all pretended revelations 
contrary to the scriptures. 

But if it be urged, That it is 7iot enough to deny object, i. 
these consequences, if they naturally follow from your 
doctrine of immediate revelation, and denying the 
scripture to be the only rule ; 

I answer ; We have proved both these doctrines answ. i. 
to be true and necessary, according to the scriptures 
themselves ; and therefore to fasten evil consequences 
upon them, which we make appear do not follow, is 
not to accuse us, but Christ and his apostles, who 
preached them. 

But, Secondly, We have shut the door upon all answ. 2. 
such doctrine in this very position ; affirming, That 
the scriptures give a full and ample testimony to all 
the principal doctrines of the Christiaii faith. For 
we do firmly believe that there is no other gospel or 
doctrine to be preached, but that which was delivered 
by the apostles ; and do freely subscribe to that say- 
ing, Let him that preacheth any other gospel, than Gai. i. 8. 
that which hath been already preached by the apostles, 
and according to the scriptures, be accursed. 
' So we distinguish betwixt a revelation of a wew;Anewre- 


YeUtion is gospel, and new doctrines, and a 7iew revelation of 
golpd"*"' the good old gospel and doctrines; the last we plead 
for, but the first we utterly deny. For we firmly be- 
lieve, That 710 other foundation can any man lay, than 
that which is laid already. But that this revelation 
is necessary we have already proved ; and this dis- 
tinction doth sufficiently guard us against the hazard 
insinuated in the objection. 
Books ca- As to the scriptures being dijilled canofi, I see no 
oonicai. necessity of believing it. And if these men, that 
believe the scriptures to be the only rule, will be 
consistent with their own doctrine, they must needs 
be of my judgment ; seeing it is simply impossible to 
prove the canon by the scriptures. For it cannot be 
found in any book of the scriptures, that these books, 
and just these, and no other, are canonical, as all are 
forced to acknowledge ; how can they then evite this 
argument ? 

That which cannot be proved by scripture is no 
necessary article of faith. 

But the canon of the scripture ; to wit, that there 
are so many books precisely, neither more nor less, 
cannot be proved by scripture : 

Therefore, it is no necessary article of faith. 
Object. 2. If they should allege ; That the admitting of any 
other books to be now written by the same Spirit might 
infer the admission of fiew doctrines ; 

I deny that consequence ; for the principal or fun- 
damental doctrines of the Christian religion are con- 
tained in the tenth part of the scripture ; but it will 
not follow thence that the rest are impertinent or use- 
less. If it should please God to bring to us any of 
those books, which by the injury of time are lost, 
Books lost, which are mentioned in the scripture; as, The pro- 
phecy of Enoch : the Book of Nathan, &c. or, the 
Third Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians ; I see no 
reason why we ought not to receive them, and place 
them with the rest. That which displeaseth me is, 


that men should first affirm that the scripture is the 
only and principal rule, and yet make a great article 
of faith of that which the scripture can give us no 
light in. 

As for instance : How shall a Protestant prove by 
scripture, to such as deny the Epistle of James to be 
authentic, that it ought to be received? 

First, If he would say, Because it contradicts not 
the rest (besides that there is no mention of it in any 
of the rest), perhaps these men think it doth contra- 
dict Paul in relation to faith and works. But, if 
that should be granted, it would as well follow, that 
every writer that contradicts not the scripture, should 
be put into the canon ; and by this means these men 
fall into a greater absurdity than they fix upon us : 
for thus they would equal every one the writings of 
their own sect with the scriptures; for I suppose they 
judge their own confession of faith doth not contra- 
dict the scriptures : Will it therefore follow that' it 
should be bound up with the Bible? And yet it seems 
impossible, according to their principles, to bring any 
better argument to prove the Epistle of James to be Whether 
authentic. There is then this unavoidable necessity o^J^jf^e^s be 
to say. We know it by the same Spirit from which it authentic, 
was written ; or otherwise to step back to Rome, and tnow"it! 
say, We know by tradition that the church hath de- 
clared it to be canonical ; and the church is infallible. 
Let them find a mean, if they can. So that out of 
this objection we shall draw an unanswerable argu- 
ment ad hominein, to our purpose. 

That which cannot assure me concerning an article 
of faith necessary to be believed, is not the primary, 
adequate, only rule of faith, &c. 

Therefore, &c. 

I prove the assumptioh thus : 

That which cannot assure me concerning the canon 
of the scripture, to wit, that such books are only to 
be admitted, and the Apocrypha excluded, cannot 
assure me of this. 



PROP. Ill 

Object. 3. 


What it 
meaiiR to 
add to the 

Therefore, 8cc, 

And Lastly, As to these words, Rev. xxii. 18 : 
That if any man shall add unto these things, God 
shall add unto him the plagues that are written in 
this book ; I desire they will show me how it relates 
to any thing else than to that particular prophecy. 
It saith not, Nmv the canon of the scripture is filled 
up, no man is to write more from the Spirit ; yea, do 
not all confess that there have been prophecies and 
true prophets since ? The Papists deny it not. And 
do not the Protestants affirm, that John Hus prophe- 
sied of the reformation ? Was he therefore cursed ? 
Or did he therein evil? I could give many other 
examples, confessed by, themselves. But, moreover, 
the same was in effect commanded long "before, Prov. 
XXX. 6 : Add thou not unto his words, lest he reprove 
thee, and thou be found a liar : Yet how many books 
of the prophets were written after? And the same 
was said by Moses, Deut. iv. 2 : Ye shall ?iot add 
unto the word which I command you; neither shall ye 
diminish aught from ^t. So that, though we should 
extend that of the ixvelation beyond the particular 
prophecy of that book, it cannot be understood but 
of a new gospel, or new doctrines, or of restraining 
man« spirit, that he mix not his human words with 
the divineV 2^ not of a new revelation of the old, as 
we have said loefore. 




All Adam's posterity, or mankind, both Jews and Gentiles, as 
to the first Adam, or earthly man, is fallen, degenerated, and 
dead ; deprived of the sensation or feeling of this inward tes- 
timony or seed of God ; and is subject unto the power, nature, Rom. ?. 12, 
and seed of the serpent, which he soweth in men's hearts, 15. 
while they abide in this natural and corrupted estate; from 
whence it comes, that not only their words and deeds, but all 
their imaginations are evil perpetually in the sight of God, 
as proceeding from this depraved and wicked seed. Man 
therefore, as he is in this state, can know nothing aright; yea, 
his thoughts and conceptions concerning God and things 
spiritual, until he be disjoined from this evil seed, and united 
to the Divine Light, are unprofitable both to himself and 
others. Hence are rejected the Socinian and Pelagian errors, 
in exalting a natural light; as also of the Papists, and most 
Protestants, who affirm. That man ivithout the true grace of 
God, may be a true minister of the gospel. Nevertheless, 
this seed is not imputed to infants, until by transgression they 
actually join themselves therewith; for they are by nature the 
children of wrath, who walk according to the power of the Eph. ii. I. 
prince of^the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children 
of disobedience y having their conversation in the lusts of the 
nesh, fulfilling the desires of the ^esh, and of the mind. 

§. I. Hitherto we have discoursed how the true 
knowledge of God is attained and preserved ; also of 
what use and service the holy scripture is to the 

We come now to examine the state and condition of 
man as he stands i?i the fall; what his capacity and 
power is ; and how far he is able^ as of himself, to advance 
in relation to the things of God. Of this we touched 
a, little in the beginning of the second proposition; but 
the full, right, and thorough understanding of it is of 
great use and service ; because from the ignorance and 
altercations that have been about it, there have arisen 
great and dangerous errors, both on the one hand and 
on the other. While some do so far exalt the lio^ht of 


nature, or the faculty of the natural man, as capable of 
himself, by virtue of the inward will, faculty, light, 
and power that pertains to his nature, to follow that 
which is good and make real progress towards hea- 
ven : and of these are the Pelagians, and Semi-Pela- 
gians of old ; and of late the Socinians, and divers 
others among the Papists. Others again will needs 
AagasUne's ruu into another extreme (to whom Augustine, among 
PeuYuT*^' the ancients, first made way iii his declining age, 
through the heat of his zeal against Pelagius), not 
only confessing man uncapable of himself to do good, 
and prone to evil; but that in his very mother's 
womb, and before he commits any actual transgres- 
sion, he is contaminate with a real guilt, whereby he 
deserves eternal death : in which respect they are not 
afraid to afl[irm. That many poor infants are eternally 
damned, and for ever endure the tormmts of hell. 
Therefore the God of truth, having now again re- 
vealed his truth (that good and even way) by his own 
Spirit, hath taught us to avoid both these extremes. 

That then which our proposition leads to treat 
of is, 
I. First, What the condition of man is in the fall; and 

how far incapable to meddle in the things of God, 

II. And Secondly, That God doth not impute this evil 
to infants, until they actually join with it : that so, by 
establishing the truth, we may overturn the errors on 
both parts. 

III. And as for that third thing included in the propo- 
sition itself concerning these teachers which want the 
grace of God, we shall refer that to the tenth propo- 
sition, where the matter is more particularly handled. 

Part I. §. II. As to the first, not to dive into the many cu- 
rious notions which many have concerning the condi- 

Adam'i fall, ^/o^^ of Adam before the fall, all agree in this, That 
thereby he came to a very great loss, not only in the 
things which related to the outward man, but in re- 
gard of that true fellowship and communion he had 
with God. This loss was signified unto him in the 



command, For in the day thou eatest thereof, thou 
shalt surely die, Gen. ii. 17. This death could not 
be an outward death, or the dissolution of the out- 
ward man ; for as to that, he did not die yet many 
hundred years after ; so that it must needs respect his 
spiritual life and communion with God. The conse- 
quence of this fall, besides that which relates to the 
fruits of the earth, is also expressed. Gen. iii. 24 : So 
he drove out the yuan, and he 'placed at the east of the 
garden of FAen cheruhims, and a flaming sword, which 
turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life. 
Now whatsoever literal signification this may have, 
we may safely ascribe to this paradise a mystical sig- 
nification, and truly account it thaj spiritual commu- 
nion and fellowship, which the saints obtain with 
God by Jesus Christ ; to whom only these cherubims 
give way, /md unto as many as enter by him, who 
calls himself the Door. So that though we do not Gaiit not 
ascribe any whit of Adam's ffuilt to men, until thev *^«"'*f<**<» 
make it then*s by the like acts oi disobedience; yet we leritj. 
cannot suppose that men, who are come of Adam na- 
turally, can have any good thing in their nature, as 
belonging to it; which he, from whom they derive 
their nature, had not himself to communicate unto 

If then we may aflSrm, that Adam did not retain in 
his nature (as belonging thereunto) any will or light 
capable to give him knowledge in spiritual things, 
then neither can his posterity : for whatsoever real 
good any man doth, it proceedeth not from his nature, 
as he is man, or the son of Adam ; but from the seed 
of God in him, as a new visitation of life, in order to 
bring him out of this natural condition : so that, 
though it be in him, yet it is not of him ; and this the 
Lord himself witnessed. Gen. vi. 5, where it is said, 
he saw that every imaginatioji of the thoughts of his 
heart was only evil continually : which words, as they 
are very positive, so are they very comprehensive. 
Observe the emphasis of them ; First, There is every Everj ima- 


giwiUonof imagination of the thoughts of his Iieart ; so that tlii3 
tbe oaiurtti a^j^^jts of 110 exccption of any iipagiuation of the 
thoughts of his heart. Secondly, h onlij evil conti- 
nually ; it i^ neither in some part evil continually^ nor 
yet only evil ai sonietirnes ; but both only evil, and 
always and continually evil ; which certainly excludes 
any good, as a proper effect of mans heart, naturally : 
for that which is only evil, and that always, cannot of 
its own nature produce any good thing. The Lord 
expressed this again a little after, chap. viii. 2 1 : The 
imagination of mans heart is evil from his youth: thus 
inferring how natural and proper it is unto him ; from 
which I thus argue : 

If the thoughts of man s heart be not only evil, but 
always evil ; then are they, as they simply proceed 
from his heart, neither good in part, nor at any time. 
, But the first is true ; therefore the last. 

If man's thoughts be always and only evil, then are 
they altogether useless and ineffectual to him in the 
things of God. 

But the first is true ; therefore the last. 
The heart of Sccoudly, This appears clearly from that saying 
fir ^^""^'^ ^^ ^^^ prophet Jeremiah, chap. xvii. 9 : The heart is 
deceitful above all thmgs, and desperately wicked. For 
who can with any colour of reason imagine, that that 
which is so hath any power of itself, or is in anywise 
fit to lead a man to righteousness, whereunto it is of 
its own nature directly opposite ? This is as contrary 
to reason, as it is impossible in nature that a stone, 
of its own nature and proper motion, should fly up- 
wards : for as a stone of its own nature inclineth and is 
prone to move downwards towards the centre, so the 
heart of man is naturally prone and inclined to evil, 
some to one, and some to another. From this then I 
also thus argue : 

That which is deceitful above all things, and despe- 
rately wicked, is not fit, neither can it lead a man 
aright in things that are good and honest. 

estate in the 


But the heart of man is such : 

Therefore, &c. ] 

But the apostle Paul describeth the condition of Rom. in. lo. i 
men in the fall at large, taking it out of the Psalmist, ^'[jj^l'^f ' ^ 
There is none righteous, no not one : there is 7ione that &c. 
under standeth, there is none that seeketh after God. ] 

They are all gone out of the way, they are altogether \ 

become unprofitable ; there is none that doeth good, no 
not one. Their throat is an open sepulchre, with their Mans 
tongues they have used deceit, the poison of asps is 
under their lips : whose mouths are full of cursing and 
bitterness. Their feet are swift to shed blood; de- 
struction and misery are in their ways : and the way 
of peace have they not kiiown. There is no fear of 
God before their eyes. What more positive can be 
spoken? He seemeth to be particularly careful to 
avoid that any good should be ascribed to the natural 
man ; he shows how he is polluted in all his ways ; 
he shows how he is void of righteousness, of under- 
standing, of the knowledge of God ; how he is out 
of the way, and in short unprofitable ; than which 
nothing can be more fully said to confirm our judg- 
ment : for if this be the condition of the natural man, 
or of man as he stands in the fall, he is unfit to make 
one right step to heaven. 

If it be said. That is not spoken of the condition o/* object. 
man in general; but only of some particulars, or at the 
least that it comprehends not all; 

The text showeth the clear contrary in the fore- answ. 
going verses, where the apostle takes in himself, as 
he stood in his natural condition. What then? Are 
we better than they ? No, in no wise ; for ice have be- 
fore proved both Jews and Gentiles, that they are. all 
under sin, as it is written : and so he goes on ; by 
which it is manifest that he speaks of mankind in 

If they object that which the same apostle saith in object. 
the foregoing chapter, ver. 14, to wit, That the Gen- 
tiles do by natwx the things contained iii the law, and 


SO consequently do by nature that which is good and 
acceptable in the sight of God ; 
Axsw. 1. I answer ; This nature must not, neither can be 
understood of mans own nature^ which is corrupt and 
fallen ; but of the spiritual nature, which proceedeth 
from the seed of God in mail, as it receiveth a new 
visitation of God's love, and is quickened by it : 
which clearly appears by the following words, where 
By whtt na- lic saith, Thcsc not having a law (i. e.) outwardly, are 
Gentibsdid ^ ^^^ ^^^'^^ themselves ; which shows the work of the 
do the law luritten in their hearts. These acts of theirs then 
^jings t e ^j.^ ^^ effect of the law written in their hearts ; but 
the scripture declareth, that the writing of the law in 
the heart is a part, yea, and a great part too, of the 
new covenant dispensation, and so no consequence 
nor part of man's nature. 
answ. 2. Secondly, If this nature here spoken of could be 
understood of man's own nature, which he hath as he is 
a man, then would the apostle unavoidably contra- 
dict himself; since he elsewhere positively declares, 
The natural that thc nuturul man discerneth not the things of God, 
TerDelh not ^^^^ ^^^- ^^^ ^ hope the law of God is among the 
&c. things of God, especially as it is written in the heart. 

The apostle, in the seventh chapter of the same epis- 
tle, saith, verse 12, that the law is holy, just, and good; 
and verse 14, the law is spiritual, but he is carnaL 
Now in what respect is he carnal, but as he stands in 
the fall unregenerate ? Now what inconsistency would 
here be, to say, That he is carnal, and yet not so of 
his own nature, seeing it is from his nature that he is 
so denominated ? We see the apostle contradistin- 
guisheth the law as spiritual, from man's nature as 
Mai.Tii.i6. camal and sinful. Wherefore, as Christ saith, There 
can no grapes be expected from thorns, nor figs of 
thistles ; so neither can the fulfilling of the law, which 
is spiritual, holy, and just, be expected from that 
nature which is corrupt, fallen, and unregenerate. 
Whence we conclude, with good reason, that the 
The Gen- nature here spoken of, by which the Gentiles are 


said to have done the things contained in the law, is tiies spiri- 
not the common nature of men ; but that spiritual na- ^"*f '?*'"!"k. 

. •/ ' 1 in doing tne 

ture that anseth from the works of the righteous and law. 
spiritual law that is written in the heart. I confess 
they of the other extreme, when they are pressed with 
this testimony by the Socinians and Pelagians, as 
well as by us when we use this scripture to show 
them how some of the heathens, by the light of Christ 
in their heart, came to be saved, are very far to seek ; 
giving this answer, That there were some reliques of 
the heavenly image left in Adam, bu which the hea- 
thens could do some good things. Which, as it is in 
itself without proof, so it contradicts their own asser- 
tions elsewhere, and gives away their cause. For if 
these relics were of force to enable them to fulfil the 
righteous law of God, it takes away the necessity of 
Christ's coming ; or at least leaves them a way to be 
saved without him ; unless they will say (which is 
worst of all) That though they really fulfilled the 
righteous law of God, yet God damned them, because 
of the want of that particular knmvledge, while he him- 
self withheld all. meajis of their coming to him from 
them; but of this hereafter. 

§. III. I might also here use another argument 
from those words of the apostle, 1 Cor. ii. where he 
so positively excludes the natural man from an un- 
derstanding in the things of God ; but because I have 
spoken of that scripture in the beginning of the second 
proposition, I will here avoid to repeat what is there 
mentioned, referring thereunto : yet because the Soci- socinian* 
nians and others, who exalt the liorht of the natural ,"f'/'7/i''® 

ITT- 1 ^1 • . 1 • •>g'»t of tl»e 

man, or a natural light in man, do object agamst this naturaiman. 
scripture, I shall remove it before I proceed*. •Anteqaam 

They say. The Greek word xpvy^iKog pught to beo^f^T.^'' 
translated animal, and not natural ; else (say they) it 
would have been (jtvmKo^. From which they seek to 
infer, that it is only the animal man, and not the ra- 
tional, that is excluded here from discerning the things 
of God. Which shift, without disputing about the 



word, is easily refuted ; neither is it anywise consist- 
ent with the scope of the place. For, 
AM8W. I. First. The animal life is no other than that which 
iMtfiu' ^^^ \\^^\^ in common with other living creatures ; for 
name wUb as he is a mere man, he differs no otherwise from 
natural. bcasts than by thc /'tf ^/Ww/ /?ro/?er(^. Now the apos- 
tle deduceth his argument in the foregoing verses 
from this simile; That as the things of a man cannot 
he knmvn hut hy the spirit of a man, so the things of 
, God no man knoweth hut by the Spirit of God. But 
I hope these men will confess unto me, that the things 
of a man are not known by the animal spirit only, i. e. 
by that which he hath in common with the beasts, but 
by the rational; so that it must be the rational that 
is here understood. Again, the assumption shows 
clearly that the apostle had no such intent as these 
men's gloss would make him have, viz. .So the things 
of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God, Ac- 
cording to their judgment he should have said, 77/e 
things of God knoweth no man by his animal spirit, 
hut by his rational spirit: for to say, the Spirit of 
God, here spoken of, is no other than the rational 
spirit of man, would l^order upon blasphemy, since 
they are so often contradistinguished. Again, going 
on, he saith npt that they are rationally, but spif^i- 
tually discerned. 
answ.2. Secondly, The apostle throughout this chapter 
shows how the wisdom of man is unfit to judge of the 
things of God, and ignorant of them. Now I ask 
these men, whether a man be called a wise man from 
Tiieraiionai \^\^ animal propcjiu, or from his rational? If from his 

man 111 the ^. , ,' '. r . , • , i i i 

nataraistate vatimml, then it IS uot Only the animal, but also the 

f"m div ^^^'^^^A as he is yet in the natural state, which the 

cerninntiKj apostlc cxcludcs hcrc, and whom he contradistin- 

God!' "^ guisheth from the spiritual, verse 1 5, But the sjnritual 

manjudgeth all things. This cannot be said of any 

man merely because rational, or as he is a man, seeing 

the men of the greatest reason, if we may so esteefm 

men whom the scripture calls wise, as were the Greeks 


of old, not only may be, but often are, enemies to the 
kingdom of God ; while both the preaching of Christ 
is said to he foolishiess with the wise men of the world, 
and the wisdom of the world is said to be foolishness 
with God, Now whether it be any ways probable 
that either these wise men that are said to account the 
gospel foolishness, are only so called with respect to 
their animal property, and not their rational; or that 
the wisdom that is foolishness with God is not meant 
of the rational, but only the animal property, any ra- 
tional man, laying aside interest, may easily judge. 

§. IV. I come now to the other part, to wit. That infanu. no 
this evil and corrupted seed is 7iot imputed to infants, Jo^tbTm?'*** 
until they actually join with it. For this there is a 
reason given in the end of the proposition itself, 
drawn from Eph. ii. For these are by nature chil- 
dren of wrath, who walk according to the prince of the 
power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the 
children of disobedience. Here the apostle gives their 
evil walking, and not any thing that is not reduced 
to act, as a reason of their being children of wrath. 
And this is suitable to the whole strain of the gospel, 
where no man is ever threatened or judged for what 
iniquity he hath not actually wrought : such indeed 
as continue in iniquity, and so do allow the sins of 
their fathers, God will visit the iniquity of the fathers 
upon the children. 

Is it not strange then that men should entertain an 
opinion so absurd in itself, and so cruel and contrary 
to the nature as well of God's mercy as justice, con- 
cerning which the scri{)ture is altogether silent ? But 
it is manifest that man hath invented this opinion out 
of self-love, and from that bitter root from which all 
errors spring ; for the most part of Protestants that The abso- 
hold this, having, as they fancy, the absolute decree o/|,7eiect7o!r 
election to secure them and their children, so as they springsfrom 
cannot miss of salvation, they make no difficulty to *® ' °^^* 
send all others, both old and young, to hell. For 
whereas self-love, which is always apt to believe that 

h2 . 


which it desires, possesseth them with a hope that 
their part is secure, they are not solicitous how they 
leave their neighbours, which are the far greater part 
of mankind, in these inextricable difficulties. The Pa- 
pists again use this opinion as an art to augment the 
esteem of their church, and reverence of its sacra- 
ments, seeing they pretend it is washed away by bap- 
tism ; only in this they appear to be a little more mer- 
ciful, in that they send not these unbaptized infants 
to hell, but to a certain lh?ibus, concerning which the 
scriptures are as silent as of the other. This then is 
not only not authorized in the scriptures, but contrary 
to the express tenor of them. The apostle saith plainly, 
Rom. iv. 15 : Where no law is, there is no transgres- 
sion. And again, chap. v. 13, But sin is not iniputed, 
where there is no law. Than which testimonies there 
To infants is uothiug uiorc positivc ; since to infants there is 
Uw,*so n^ ^^ '^w» seeing as such they are utterly incapable of 
traosgren- it ; thc law cauuot rcach any but such as have in some 
measure less or more the exercise of their understand- 
ing, which infants have not. So that from thence I 
thus argue : 

Sin is imputed to none, where there is no law. 
But to infants there is no law : 
Therefore sin is not imputed to them. 
The proposition is the apostle's own words; the 
assumption is thus proved : 

Those who are under a physical impossibility of 
either hearing, knowing, or understanding any law, 
where the impossibility is not brought upon them by 
any act of their own, but is according to the very order 
of nature appointed by God ; to such there is no law. 
But infants are under this physical impossibility : 
Therefore, &c. 

Secondly, What can be more positive than that of 
Ezek. xviii. 20: The soul that sinneth, it shall die: 
the son shall not bear the fathers iniquitif ? For the 
prophet here first showeth what is tlie cause of man s 
eternal death, which he saith is his sinning; and 


OF .MAX IN THE X^ IV. : ] ' V '' ' '^jfe i .♦>''. I 


then, as if he purposed expressly to shut out such an ^ 

opinion, he assures us, 7'he son shall not bear the fa- J 

t heir's inlquitij. From which I thus argue : \ 

If the son bear not the iniquity of his father, or of infants bear 
his immediate parents, far less shall he bear the ini- T' V^t!" * 

I iransgres- 

quity 01 Adam. sion. ; 

But the son shall not bear the iniquity of his 

father : \ 

Therefore, &c. \ 

§. V. Having thus far shown how absurd this opi- \ 

nion is, I shall briefly examine the reasons its authors \ 

bring for it. ; 

First, They say, Adam was a public person^ and object, i. \ 

therefore all nien sinned in him, as being in his loijis. I 
And for this they allege that of Rom. v. 12, Whet^e- 

fore as by one man sin entered into the world, and ' J 

death by sin ; and so death passed upon all men, for \ 

that all have sinned, &c. These last words, say they, J 

mai/ be translated, In whom all have sinned. \ 

To this I answer : That Adam is a public person assw. \ 

is not denied ; and that through him there is a seed \ 

of sin propagated to all men, which in its own nature 1 

is sinful, and inclines men to iniquity ; yet it will not \ 
follow from thence, that infants, who join not with 

this seed, are guilty. As for these words in the Ro- ] 
mans, the reason of the guilt there alleged is. For 

that all have sinned. Now no man is said to sin, *\ 

unless he actually sin in his own person ; for the \ 

Greek words £(/>' m may very well relate to Qavaroq, 4 

which is the nearest antecedent ; so that they hold ^ 

forth, how that Adam, by his sin, gave an entrance to J 
sin in the world : and so death entered by sin, k<^' w, 

i. e. upon which [viz. occasion] or, in which [viz. | 

death] all others have sinned; that is, actually in • 
their own persons ; to wit, all that were capable of 

sinning : of which number that infants could not \ 

be, the apostle clearly shows by the following verse, '\ 
Sin is not imputed, where there is no law : and since, - j 
as is above proved, there is no law to infants, they 

cannot be here included. I 

102 or mXn IX THE FALL. PROP. IV. 

Object. 2. Their second objection is from Psalm li. 5, Behold 
I was shapen in iniquity, mid in sin did mij mother 
conceive me. Hence , they say, it appears that infants 
from their conception are guilty. 

AN8W. How they infer this consequence, for my part, I see 

not. The iniquity and sin here appears to be far 
more ascribable to the parents than to th6 child. It 

Conceived is Said iudccd. In sin did my mother conceive me; 

Iwered." "^^ ^^l^ motlicr did conceive me a sintter. Besides 
tliat, so interpreted, contradicts expressly the scrip- 
ture before mentioned, in making children guilty of 
the sins of their immediate parents (for of Adam there 
is not here any mention), contrary to the plain words, 
the son shall not bear the father s iniquity. 

Object, s. Thirdly, They object. That the wages of sin is death ; 
and that seeing children are subject to disease and 
death, therefore they must be guilty of sin. 

answ. I answer. That these things are a consequence of 

wajlsoftii. ^^6 fall, and of Adam's sin, is confessed; but that 

•nswered. that iufcrs uecessarily a guilt in all others that arc 
subject to them is denied. For though the whole out- 
ward creation suffered a decay by Adam's fall, which 
groans under vanity ; according to which it is said 
in Job, that the heavetis are not clean in the sight of 
God; yet will it not from thence follow, that the 
herbs, earth, and trees are sinners? 

Next, death, though a consequent of the fall, inci- 
dent to man's earthly nature, is not the wages of sin 
in the saints, but rather a sleep, by which they pass 
from death to life ; which is so far from being trou- 
blesome and painful to them, as all real punishments 
for sin are, that the apostle counts it gain : To me, 
Baith he, to die is gain, Philip, i. 21. 

Object. 4. Some are so foolish as to make an objection farther, 
saying, 'That if Adam's sin be 7iot imputed to those 
who actuMy have not sinned, then it would follow that 
all infants are saved. 

But we are willing that this supposed absurdity 
should be the consequence of our doctrine, rather 
than that which it seems our adversaries reckon not 


absurd, though the undoubted and unavoidable con- 
sequence of theirs, viz. That many infants eternally 
perish, not for any sin of their own, but only for 
Adanis iniquity; w^here we are willing to let the 
controversy stop, commending both to the illuminated 
understanding of the Christian reader. 

This error of our adversaries is both denied and 
refuted by Zuinglius, that eminent founder of the 
Protestant churches in Switzerland, in his book De 
Baptismo, for which he is anathematized by the coun- 
cil of Trent, in the fifth session. We shall only add 
this information : That we confess then that a seed 
of sin is transmitted to all men from Adam, although 
imputed to none, until by sinning they actually join 
with it ; in which seed he gave occasion to all to sin, 
and it is the origin of all evil actions and thoughts in 
men s hearts, £</>' w to wit, Qavari^ as it is in Rom. v. i. e. 
In which death all have sinned. For this seed of sin is 
frequently called death in the scripture, and the body 
of death ; seeing indeed it is a death to the life of 
righteousness and holiness : therefore its seed and its 
product is called the old man, the old Adam; in which 
all sin is ; for which cause we use this name to ex- 
press this sin, and not that of original sin ; of which Original sin 
phrase the scripture makes no mention, and under pj^^^'^/gf^"'* 
which invented and unscriptural barbarism this no- 
tion of imputed sin to infants took place among 





Ezek. xviii. God, out of his infinite love, who deligkteth not in the death of a 
XI *■•** 11 f^nfier, but that all should live and be saved, hath so loved the 
xxxiu, , y^oricl, that lie hath given his only Son a Light, tliat whoso- 
ever believeth in him should be saved, John iii. 16, who enlight- 
eneth every jnan that cometh into the world, John i. 9, and 
maketh manifest all things that are reprovable, Ephes. v. 13, 
and teacheth all temperance, righteousness, and godliness; 
and this Light enligfateneth the hearts of all for a time, in 
order to salvation ; and this is it which reproves the sin of all 
individuals, and would work out the salvation of all, if not 
resisted. Nor is it less universal than the seed of sin, being 
the purchase of his death, who fasted death for every man: for 
as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive, 
1 Cor. XV. 22. 


According to which principle or hypothesis all the objections 
against the universality of Christ^ death are easily solved ; 
neither is it needful to recur to the ministry of angels, and 
those other miraculous means which they say God useth to 
manifest the doctrine and history of Christ's passion unto such 
who, living in parts of the world where the outward preachiuff 
of the gospel is unknown, have well improved the first and 
common grace. For as hence it well follows that some of the 
old philosophers might have been saved, so also may some, 
who by providence are cast into those remote parts of the 
world where the knowledge of the history is wanting, be made 
partakers of the divine mystery, if they receive and resist not 

lCor.xu.7. that grace, a manifestation whereof is given to every man to 
profit withal. This most certain doctrine being then received, 
that there is an evangelical and saving light and grace in all, 
the universality of the love and mercy of God towards man- 
kind, both in the death of his beloved Son, the Lord Jesus 
Christ, and in the manifestation of the light in Uie heart, is 
established and confirmed, against all the objections of such 

Heb. ii. 9. as deny it. Therefore Christ hath tasted death for every 



not only for all kinds of men, as some vainly talk, but for 1 

every man of all kinds; the benefit of whose offering is not j 

only extended to such who have the distinct outward know- | 

ledge of his death and sufferings^ as the same is declared in ^ 
the scriptures, but even unto those who are necessarily ex- 
cluded from the benefit of this knowledge by some inevitable 

accident; which knowledge we willingly confess to be very ■ 

profitable and comfortable, but not absolutely needful unto ' 

such from whom God himself hath withheld it ; yet they may \ 

be made partakers of the mystery of his death, though ignorant ' 

of the history, if they suffer his seed and lights enlightening ^ 

their hearts^ to take place, in which light communion with the j 

Father and the Son is enjoyed, so as of wicked men to become j 
holy, and lovers of that power, by whose inward and secret . j 

touches they feel themselves turned from the evil to the good, ] 

and learn to do to others as they would be done by, in which ] 

Christ himself affirms all to be included. As they have then 1 
falsely and erroneously taught, who have denied Christ to 

have died for all men ; so neither have they sufficiently taught I 

the truth, who affirming him to have died for all, have added | 

the absolute necessity of the outward knowledge thereof, in \ 

order to obtain its saving effect. Among whom the remon- \. 
strants of Holland have been chiefly wanting, and many other 

asserters of universal redemption, in that they have not placed j. 

the extent of this salvation in that divine and evangelical prin- j_ 

ciple of light and life, wherewith Christ hath enlightened every \ 
maji that cometh into the world, which is excellently and evi- 
dently held forth in these scriptures, Gen. vi. 3 ; Deut. xxx. 

14; John i. 7, 8, 9, 16; Rom. x. 8; Titus ii. 11. i 

Hitherto we have considered man's fallen, lost, cor- Absolute re. 1 
rupted, and degenerated condition. Now it is fit to in- f,[°f ^orri- 
quire, hotv and by what 7ncans he may come to be freed bie and 

out of this miserable and depraved condition, which in ^'ous^^'oc- '■ 

these two propositions is declared and demonstrated ; trine, de- \ 

which 1 thought meet to place together because of *^" ® * \ 
their affinity, the one being as it were an explanation 

of the other. \ 

As for that doctrine which these propositions chiefly i 
strike at, to wit, absolute reprobation, according to 

which some are not afraid to assert, " That God, by j 
an eternal and immutable decree, hath predestinated 

to eternal damnation the far greater part of mankind, \ 

not considered as made, much less as fallen, without \ 

any respect to their disobedience or sin, but only for ; 


the demonstrating of the glory of liis justice ; and 
that for the bringing this about, he hath appointed 
these miserable souls necessarily to walk in their 
wicked ways, that so his justice may lay hold on 
them : and that God doth therefore not only suffer 
them to be liable to this misery in many parts of the 
world, by withholding from them the preaching of 
the gospel and the knowledge of Christ, but even in 
those places where the gospel is preached, and salva- 
tion by Christ is offered; whom though he publicly 
invite them, yet he justly condemns for disobedience, 
albeit he hath withheld from them all grace by which 
they could have laid hold of the gospel, viz. Because 
he hath, by a secret will unknown to all men, ordained 
and decreed (without any respect had to their obedi- 
ence or sin) that they shall not obey, and that the 
offer of the gospel shall never prove effectual for their 
salvation, but only serve to aggravate and occasion 
their greater condemnation." 

I say, as to this horrible and blasphemous doctrine, 
our cause is common with many others, who have 
both wisely and learnedly, according to scripture, 
reason, and antiquity, refuted it. Seeing then that 
so much is said already and so well against this doc- 
trine, that little can be superadded, except what hath 
been said already, I shall be short in this respect ; yet, 
because it lies so in opposition to my way, I cannot 
let it altogether pass. 
Thi»doc. ^. I. First, We may safely call this doctrine a no- 
/•'iij.* "" velty, seeing the first four hundred years afler Christ 
there is no mention made of it : for as it is contrary 
' to the scripture's testimony, and to the tenor of the 
gospel, so all the ancient writers, teachers, and doc- 
tors of the church pass it over with a profound silence. 
Tiie r'M of The first foundations of it were laid in the later writ- 
*'' ings of Augustine, who, in his heat against Pelagius, 

let fall some expressions which some nave unhaj^pily 
gleaned up, to the eslublishing of this error; thereby 
contradicting the truth, and sufficiently gainsaying 


many others, and many more and frequent expressions 
of the same Augustine. Afterwards was this doc- 
trine fomented by Dominions, a friar, and the monks 
of his order ; and at last unhappily taken up by John 
Calvin (otherwise a man in divers respects to be com- 
mended) to the great staining of his reputation, and 
defamation both of the Protestant and Christian 
religion ; which though it received the decrees of the 
synod of Dort for its confirmation, hath since lost 
ground, and begins to be exploded by most men of 
learning and piety in all Protestant churches. How- 
ever, we should not oppugn it for the silence of the 
ancients, paucity of its asserters, or for the learned- 
ness of its opposers, if we did observe it to have any 
real bottom in the writings or sayings of Christ and 
the apostles, and that it were not highly injurious to 
God himself^ to Jesus Christ our Mediator and Re- 
deemer, and to the power, virtue, nobility, and ea:cel- 
lency of his blessed gospel, and lastly unto all man- 

§. II. First, It is highly injurious to God, because fajghiy inju- 
it makes him the author of sin, which, of all things is J]°'^j^ J^ 
most contrary to his nature. I confess the asserters making 
of this principle deny this cons(}quence ; but that is ihor Vf^b. 
but a mere illusion, seeing it so naturally follows 
from this doctrine, and is equally ridiculous, as if a 
man should pertinaciously deny that one and two 
make three. For if God has decreed that the repro- 
bated ones shall perish, without all respect to their 
evil deeds, but only of his own pleasure, and if he hath 
also decreed long before they ivere in being, or in a 
capacity to do good or evil, that they should walk in 
those wicked ways, by which, as by a secondary 
means, they are led to that end ; who, I pray, is the 
first author and cause thereof but God, who so willed 
and decreed ? This is as natural a consequence as can 
be : and therefore, although many of the preachers of 
this doctrine have sought out various, strange, strain- 
ed, and intricate distinctions to defend their opinion, 


and avoid this horrid consequence ; yet some, and 
that of the most eminent of them, have been so plain 
in the matter, as they have put it beyond all doubt. 
Of which I shall instance a few among many pas- 

♦ cdvin in sagcs. * / soj/, That by the ordination and will of 
iS'l iMt"* ^^^» Adam fell. God would have man to fall, -Man 
c. 18. s. 1. is blinded by the will and commandment of God. We 
Prod. Id! ^^^fcr the causes of hardening us to God. The high- 
lib. de Pro- est or remote cause of hardening is the will of God. 
c.iz.SA^ It followeth that the hidden counsel of God is the 

cause of hardening. These are Calvin's expressions. 

• Bc/.a lib. * God (saith Beza) hath predestinated not only unto 
de Praed. damnation., but also unto the causes of it, whomsoever 
•» Id. de he saw meet. ^ The decree of God cannot be excluded 
^n\ ^^' f^^^^ the causes of corruption. "" It is certain (saith 
c de Zaucliius) that God is the first cause of obduration. 
5.''id.7ib.** ^^probates are held so fast under God^s almighty de- Nat. crcc, that they cannot but sin and perish. ^ It is the 
?e*Prad. ^ opinion (saith Paroeus) of our doctors, That God did 
•J Paraeas, incvitubly dccrcc the temptation and fall of man. The 
Amis.gra- crcature sinneth indeed necessarily, by the inost just 
li*. c. 2. judgment of God. Our men do most rightly affirm, 

that the fall of man was necessary and inevitable, by 

« Martjr io accidcut, bccausc of God's decree. * God (saith Mar- 

°'°* tyr) doth incline and force the wills of wicked men i?2to 

' zoing. g?rat si?is. ^ God (saith Zuinglius) moveth the rob- 

^^'t^^^'ber to kill. He killeth, God forcmg him thereunto. 

But thou wilt say, he is forced to sin; I permit truly 

» Re«p. ad that he is forced. ^ Reprobate persons (saith Pisca- 

i!*p!^i2o. ^^^) ^^^ absolutely ordained to this tioofold end, to 

undergo everlasting punishment, and necessarily to 

.sin; and therefore to sin, that they may be justly 


If these sayings do not plainly and evidently im- 
port that God is the author of sin, we must not then 
seek these men's opinions from tlieir words, but some 
way else. It seems as if they had assumed to them- 
selves that monstrous and twofold will they feign of 
,God ; one by which they declare their minds openly, 


and another more secret and hidden, which is quite 1 
contrary to the other. Nor doth it at all help them, \ 
to say that man sins willingly, since that willingness, j 
proclivity, and propensity to evil is, according to their " 
judgment, so necessarily imposed upon him, that he ; 
cannot but be willing, because God hath willed and ^ 
decreed him to be so. Which shift is just as if I j 
should take a child uncapable to resist me, and throw [ 
it down from a great precipice ; the weight of the \ 
child's body indeed makes it go readily down, and [ 
the violence of the fall upon some rock or stone beats j 
out its brains and kills it. Now then, I pray, though i 
the body of the child goes willingly down (for I sup- 
pose it, as to its mind, incapable of any will) and the j 
weight of its body, and not any immediate stroke of j 
my hand, who perhaps am at a great distance, makes 1 
it die, whether is the child or I the proper cause of 
its death ? Let any man of reason judge, if God's 
part be, with them, as great, yea, more immediate, in J 
the sins of men (as by the testimonies above brought 
doth appear), whether doth not this make him not 
only the author of sin, but more unjust than the un- ; 
justest of men? 

§. III. Secondly, This doctrine is injurious to God, 2. it make* | 

because it makes him delight in the death of sinners, f/fheSh ^ 
yea, and to will many to die in their sins, contrary to of a sinner, 

these scriptures, Ezek. xxxiii. 1 1 ; 1 Tim. ii. 4 ; 2 Pet. \ 

iii. 9. For if he hath created men only for this very ] 
end, that he might show forth his justice and power in 

them, as these men affirm, and for effecting thereof ^ 

hath not only withheld from them the means of doing j 
good, but also predestinated the evil, that they might 

fall into it ; and that he inclines and forces them into \ 

great sins ; certainly he must necessarily delight in \ 

their death, and will them to die ; seeing against his ' 

own will he neither doth, nor can do any thing. , 

§. IV. Thirdly, It is highly/ injurious to Christ our s.itrenders ! 
Mediator, and to the efficacy and e.vcellenci/ of his dS^iT' 
gospel; for it renders his mediation ineffectual, as if effectual. 


he had not by his suft'erings thoroughly broken down 
the iniddle wall, no. yet removed the wrath of God, 
or purchased the love of God towards all mankind, if 
it was afore decrecl that it should be of no service to 
the far greater part of mankind. It is to no purpose 
to allege, that the death of Christ was of efficacy 
enough to have saved all mankind, if in effect its 
virtue be not so far extended as to put all mankind 
into a capacity of salvation. 
4. It makes Fourthly, It mokes the preaching of the gospel a 
m^k!"'"^' ' ^^^^^^ mock ami illusion, if many of these, to whom it 
is preached, be by any irrevocable decree excluded 
from being benefited by it ; it wholly makes useless 
the preaching of faith and repentance, and the whole 
tenor of the gospel promises and threatenings, as 
being all relative to a former decree and means before 
appointed to such ; which, because they cannot fail, 
man needs do nothing but wait for that irresistible 
juncture, which will come, though it be but at the 
last hour of his life, if he be in the decree of election ; 
and be his diligence and waiting what it can, he shall 
never attain it, if he belong to the decree of repro- 
bat ion. 
6. It makes Fifthly, It luakcs the coming of Christ, and his 
^o('chth\'LP^^P^^^^^^^^y sacrifice, which the scripture affirms to 
act of have been the fmit of Gods love to the world, and 
'"^ * transacted for the sins and salvation of all men, to 
have been rather a testimony of God's lorath to the 
world, and one of the greatest judgments, and severest 
acts of God's indignation towards mankind, it being 
only ordained to save a very few, and for the harden- 
ing and augmenting the condemnation of the far 
greater number of men, because they believe not truly 
in it ; the cause of which unbelief again, as the divines 
[so called] above assert, is the hidden counsel of God :* 
certainly the coming of Christ was never to them a 
testimony of God's love, but rather of bis implacable 
wratli ; and if the world may be taken for the far 
greater number of such as live in it, God never loved 


the world, according to this doctrine, but rather 

hated it greatly, in sending his Son to be crucified ] 

in it. ] 

§. V. Sixthly, This doctrine is highly injurious ^ renders \ 

mankind; for it renders them in a far worse condi- ™^"J^'^°/^^". I 
tion than the devils in hell. For these were sometime aitioa than 

in a capacity to have stood, and to suffer only for ^^^ *^*^' """ "^ 

their own guilt ; whereas many millions of men are \ 

for ever tormented, according to them, for Adam's 1 

sin, which they neither knew of, nor ever were acces- I 

sary to. It renders them worse than the beasts of j 
the field, of whom the master requires no more than 
they are able to perform ; and if they be killed, death 

to them is the end of sorrow ; whereas man is for ever ' 
tormented for not doing that which he never was able 
to do. It puts him into a far worse condition than —Than the 

Pharaoh put the Israelites ; for though he withheld u^jW pL- \ 

straw from them, yet by much labour and pains they ^^^^' \ 
could have gotten it : but from men they make God 
to withhold all means of salvation, so that they can 

by no means attain it; yea, they place mankind in ,\ 

that condition which the poets feign of Tantalus, who, Tantaias's i 

oppressed with thirst, stands in water up to the chin, «""^»^'""- \ 
yet can by no means reach it with his tongue; and 

being tormented with hunger, hath fruits hanging at i 

his very lips, yet so as he can never lay hold on them •] 

with his teeth ; and these things are so near him, not j 

to nourish him, but to torment him. So do these ^ 

men : they make the outward creation of the works ] 

of Providence, the smitings of conscience, sufficient to j 

convince the heathens of sin, and so to condemn and | 

judge them : but not at all to help them to salvation. \ 

They make the preaching of the gospel, the offer of ^ 

salvation by Christ, the use of the sacraments, of f 

prayer, and good works, sufficient to condemn those i 

they account reprobates within the church, serving \ 

only to infoim them to beget a seeming faith and vain i 
hope ; yet because of a secret impotency, which they 

had from their infancy, all these are wholly ineffec- \ 


tual to bring them the least step towards salvation ; 
and do only contribute to render their condemnation 
the greater, and their torments the more violent and 

Having thus briefly removed this false doctrine 
which stood in my way, because they that are desir- 
ous may see it both learnedly and piously refuted by 
many others, I come to the matter of our proposition, 
which is. That God, out of his infinite love, who de- 
lighteth not in the death of a sinner, but that all should 
live and be saved, hath sent his o)dy begotten Son into 
the world, that whosoever believeth in him might be 
saved ; which also is again affirmed in the sixth pro- 
chriit tMt- position, in these words, Christ tlien tasted death for 
ed death for ^^yy man, of all kinds. Such is the evidence of this 
truth, delivered almost wholly in the express words of 
scripture, that it will not need much probation. Also, 
because our assertion herein is common with many 
others, who have both earnestly and soundly, accord- 
ing to the scripture, pleaded for this, universcdj^sdeiiv^ 
tion, I shall be the more brief in it, that I may come 
to that which may seem more singularly and pecu- 
liarly ours. 
Christ's re- ^. VI. This doctriuc of universal redemption, or, 
nni^eila", Chrisfs dying for all men, is of itself so evident from 
contrarj to thc scripturc testimony, that there is scarcely found 
!!f*ab8oiatr ^^y other article of the Christian faith so frequently, 
reproba- so plainly, and so positively asserted. It is that 
which maketh the preaching of Christ to be truly 
termed the gospel, or an amnmciation of glad tidings 
to all. Thus the angel declared the birth and coming 
of Christ to the shepherds to be, Luke ii. 10 : Behold 
I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be 
to all people : he saith not to a fete. Now if this 
coming of Christ had not brought a possibility of sal- 
vation to all, it should i-ather have been accounted 
bad tidings of great sorrow to most people ; neither 
should the angel have had reason to have sung, Peace 
on earth, and good will towards wi€W, if the greatest 


part of mankind had been necessarily shut out from \ 

receiving any benefit by it. How should Christ have ' ^ 
sent out his servants to preach the gospel to eve?y ' i 

creature, Mark xvi. 15, (a very comprehensive com- j 

mission) that is, to every son and daughter of mankind, \ 

without all exception ? He commands them to preach ^ 

salvation to all, repentance and remission of sins to I 

all ; wanting every one, and exhorting every one, as \ 

Paul did, Col. i. 28. Now how could they have The gospel I 

preached the gospel to every man, as became the mi- J'^ 1^'//^^^^^ ] 

nisters of Jesus Christ, in much assurance, if salva- man. ^1 
lion by that gospel had not been possible to all? 
What ! if some of those had asked them,, or should 

now ask any of these doctors, who deny the univer- \ 

sality of Christ's death, and yet preach it to all pro- \ 

miscuously. Hath Christ died for me 1 How can they, \ 

with confidence, give a certain answer to this ques- ■ 

tion ? If they give a conditional answer, as their prin- \ 

ciple obligeth them to do, and say. If thou repent, \ 

Christ hath died for thee ; doth not the same question j 

still recur ? Hath Christ died for me, so as to tnake :\ 

repejitance possible to me ? To this they can answer ' 

nothing, unless they run in a circle ; whereas the feet < 

of those that bring the glad tiditigs of the gospel of ^ \ 

peace are said to be beautiful, for that they preach the j 

common salvation, repentance unto all ; offering a I 

door of mercy and hope to all, through Jesus Christ, 1 

who gave himself a ransom for all. The gospel in- j 

vites all : and certainly by the gospel Christ intended ■ 

not to deceive and delude the greater part of man- \ 
kind, when he invites, and crieth, saying. Come unto 

me, all ye that are weary and heavy laden, and I tvill ': 

give you rest. If all then ought to seek after him, ; 

and to look for salvation by him, he must needs have ^ 
made salvation possible to all ; for who is bound to 

seek after that which is impossible ? Certainly it were j 

a mocking of men to bid them do so. And such as | 

deny, that by the death of Christ salvation is made j 
possible to all men, do most blasphemously make God 



mock the world, in giving his servants a commission 
to preach the gospel of salvation unto all^ while he 
hath before decreed that it shall not be possible for 
The •bsni- them to rcccivc it. Would not this make the Lord 
di^trileoV ^^ ^^"^ ioiih his servants with a lie in their mouthy 
absolute re. (wliich wcrc blasphcmous to think), commanding 
probauon. ^^^^^ ^^ ^jj ^^^ ^^^ ^^,^^^ ^^^ bclieve that Christ died 

for them, and had purchased life and salvation ; 
whereas it is no such thing, according to the fore- 
mentioned doctrine. But seeing Christ, after he 
arose and perfected the work of our redemption, gave 
a commission to preach repentayice, rcitiission of sins, 
and salvation to all, it is manifest that he died for all. 
For He that hath commissionated his servants thus to 
preach, is a God of truth, and no mocker of poor 
mankind ; neither doth he require of any man that 
which is simply impossible for him to do : for that no 
tnan is bound to do that which is impossible, is a prin- 
ciple of truth engraven in every man's mind. And 
seeing he is both a righteous and merciful God, it 
cannot at all stand, either with his justice or mercy, 
to bid such men repent or believe, to whom it is im- 

§. VII. Moreover, if we regard the testimony of 

the scripture in this matter, where there is not one 

scripture, tEat I know of, which affirmeth, Christ not 

to die for all, there are divers that positively and ex- 

Toprajfor pressly asscrt, He did; as 1 Tim. ii. 1, 3, 4, 6: / 

cbiiit* died ^^^hort, therefo7'e, that first of all, supplications, prayers, 

for all— intejressiofis, and giving of thanks, be made for all 

men, &c. For this is good and acceptable in the sight 

of God our Saviour, ivho will have all men to be saved, 

and to come to the knowledge of the truth ; who gave 

himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time. 

Except we will have the apostle here to assert quite 

another thing than he intended, there can be nothing 

more plain to confirm what we have asserted. And 

this scripture doth well answer to that maimer of 

"arguing which we have hitherto used : for, first, the 


apostle here recommends them to ^9r^j/ for all men ; 
and to obviate such an objection, as if he had said 
with our adversaries, Christ prayed not for the icorld^ 
neither willeth he us to pray for all; because he willeth 
not that all should be saved, but hath ordained many 
to be damned, that he might show forth his justice in 
than; he obviates, I say, such an objection, telling 
them, that it is good and acceptable in the sight of 
God, who will have all men to be saved. I desire to —And win 
know what can be more expressly affirmed? or can^^i^^^jj^ 
any two propositions be stated in terms more contra- saved. 
dictory than these two? God willeth some not to be 
saved; and God willeth all men to be saved, or God 
will have no man perish. If we believe the last, as 
the apostle hath affirmed, the first must be destroyed ; 
seeing of contradictory propositions, the one being 
placed, the other is destroyed. Whence, to conclude, 
he gives us a reason of his willingness that all men 
should be saved, in these words, Who gave himself a 
ransom for all ; as if he would have said, Since 
Christ died for all, since he gave himself a ransom 
for all, therefore he will have all men to be saved. 
This Christ himself gives as a reason of God's love to 
the world, in these words, John iii. 16 : God so loved 
the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that 
whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have 
everlasting life; compared with 1 John iv. 9. This 
[whosoever'] is an indefinite term, from which no man 
is excluded. From all which then I thus argue : 

For whomsoever it is lawful to pray, to them salva- Arg. i. 
tion is possible: 

But it is lawful to pray for every individual man in 
the whole world : 

Therefore salvation is possible unto them. 
I prove the major proposition thus ; 

No man is bound to pray for that which is impos- Arg. 2. 
sible to be attained : 

But every man is bound and commanded to pray 
for all men : 

i2 • 


Therefore it is not impossible to be obtained. 
I prove also this proposition further, thus ; 
Arj. 3. No man is bound to pray, but in faith : 

But he that prayetli for that, which he judges sim- 
ply impossible to be obtained, cannot pray in faith : 

Therf fore, &c. 
Arg. 4. That which God willeth is not impossible : 

But God willeth all men to be saved : 
Therefore it is not impossible. 
And lastly ; 
Ai^; i Those for whom our Saviour gave himself a ran- 

som, to such salvation is possible : 

But our Saviour gave himself a ransom for all : 

Therefore salvation is possible. 

Proof 1. §. VIII. This is very positively affirmed, Heb. ii. 9, 

in these words, But we see Jesus, who was juade a 

little lower than the afigels, for the suffering of death, 

crowned luith glory and honour, that he hxf the grace 

of God might taste death for every man. He that will 

but open his eyes, may see this truth here asserted : 

if he tasted death for everi/ man, then certainly there 

is no man for whom he did not taste death ; then 

there is no man who may not be made a sharer of the 

benefit of it : for he came not to condemn the world, 

but that the world through him inight he saved, John 

iii. 17. He came not to judge the world, but to save 

OnraJrer- thc worUl, Johu xii. 47. Whcrcas, according to the 

doctHnI*!? doctrine of our adversaries, he rather came to con- 

a Rreat part dcmu tlic woHd, and judge it ; and not that it might 

being pVe-^ bc savcd by him, or to save it. For if he never came 

ordained for to bring salvatiott to the greater part of mankind, but 

refa"ed!°°' ^^^^ his coming, though it could never do them good, 

yet shall augment their condemnation ; from thence 

it necessarily follows, that he came not of intention to 

save, but to judge and condemn the greater part of 

the world, contrary to his own express testimony ; and 

as the apostle Paul, in the words abovecited, doth 

assert affirmatively, That God willeth the salvatimi of 


all, so dotli the apostle Peter assert negatively, ThatProoCi. 
he willeth not the perishing of any, 2 Pet. iii. 9. The 
Lord is not slack concerning his promise, as some men 
count slackness, but is long-suffering to usward, not 
willing that any should perish, but that all should 
come to repentance. And this is correspondent to 
that of the prophet Ezekiel, xxxiii. 11: As I live, 
saith the Lord, I have no pleasure in the death of the 
ivicked, but that the wicked turn from his way and live. 
If it be safe to believe God, and trust in him, we 
must not think that he intends to cheat us by all these 
expressions through his servants, but that he was in 
good earnest. And that this will and desire of his 
hath not taken effect, the blame is on our parts, as 
shall be after spoken of; which could not be, if we 
never were in any capacity of salvation, or that Christ 
had never died for us, but left us under an impossibi- 
lity of salvation. What mean all those earnest invi- 
tations, all those serious expostulations, all those re- 
gretting contemplations, wherewith the holy scrip- 
tures are full ? As, Why will ye die, O house of Israel! 
Whyivill ye not come unto me, that ye might have life'i 
I have waited to be gracious unto you : 1 have sought 
to gather you : I have knocked at the door of your 
hearts : Is not your destruction of yourselves ? I have 
called all the day long. If men who are so invited 
be under no capacity of being saved, if salvation be 
impossible unto them, shall we suppose God in this 
to be no other but like the author of a romance, 
or master of a comedy, who amuses and raises the 
various affections and passions of his spectators by 
divers and strange accidents; sometimes leading them 
into hope, and sometimes into despair; all those 
actions, in effect, being but a mere illusion, while he 
hath appointed what the conclusion of all shall be? 

Thirdly, This doctrine is abundantly confirmed by Proof 3. 
that of the apostle, 1 John, ii. 1, 2 : A^id if any man 
sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ 
the righteous. And he is the propitiation for our sins ; 


sifis ; and not for ours o?ih/, but also for the sins of 
AdrtrMTie* the ivholc tcoHd. The way which our adversaries 
117ZI^*^ take to evite this testimony Is most foolish and ridi- 
the whole culous : the [world^ here, say they, is the loorld of he- 
^'*'*** lievers: for this commentarif we have nothing but 
their own assertion, and so while it manifestly de- 
stroys the text, may be justly rejected. For, first, let 
them show me, if they can, in all the scripture, 
where the [whole world] is taken for believers only ; I 
shall show them where it is many times taken for the 
quite contrary ; as. The world hiows nie not : The world 
receives me tiot; I am fiot of this world: besides all 
these scriptures. Psalm xvii. 14 ; Isai. xiii. 11 ; Mat. 
xviii. 7 ; John, vii. 7; and viii. 26; and xii. 19; and 
xiv. 17; and xv. 18, 19; and xvii. 14; and xviii. 
20; 1 Cor. i. 21; and ii. 12; andvi. 2; 14; 
James, i. 27 ; 2 Pet. ii. 20; 1 John, ii. 15; and iii. 
lii and iv. 4, 5 ; and many more. Secondly, The 
apostle in this very place contradistinguisheth the 
loorld from the saints thus ; And not for ours only, 
but for the sins of the whole world: What means the 
apostle by [ours] here? Is not that the sins of be- 
lievers ? Was not he one of those believers 1 And was 
not this a universal epistle, written to all the saints 
that then were ? So that, according to these men's com- 
ment, there should be a very unnecessaiy and foolish 
redundancy in the apostle's words ; as if he had said, 
He is a propitiation not only for the sins of all be- 
lievers, but for the sijis of all believers : Is not this to 
make the apostle's words void of good sense? Let 
them show us wherever there is such a manner of 
speaking in all the scripture, where any of the pen- 
men first name the believers in concreto with them- 
selves, and then contradistinguish them from some 
other whole world of believers ? That [whole mnid] 
if it be of believers, must not be the world we live in. 
But we need no better interpreter for tli tie than 

himself, who uses the very same r, i >u and 
phrase in the same epistle, ch. v. 19, saying. We know 


that we are of God, and the whole wo?id lieth in wick- 
edness. There cannot be found in all the scripture 
two places which run more parallel ; seeing in both, 
the same apostle, in the same epistle to the same per- 
sons, contradistinguisheth himself, and the saints to 
whom he writes, from the whole world ; which, ac- 
cording to these men's commentary, ought to be un- 
derstood o^ believers : as if John had said, We know 
particular believers are of God; but the whole world 
of believers lieth in wickedness. What absurd wrest- 
ing of scripture were this? And yet it may be as 
well pleaded for as the other ; for they differ not at 
all. Seeing then that the apostle John tells us plainly, 
That Christ not only died for him, and for the saints 
and members of the church of God, to whom he wrote, 
but for the ivhole world, let us then hold it for a cer- 
tain and undoubted truth, notwithstanding the cavils 
of such as oppose. 

This might also be proved from many more scrip- 
ture testimonies, if it were at this season needful. 
All the fathers, so called, and doctors of the church, 
for the first four ccmturies, preached this doctrine ; 
according to which they boldly held forth tlie gospel 
of Christ, and efficacy of his death ; inviting and en- The hea- 
treating the heathens to come and be partakers of the ^Jl^^dtosai- 
benefits of it, showing them how there was a door vation ; 
open for them all to be saved through Jesus Christ ; destln^a'ied 
not telling them that God had predestinated any oftpdamna- 
them to damnation, or had made salvation impossible 
to them, by withholding power and grace, necessary 
to believe, from them. But of many of their sayings, 
which might be alleged, I shall only instance a few. 

Augustine on the xcvth Psalm, saith, ^' The blood Proof 4. 
of Christ is of so great worth, that it is of no less ^^^^H^^i 
value than the whole world." the doctors 

Prosper ad Gall. c. 9. "The Redeemer of the Jnhe Vr^s" 
world gave his blood for the world, and the world ^^J^'JJ^J'/j^^' 
would not be redeemed, because the darkness did not for au. 


receive the light. He that saith, the Saviour was not 
crucified for the redemption of the whole world, looks 
not to the virtue of the sacrament, but to the part of 
infidels ; since the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ is 
the price of the whole world ; from which redemp)- 
tion they are strangers, who either delighting in their 
captivity would not be redeemed, or after they were 
redeemed returned to the same servitude." 

The same Prosper, in his answer to Vincentius's 
first objection : " Seeing therefore because of one 
common nature and cause in truth, undertaken by 
our Lord, all are rightly said to be redeemed, and 
nevertheless all are not brought out of captivity ; the 
property of redemption without doubt belongeth to 
those from whom the prince of this world is shut out, 
and now are not vessels of the devil, but members of 
Christ ; whose death was so bestowed upon mankind, 
that it belonged to the redemption of such who were 
not to be regenerated. But so, that that which was 
done by the example of one for all, might, by a sin- 
gular mystery, be celebrated in every one. For the 
cup of immortality, which is made up of our infirmity 
and the divine power, hath indeed that in it which 
may profit all ; but if it be not drunk, it doth not 

The author de vocat. gejitiuju, lib. ii. cap. 6. 
" There is no cause to doubt but that our Lord Jesus 
Christ died for sinners and wicked men. And if 
there can be any found, who may be said not to be of 
this number, Christ hath not died for all ; he made 
himself a redeemer for the whole world." 

Chrysostom on John i. "If he enlightens every 
man coming into the world, how comes it that so 
many men remain without light ? For all do not so 
much as acknowledge Christ. How then doth he 
enlighten every man ? He illuminates indeed so far 
as in him is; but if any of their own accord, closing 
the eyes of their mind, will not direct their eyes unto 


the beams of this light, the cause that they remain in The caase ] 

darkness is not from the nature of the light, but jJIYJ^^/;" ^ 

through their own malignity, who willingly have ren- \ 

dered themselves unworthy of so great a gift. But ■{ 

why believed they not ? Because they would* not : ] 

Christ did his part." J 

The Arelatensian synod, held about the year 490, ; 

" Pronounced him accursed, who should say that I 

Christ hath not died for all, or that he would not have j 

all men to be saved." ] 

Ambr. on Psalm cxviii. Serm. 8. " The mystical I 

Sun of Righteousness is arisen to all ; he came to all ; 
he suifered for all ; and rose again for all : and there- i 

fore he suffered, that he might take away the sin of \ 

the world. But if any one believe not in Christ, he ; 

robs himself of this general benefit ; even as if one by ^ 

closing the windows should hold out the sunbeams. The snn- { 

The sun is not therefore not arisen to all, 'because ^u^Teai"* 
such a one hath so robbed himself of its heat : but not.' 
the sun keeps its prerogative ; it is such a one's im- j 

prudence that he shuts himself out from the common ; 

benefit of the light." J 

The same man, in his 1 1th book of Cain and Abel, j 

cap. 13, saith, "Therefore he brought unto all the ^ 

means of health, that whosoever should perish, may \ 

ascribe to himself the causes of his death, who would I 

not be cured when he had the remedy by which he \ 

might have escaped." 

§. IX. Seeing then that this doctrine of the uni- J 

versality of Christ's death is so certain and agreeable j 

to the scripture testimony, and to the sense of the 
purest antiquity, it may be wondered how so many, \ 

some whereof have been esteemed not only learned, j 

but also pious, have been capable to fall into so gross 'i 

and strange an error. But the cause of this doth 
evidently appear, in that the way and method by 
which the virtue and efficacy of his death is commu- ■ 

nicated to all men, hath not been riglitly understood, \ 


PeUgian or indeed hath been erroneously taught. The Pela- 

errors. giaus, asciibiug all to man's will and nature, denied 

man to have any seed of sin conveyed to him from 

Adam. And the Semi-Pelagians, making grace as 

a gift* following upon man's merit, or right improving 

of his nature, according to the known principle, Fa- 

cienti quod in se est^ Deus non dcnegat gj^atiam. 

Extremes This gavc Augustine, Prosper, and some others 

by'»."me*° occasion, labouring, in oppo dtion to these opinions, 

making God to maD^nifv the arrace of God, and paint out the cor- 

ihe author x- r ^ x / \\ \^ ' r ^\ 

of sin. ruptions ot mans nature (as the proverb is ol those 
that seek to make straight a crooked stick) to incline 
to the other extreme. So also the reformers, Luther 
and otliers, finding among other errors the strange 
expressions used by some of the Popish scholastics 
concerning free will, and how much the tendency of 
their principles is to exalt man's nature and lessen 
God's grace, having all those sayings of Augustine 
and others for a pattern, through the like mistake run 
upon the same extreme : though afterwards the Lu- 
therans, seeing how far Calvin and his followers 
drove this matter (who, as a man of subtle and pro- 
found judgment, foreseeing where it would land, re- 
solved aboveboard to assert that God had decreed the 
means as well as the end, and therefore had ordained 
men to sin, and excites them thereto, which he 
labours earnestly to defend), and that there was no 
avoiding the making of God the author of sin, thereby 
received occasion to discern the falsity of this doctrine, 
and disclaimed it, as appears by the latter writings of 
Melancthon, and the Mompelgartensian conference, 
Bpit. Hitt. where Lucas Osiander, one of the collocutors, terms 
o.hlnd!"*'" ^^ impious ; calls it a making God the author of sin, ^ 
Cent. 16. and a horrid and horrible blasphcjmi. Yet because 
. cap. 32. ^Q^^ of those who have asserted this universal redemp- 
tion since the reformation have given a clear, distinct, 
and satisfactory testimony how it is communicated to 
all, and so bave fallen short of fully declaring the 


perfection of gospel dispensation, others have been 

thereby the more strengthened in their errors ; which . 

I shall illustrate by one singular example. . : 

The Arminians, and other assertors of universal 

grace, use this as a chief argument. ; 

That which every man is bound to believe is true: \ 

But every man is bound to believe that Christ died 

for him ; ''\ 

Therefore, &c. ; 

Of this argument the other party deny the assump- 
tion, saying ; That they ivho never heard of Christ 1 
are not obli^red to believe in him : and seein<^ the Re- Remon- 
monstrants (as they are commonly called) do gene- ^^^^J"** *^'' "; 
i^ally themselves achiiowledge, that without the outward sirengtbens I 
knowledge of Christ there is no salvation, that gives a^ec/^e^ofrt- i 
the other party yet a stronger argument for their pre- probation. .| 
cise decree of reprobation. For, say they, seeing we \ 
all see really, and in effect, that God had withheld •! 
from many generations, and yet from inany nations, \ 
that knowledge which is absolutely needful to salvation, \ 
and so hath rendered it simply impossible unto them ; 
why may he not as well ivithhold the grace necessary \ 
to make a saving application of that knowledge, where '^ 
it is preached 1 For there is rw ground to say. That 
this were injustice in God, or partiality, more than his \ 
leaving those others in utter ignorance ; the 07ie being \ 
but a withholding grace to apprehend the object of \ 
faith, the other a tcithdrawing the object itself For \ 
answer to this, they are forced to draw a conclusion | 
from their former hypothesis of Christ's dying for all, \ 
and God's mercy and justice, saying, That // these \ 
heathens, ivho live in these remote places, ivhcre the ; 
outward knoicledge of Christ is not, did improve that 
common knotoledge they have, to whom the outward \ 
creation is for an object of faith, by ivhich they may \ 
gather that there is a God, then the Lord ivould, by 
some providence, either send an angel to tell them of . 
Christ, or convey the scriptures to them, or bring them \ 
some way to an oppo?tunity to meet with such as I 


might inform them. Which, as it p^ives always too 
much to the power and strength of man's will and 
nature, and savours a little of Socinianism and Pela- 
gianism, or at least of Semi-Pelagianism, so, since it 
is only built upon probable conjectures, neither hath 
it evidence enough to convince any strongly tainted 
with the other doctrine ; nor yet doth it make the 
equity and wonderful harmony of God's mercy and 
justice towards all so manifest to the understanding. 
So that I have often observed, that these assertors of 
universal grace did far more pithily and strongly 
overturn the false doctrine of their adversaries, than 
they did establish and confirm the truth and certainty 
of their own. And though they have proof sufficient 
from the holy scriptures to confirm the universality of 
Nooe. by «ii Christ's death, and that none are precisely, by any 
de!rre''elr- iiTevocablc dccrec, excluded from salvation, yet I find 
cia(!ed'frora whcn they are pressed in the respects abovemention- 
saivaiioii. ^^^ ^^ show how God liath so far equally extended 
the capacity to partake of the benefit of Christ's death 
unto all, as to communicate unto them a sufficient 
way of so doing, they are somewhat in a strait, and 
are put more to give us their conjectures from the 
certainty of the former presupposed truth, to wit, that 
because Christ hath certainly died for all, and God 
hath not rendered salvation impossible to any, there- 
fore there must be some way or other by which they 
may be saved ; which must be by improving some 
common grace, or by gathering from the works of 
creation and providence, than by really demonstrating, 
by convincing and spiritual arguments, what that 
way is. 

§. X. It falls out then, that as darkness, and the 
great apostacy, came not upon the Christian world 
all at once, but by several degrees, one thing making 
way for another ; until that thick jind gross veil came 
to be overspread, wherewith tlie nations were so 
blindly covered, from the seventh and eighth, until 
the sixteenth century ; even as the darkness of the 


night comes not upon the outward creation at once, 
but by degrees, according as the sun declines in each 
horizon ; so neither did that full and clear light and 
knowledge of the glorious dispensation of the gospel 
of Christ appear all at once; the work of the hrst 
witnesses being more to testify against and discover 
the abuses of the apostacy, than to establish the truth 
in purity. He that comes to build a new city, must 
first remove the old rubbish, before he can see to lay 
a new foundation ; and he that comes to a house 
greatly polluted and full of dirt, will first sweep away 
and remove the filth, before he put up his own good 
and new furniture. The dawning of the day dispels 
the darkness, and makes us see the things that are 
most conspicuous : but the distinct discovering and 
discerning of things, so as to make a certain and per- 
fect observation, is reserved for the arising of the 
sun, and its shining in full brightness. And we can, 
from a certain experience, boldly affirm, that the not 
waiting for this, but building among, yea, and with, 
the old Popish rubbish, and setting up before a full 
purgation, hath been to most Protestants the founda- 
tion of many a mistake, and an occasion of unspeak- 
able hurt. Therefore the Lord God, who as he seeth The more 
meet doth communicate and make known to man the ver/of?he 
more full, evident, and perfect knowledge of his ever- gospel re- 
lasting truth, hath been pleased to reserve the more thiVoar 8°ge. 
full discovery of this glorious and evangelical dispen- 
sation, to this our age ; albeit divers testimonies have 
thereunto been borne by some noted men in several 
ages, as shall hereafter appear. And for the greater 
augmentation of the glory of his grace, that no man 
might have whereof to boast, he hath raised up a few 
despicable and illiterate men, and for the most part 
mechanics, to be the dispensers of it ; by which gos- 
pel all the scruples, doubts, hesitations, and objec- 
tions abovementioned are easily and evidently an- 
swered, and the justice as well as mercy of God, 
according to their divine and heavenly harmony, are 


exhibited, established, and confirmed. According 
to which certain light and gospel, as the knowledge 
thereof has been manifested to us by the revelation of 
Jesus Christ in us, fortified by our o%vn sensible ex- 
perience, and sealed by the testimony of the Spirit 
in our hearts, we can confidently affirm, and clearly 
evince, according to the testimony of the holy scrip- 
tures, the following points : 
Prop. 1. §. XI. First, That God, who out of his infinite love 
sent his Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, into the world, 
A daj of vi- who tasted death for every man, hath given to every 
siiationto ^^^^^ whether Jew or Gentile, Turk or Scythian, In- 
dian or Barbarian, of whatsoever nation, country, or 
place, a certain day or time of visitation ; during which 
day or time it is possible for them to be saved, and to 
partake of the fruit of Chris fs death. 
Prop. II. Secondly, That for this end God hath conimuni' 
A measure catcd and givcu luito cvcry man a measure of the light 
of light 10 Qj' ii'i^ Q>n^ji ,yon, a measure of grace, or a measure of 
the Spirit, which the scripture expresses by several 
names, as sometimes of the seed of the kingdom. Matt, 
xiii. 18, 19. the Light that makes all things manifest, 
Eph. V. 13. the Word of God, Rom. x. 17, or mani- 
festation of the Spirit given to profit withal, 1 Cor. xii. 
l.a talent. Matt. xxv. 1 5. a little leaven. Matt. xiii. 33. 
the gospel preached in every creature. Col. i. 23. 
Pbop. III. Thirdly, That God, in and by this Light and Seed, 
invites, calls, e.vhorts, and strives with every man, in 
order to save him ; which, as it is received and not 
6od*t«ai- resisted, works the salvation of ^//, even of those who 
wVon"ht br ^'^^ ignorant of the death and sufferings of Christ, and 
the light in of Adam's fall, both by bringing them to a sense of 
their own misery, and to be sharers in the si; ^ 

of Christ inwardly, and by making them partaiM i.^ of 
his resurrection, in becoming holy, pure, and righte- 
ous, and recovered out of their sins. By which also 
are saved they that have the knowledge of Christ 
outwardly, in that it opens their understanding rightly 
to use and apply the things delivered in the scrip- 


tures, and to receive the saving use of them : but that 
this may be resisted and rejected in both, in ivhicJi then 
God is said to be resisted and pressed down, and Christ 
to be again crucijied, and put to open shame in and 
among men. And to those who thus resist and refuse 
him, he becomes their condemnation. 

First then, According to this doctrine the mercy of coaseq. i. 
God is ei'cellently well exhibited, in tliat none are ne- 
cessarily shut out from salvation; and his justice is 
demonstrated, in that he condemns none but such to 
whom he really made offer of salvation, affording 
them, the means sufficient thereunto. 

Secondly, This doctrine, if well weighed, will be Conseq. 2. 
found to be \he foundation of Christianity, salvation, 
and assurance. 

Thirdly, It agrees and answers with the whole tenor con»eq. 3. 
of the gospel promises and threats, and with the nature 
of the ministiy of Christ ;^SiCcor ding to which, the 
gospel, salvation, and repentance are commanded to 
be preached to every creature, without respect of na- 
tions, kindred, families, or tongues. 

Fourthly, It magnijies and commends the merits Comeq. 4. 
and death of Christ, in that it not only accounts them 
sufficient to save all, but declares them to be brought 
so nigh unto all, as thereby to be put into the nearest 
capacity of salvation. 

Fifthly, It exalts above all the grace of God, to Conseq. 6. 
which it attributeth all good, even the least and/ 
smallest actions that are so ; ascribing thereunto not J 
only the first beginnings and motions of good but also 
the whole conversion and salvation of the soul. 

Sixthly, It contradicts, overturns, and enervates the Conseo. 0. 
false doctrine of the Pelagians, So ni- Pelagians, So- 
cinians, and others, who exalt the light of nature, the 
liberty of man's will, in that it wholly excludes the 
natural man from having any place or portion in his 
own salvation, by any acting, moving, or working of 
his own, until he be first quickened, raised up, and 
actuated by God's Spirit. 


CoDseq. 7. Seventhly, As it jnakes the whole salvation of man 
solely and alone to depend upon God, so it makes his 
condemnation wholly and in every respect to he of him- 
self in that he refused and resisted somewhat that 
from God wrestled and strove in his heart, and forces 
him to acknowledge God's just judgment in rejecting 
and forsaking of him. 

Conseq. 8. Eighthly, It takes away all ground of despair, in 
that it gives every one cause of hope and certain 
assurance that they may be saved; neither doth feed 
any in security, in that none are certain how soon 
their day may expire : and therefore it is a constant 
incitement and provocation, and lively encourage- 
ment to every man, to forsake evil, and close with 
that which is good. 

Conseq. u. Ninthly, It wonderfully commends as well the cer- 
tainty of the Christian religion among infidels, as it 
manifests its own verity to all, in that it is confirmed 
and established by the experience of all men ; seeing 
there was never yet a man found in any place of the 
earth, however barbarous and wild, but hath acknow- 
ledged, that at some time or other, less or more, he 
hath found somewhat in his heart reproving him for 
some things evil which he hath done, threatening a 
certain horror if he continued in them, as also pro- 
mising and communicating a certain peace and sweet- 
ness, as he has given way to it, and not resisted it. 

Conseq. 10. Tcnthly, It wonderfully showeth the e.vcelknt wis- 
dom of God, by which he hath made the means of 
salvation so universal and comprehensive, that it is 
not needful to recur to those miraculous and strange 
ways ; seeing, according to this most true doctrine, 
the gospel reacheth all, of whatsoever condition, age, 
or nation. 

Coweq. 11. Eleventhly, It is really and effectively, though not 
in so many words, yet by deeds, established and con- 
firmed by all the preachers, promulgators, and doctors 
of the Christian religion that ever were, or now are, 
even by those that otherways in their judgment oppose 


this doctrine, in that they all, whatever they have 
been or are, or whatsoever people, place, or country 
they come to, do preach to the people, and to every 
individual among them, that they may be saved ; en- 
treating and desiring them to believe in Christ, who 
hath died for them. So that what they deny in the 
general, they acknowledge of every particular ; there 
being no man to whom they do not preach in order 
to salvation, telling him Jesus Christ calls and icills 
him to believe and be saved: and that if he refuse, he 
shall therefore be condemned, and that his condem- 
nation is of himself. Such is the evidence and vir- 
tue of Truth, that it constrains its adversaries even 
against their wills to plead for it. 

Lastly, According to this doctrine the former argu- Comeq. 12. 
ment used by the Arminians, and evited by the Cal- 
vinists, concerning every man's being bound to be- 
lieve that Christ died for him, is, by altering the 
assumption, rendered invincible ; thus, 

That which every man is bound to believe^ is true : 

But every man is bound to believe that God is mer- 
ciful unto him : 

Therefore, &c. 

This assumption no man can deny, seeing his mer- 
cies are said to be over all his works. And herein 
the scripture every where declares the mercy of CM 
to be, in that he invites and calls sinners to repent- 
ance, and hath opened a way of salvation for them : 
so that thouofh those men be not bound to believe the 
history of Christ's death and passion who never came 
to know of it, yet they are bound to believe that God 
will be merciful to them, if they follow his ways; and 
that he is merciful unto them, in that he reproves them 
for evil, and encourages them to good. Neither ought Oar adFcr- 
any man to believe that God is unmerciful to him, or ^erdf^^as- 
that he hath from the beginning ordained him to come senion of 
into the world that he might be left to his own evil 
inclinations, and so do wickedly, as a means ap- 
pointed by God to bring him to eternal damnation; 



which, were it true, as our adversaries affirm it to be \ 
of many thousands, I see no reason why a man might 
not believe; for certainly a man may believe the 

As it manifestly appears from the thing itself, that ] 
these good and excellent consequences follow from i 
the belief of this doctrine, so from the proof of them 
it will yet more evidently appear ; to which before I 
come, it is requisite to speak somewhat concerning 
the state of the controversy, which will bring great ' 
light to the matter : for from the not right under- ! 
standing of a matter under debate, sometimes both 
arguments on the one hand, and objections on the 
other, are brought, which do no way hit the case; 
and hereby also our sense and judgment therein will 
be more fully understood and opened. 
QnEs.i. ^, XII. First then, by this dai/ and time ofvisita- 

Inhe^quef- ^'^'^ which we say God gives unto all, during which | 
<'on- they may be saved, we do not understand the whole 

time of every mans life ; though to some it may be ■ 
extended even to the very hour of death, as we see in 
the example of the thief converted upon the cross ; < 
but such a season at least as sujjicientli/ ejvonerateth 
God of every mans condem fiat ion, which to some may 
he sooner, and to others later, according as the Lord 
ThatiDBDv in his wisdom sees meet. So that many men may ; 
tbe^daj^or outlive this day, after which there may be no possi- '• 
God's visi- bility of salvation to them, and God justly suffers I 
tation. them to be hardened, as a just punishment of their 

unbelief, and even raises them up as instruments of \ 
wrath, and makes them a scourge one against ano- 1 
ther. Whence to men in this condition may be fitly ! 
applied those scriptures which are abused to prove 
that God incites men necessarily to sin. This is nota- 
bly expressed by the apostle, Rom. i. from verse 17, | 
to the end, but especially verse 28. And eveti as they . i 
did not like to retain God in their knoirledoe, God ] 
gave them over to a reprobate mnid, to do those things 
which are not convenient. That many may outlive 


this day of God's gracious visitation unto them, is ; 

shown by the example of Esau, Heb. xii. 16, 17, who 

sold his birthright: so he had it once, and was capa- ' 

ble to have kept it ; but afterwards, when he would ' - 

have inherited the blessing, he was rejected. This 

appears also by Christ's weeping over Jerusalem, *] 

Luke, xix. 42, saying. If thou hadst known in this thy 

day the things that belong unto thy peace ; but now ^ 

they are hid from thine eyes. Which plainly imports i 

a time when they might have known them, which ] 

now was removed from them, though they were yet \ 

alive ; but of this more shall be said hereafter. \ 

§. XIII. Secondly, By this seed, grace, and wo7'dQvEs.2, 
of God, and light luherewith we say every one is en- \ 
lightened, and hath a measure of it, which strives with \ 
him in order to save him, and which may, by the \ 
stubbornness and wickedness of man's will, be quench- 
ed, bruised, wounded, pressed down, slain, and cru- \ 
cified, we undtrdand not the proper essence and nature \ 
of God precisely taken, which is not divisible into parts \ 
and measures, as being a most pure, simple being, 
void of all composition or division, and therefore can \ 
neither be resisted, hurt, wounded, crucified, or slain j \ 
by all the efforts and strength of men ; but we under- The light J \ 
stand a spiritual, heavenly, and invisible principle, in ^„']f |,!,*pJo. ^ 
which (jrod, as Father, Son, and Spirit, dwells; a mea- r«rtie» de- ' 
sure of which divine and glorious life is in all men as ''°'^'**®*^* j 
a seed, which of its own nature draws, invites, and ; 
inclines to God ; and this ^ome call vehiculum Dei, Cani. m. 9, \ 
or the spiritual body of Christ, the flesh and blood of i 
Christ, which came down from heaven, of which all 
the saints do feed, and are thereby nourished unto ! 
eternal life. And as every unrighteous action is wit- 1 
nessed against and reproved by this light and seed, so 
by such actions is it hurt, wounded, and slain, and flees j 
from them ; even as the flesh of man flees from that ■ 
which is of a contrary nature to it. Now because it \ 
is never separated from God nor Christ, but where- 1 Tim. v\, \ 
ever it is God and Christ are as wrapped up therein, ^^' | 

k2 1 


therefore and in that respect as it is resisted, God is 
said to be resisted ; and where it is borne down, God 
is said to be pressed as a cart under sheaves, and 
Christ is said to be slain and crucified. And on the 
contrary, as this seed is received in the heart, and suf- 
fered to bring forth its natural and proper effect, Christ 
comes to be formed and raised, of which the scripture 
makes so much mention, calling it the new man, Chiist 
within, the hope of glori/. This is that Christ within, 
which we are heard so much to speak and declare 
of, every where preaching him up, and exhorting peo- 
ple to believe in the light, and obey it, that they may 
come to know Christ in them, to deliver them from 
all sin. 

But by this, as we do not at all intend to equal our- 
selves to that holy man the Lord Jesus Christ, who 
was born of the Virgin Mary, in whom all the fulness 
TJiat the of the Godhead dwelt bodily, so neither do we des- 
[^°%Ia- l^^^y l^^ reality of his present e.visie?ice, as some have 
Lead dwells falscly calumuiatcd us. For though we affirm that 
bodiijr&c. Christ dwells in us, yet not immediately, but medi- 
ately, as he is in that seed, which. is in us; whereas 
he, to wit, the Eternal Word, which was witli God, 
and was God, dwelt- imuiediately in that holy man. 
He then is as the head, aVid we as the members ; he 
. the vine, and we the branches. Now as the soul of 
man dwells otherwise and in a far more immediate 
manner in the head and in the heart than in the 
hands or legs ; and as the sap, virtue, and life of the 
vine lodgeth far otherwise in the stock and root than 
in the branches, so God dwelleth otherwise in the 
man Jesus, than in us. We also freely reject the 
heresy of Apollinarius, who denied him to have any 
soul, but said the body was only actuated by the God- 
head. As also the error of Eutyches, who made the 
manhood to be wholly swallowed up of the Godhead. 
Wherefore, as we believe he was a true and real 
man, so we also believe that he continues so to be 
glorified in the heavens in soul and body, by whom 


God shall judge the world, in the great and general 
day of judgment. 

§. XIV. Thirdly, We understa?id not this seed, light, ques. 3. * 
or grace to be an accident, as most men ignorant li/ j[^^J ^^\ 
do, but a real spiritual substance, which the soul of spiritual 
man is capable to feel and apprehend, from which 'vtS^liiay 
that real, spiritual, inward birth in believers arises, be feit in the 
called the new creature, the new man in the heart, prehended! 
This seems strange to carnal minded men, because 
they are not acquainted with it ; but we know it, and 
are sensible of it, by a true and certain experience. 
Though it be hard for man in his natural wisdom to 
comprehend it, until he come to feel it in himself; 
and if he should, holding it in the mere notion, it 
would avail him little; yet we are able to make it 
appear to be true, and that our faith concerning it is 
not without a solid ground : for it is in and by this 
inward and substantial seed in our hearts as it comes 
to receive nourishment, and to have a birth or geni- 
ture in us, that we come to have those spiritual senses 
raised by which we are made capable of tasting, 
smelling^ seeing, and handling the things of God : for 
a man cannot reach unto those things by his natural 
spirit and senses, as is above declared. 

Next, We know it to be a substance, because it 
subsists in the hearts of wicked men, even while they 
are in their wickedness, as shall be hereafter proved 
more at large. Now no accident can be in a subject 
without it give the subject its own denomination ; as 
where whiteness is in a subject, there the subject is 
called white. So we distinguish betwixt holiness, as The degrees 
it is an accidejit, which denominates man so, as the ;'/**''."'T"'' 
seed receives a place in him, and betwixt the holi/ ^oai of mun. 
substantial seed, which many times lies in mans 
heart as a naked grain in the stony ground. So also 
as we may distinguish betwixt health and medicine ; 
health cannot be in a body without the body be called 
healthful^ because health is an accident ; hut medicine 
may be in a body that is most unheal thful, for that it is 


a substance. And as when a medicine begins to work, 
the body may in some respect be called healthful, and 
in some respect unhealthful, so we acknowledge as 
this divine medicine receives a place f« mans heart, 
it may denominate him in some part holy and good, 
though there remain yet a corrupted unmortified part, 
or some part of the evil humours unpurged out ; for 
where two contrary accidents are in one subject, as 
health and sickness in a body, the subject receives its 
denomination from the accident which prevails most. 
So many men are called saints, good and holy men, 
and that truly, when this holy seed hath wrought in 
them in a good measure, and hath somewhat leavened 
them into its nature, though they may be yet liable to 
many infirmities and weaknesses, yea and to some 
iniquities : for as the seed of sin and ground of cor- 
ruption, yea and the capacity of yielding thereunto, 
and sometimes actually falling, doth not denominate 
a good and holy man impious ; so neither doth the 
seed of righteousness in evil men, and the possibility 
of their becoming one with it, denominate them good 
or holy. 
g. IS. 4. §. XV. Fourthly, We do not hercbi/ intend any ways 
to lessen or derogate from the atonement and sacrifice 
of Jesus Christ ; but on the contrary do magnify and 
exalt it. For as we believe all those things to have 
been certainly transacted which are recorded in the 
holy scriptures concerning the birth, life, miracles, 
sufferings, resurrection, and ascension of Christ; so 
we do also believe that it is the duty of every one to 
believe it to whom it pleases God to reveal the same, 
and to bring to them the knowledge of ij:<* yea we be- 
lieve it were damnable unbelief not to believe it, when 
so declared ; but to resist that holy seed, which as 
minded would lead and incline every one to believe 
it as it is offered unto them, though it revealeth not 
in every one the outward and explicit knowledge of 
it, nevertheless it always assenteth to it, ubi declara- 
tur, where it is declared. Nevertheless as we firmly 


believe it was necessary that Christ should come, 
that by his death and sufierings he might offer up 
himself a sacrifice to God for our sins, who his own- i 
self bare our sins in his own body on the tree ; so we .; 
believe that the remission of sins, which any partake That remis- \ 
of, is only in and by virtue of that most satisfactory f^''"^^^ '^'°^ 
sacrifice, and no otherwise. For it is by the obedience alone bj i 
of that one that the free gift is come upon all to just i-^^""^^^' 
Jication. For we affirm, that as all men partake of , , \ 
the fruit of Adam's fall, in that by reason of that evil \ 
seed, which through him is communicated unto them, ^ 
they are prone and inclined unto evil, though thou- '\ 
sands of thousands be ignorant of Adam's fall, nei- j 
ther ever knew of the eating of the forbidden fruit ; 
so also many may come to feel the influence of this 
holy and divine seed and light, and be turned from 
evil to good by it, though they knew nothing of * \ 
Christ's coming in the flesh, through whose obedience \ 
and sufferings it is purchased unto them. And as we | 
affirm it is absolutely needful that those do believe \ 
the history of Christ's outward appearance, whom it 
pleased God to bring to the knowledge of it; so we 
do freely confess, that even that outward knowledge j 
is very comfortable to such as are subject to and led " 
by the inward seed and light. For not only doth the \ 
sense of Christ's love and sufferings tend to humble d 
them, but they are thereby also strengthened in their j 
faith and encouraged to follow that excellent pattern "\ 
which he hath left us, who suffered for us, as saith the 
apostle Peter, 1 Pet. ii. 21, leaving us an example \ 
that we should follow his steps : and many times we j 
are greatly edified and refreshed with the gracious ^ 
sayings which proceed out of his mouth. The history The hisioi j \ 
then is profitable and comfortable with the mystery, j^iS^lSlT'''' ? 
and never without it ; but the mystery is and may be mystery. 
profitable without the explicit and outward know- 
ledge of the history. - 
But Fifthly, This brings us to another question, ques. 5. ■ 
to wit, Wliether Christ be in all men or no? Which ^^.^^'Zn. 


sometimes hath been asked us, and arguments brought 
against it ; because indeed it is to be found in some 
of our writings that Christ is in all men ; and we 
often are heard, in our public meetings and declara- 
tions, to desire every man to know and be acquainted 
with Christ in them, telling them that Christ is in 
them ; it is fit therefore, for removing of all mistakes, 
to say something in this place concerning this matter. 
We have said before how that a divifie, s-piritual, and 
supernatural light is in all men ; how that that divifie 
supernatural light or seed is vehiculum Dei ; how 
that God and Christ dwelleth in it, and is never sepa- 
rated from it; also how that as it is received and 
closed within the heart, Christ comes to be formed and 
brought forth ; but we are far from ever having said 
that Christ is thus formed in all men, or ifi the wicked: 
for that is a great attainment, which the apostle tra- 
vailed that it might be brought forth in the Galatians. 
Neither is Christ in all men by way oi union, or indeed, ' 
to speak strictly, by way of inhabitation; because this 
inhabitation, as it is generally taken, imports union, or 
the manner of Christ' s being in the saints: as it is writ- 
ten, I will dwell in them, and walk in them, 2 Cor. vi. 1 6. 
But in regard Chnst is in all men as in a seed, yea, 
and that he never is nor can be separate from that 
holy pure seed and light which is in all men ; there- 
fore may it be said in a larger sense, that he is in all, 
even as we observed before. The scripture saith, 
Amos, ii. 13 : God is pressed down as a cart U7ider 
sheaves, and Christ crucified in the ungodly ; though 
to speak properly and strictly, neither can God be 
pressed down, nor Christ, as God, be crucified. In 
this respect then, as he is in the seed which is in all 
men, we have said Christ is in all rnen, and have 
preached and directed all men to Christ in them, who 
chri»t era- Ucs cRicified iu them by their sins and iniquities, that 

mM'bv"ini. ^^^y "^^y ^^^^ "P^^^ ^^'^^^ whofu thct/ huvc picrccd, and 

quitiei. repent : 'whereby he that now lies as it were slain 

and buried /;/ them, may come to be raised, and have 


dominion in their hearts over all. And thus also 
the apostle Paul preached to the Corinthians and 
Galatians, 1 Cor. ii. 2, Christ crucified in them, kv 
vfMv, as the Greek hath it. This Jesus Christ was 
that which the apostle desired to know in them, and 
make known unto them, that they might come to be 
sensible how they had thus been crucifying Christ, 
that so they might repent and be saved. And foras- 
much as Christ is called that light that enlightens 
every man, the light of the world, therefore the light 
is taken for Christ, who truly is the fountain of light, 
and hath his habitation in it for ever. Thus the lis^ht 
of Christ is sometimes called Christ, i. e. that in which 
Christ is, and from which he is never separated. 

§. XVI. Sixthly, It will manifestly appear by what 
is above said, that we understand not this divine prin- ' 

ciple to he any part of mans nature, nor yet to be any 
relics of any good which Adam lost by his fall, in that 
we make it a distinct separate thing from man's soul, 
and all the faculties of it : yet such is the rnalice of 
our adversaries, that they cease not sometimes to 
calumniate us, as if we preached up a natural light, 
or the \\or\ii of man's natural conscience. Next there 
are that lean to the doctrine of Socinus and Pelagius, 
who persuade themselves through mistake, and out 
of no ill design to injure us, as if this which we 
preach up were some natural power and faculty of 
the soul, and that we only differ in the wording of it, 
and not in the thing itself; whereas there can be no 
greater difference than is betwixt us in that matter : 
for we certainly know that this light of which we 
speak is not only distinct, but of a different nature 
from the soul of man, and its faculties. Indeed that The facai- 
man, as he is a rational creature, hath reason as a rg^ason?^" * 
natural faculty of his soul, by which he can discern 
things that are rational, we deny not; for this is a 
property natural and essential to him, by which he 
can know and learn many arts and sciences, beyond 
what any other animal can do by the mere animal 


principle. Neither do we deny but by this rational 
principle man may apprehend in his brain, and in the 
notion, a knowledge of God and spiritual things ; 
yet that not being the right organ, as in the second 
proposition hath more at length been signified, it can- 
not profit him towards salvation, but rather hinder- 
eth ; and indeed the great cause of the apostacy hath 
been, that man hath sought to fathom the things of 
God in and by this natural and rational principle, and 
to build up a religion in it, neglecting and overlook- 
ing this principle and seed of God in the heart ; so 
that herein, in the most universal and catholic sense, 
Antirbrist hath A)itichrist hi every man set up himself, and sit- 
pie'of God ^^^^^ ^'^ ^^'^ temple of God as God, and above every 
thing that is called God, For men being the temple 
of the Holy Ghost, as saith the apostle, 1 Col. iii. 16, 
when the rational principle sets up itself there above 
the seed of God, to reign and rule as a prince in spi- 
ritual things, while the holy seed is wounded and 
bruised, there is Antichrist in every man, or some- 
what exalted above and against Christ. Neverthe- 
less we do not hereby affirm as if man had received 
his reason to no purpose, or to be of no service unto 
him ; in no wise : we look upon reason as fit to order 
Ti.e divine aud rulc man in things natural. For as God gave 
"f?^;*'"^"*" two ffreat liarhts to rule the outward world, the sun 

tural reason o ^ iiiii 

distinguish- and moon, the greater light to rule the day, and the 
**** lesser light to rule the night ; so hath he given man the 

light of his Son, a spiritual divine light, to rule him 
in things spiritual, and the light of reason to rule him 
in things natural. And even as the moon borrows her 
light *from the sun, so ought men, if they would be 
rightly and comfortably ordered in natural things, to 
have their reason enlightened by this divine and pure 
light. Which enlightened reason, in those that obey 
and follow this true light, we confess may be useful to 
man even in spiritual things, as it is still subservient 
and subject to the other ; even as the animal life in 
man, regulated and ordered by his reason, helps him in 


going about things that are rational. We do further The light i 
rightly distinguish this from man's natural conscience ; ^^^5-3"'*' ^ 
for conscience beinor* that in man which ariseth from mao's nata- • j 
the natural faculties of man's soul, may be defiled and encr°^°*' \ 
corrupted. It is said expressly of the impure, Tit. i. ] 
15 : That even their mind and conscience is defiled ; I 
but this light can never be corrupted nor defiled; 
neither did it ever consent to evil or wickedness in ' 
any : for it is said expressly, that it makes ail things ] 
manifest that are 7xprovahle, Eph. v. 13 ; and so is a j 
faithful witness for God against every unrighteous- 
ness in man. Now conscience^ to define it truly, i 
comes from [conscire,'] and is that knowledge which Conscience \ 
ariseth in man's heart, from what agreeth, co7itradict- '^^fi"e«J- 
eth, or is contrary to any thing believed by him, where- \ 
by he becomes conscious to himself that he transgresseth ^ 
by doing that which he is persuaded he ought not to do. ' \ 
So that the mind being once blinded or defiled with a 
wrong belief, there ariseth a conscience from that belief ] 
wliich troubles him when he goes against it. As for Example of i 
example : A Turk who hath possessed himself with a ^ ^ "'^'^* 
false belief that it is unlawful for him to drink wine, 
if he do it, his conscience smites him for it; but j 
though he keep many concubines, his conscience i 
troubles him not, because his judgment is already - 
defiled with a false opinion that it is lawful for him 5 
to do the one, and unlawful to do the other. Whereas \ 
if the light of Christ in him were minded, it would | 
reprove him not only for committing fornication, but j 
also, as he became obedient thereunto, inform him 1 
that Mahomet was an impostor ; as well as Socrates \ 
was informed by it, in his day, of the falsity of the | 
heathen's gods. \ 

So if a Papist eat flesh in Lent, or banot diligent Example oi 
enough in adoration of saints and images, or if he ^ ''^p'*^- 

should contemn images, his conscience would smite i^ 

him for it, because his judgment is already blinded \ 

with a false belief concerning these things : whereas ; 

the light of Christ never consented to any of those *. 


abominations. Thus then man's natural conscience 

is sufficiently distinguished from it; for conscience 

followeth the judgment, doth not inform it ; but this 

light, as it is received, removes the blindness of the 

judgment, opens the understanding, and rectifies both 

the judgment and conscience. So we confess also, 

that conscience is an excellent thing, where it is 

rightly informed and enlightened : wherefore some 

Tbc natural of US havc fitly comparcd it to the lanthorn, and the 

compi'rerto ^'g^* of Christ to a candle : a lanthorn is useful, when 

a lanthorn, a clcar caiijlle burns and shines in it ; but otherwise 

ugilt^of of no use. To the light of Christ then in the con- 

cbristtoa scicucc, and not to man's natural conscience, it is 

that we continually commend men ; that, not this, is 

it which we preach up, and direct people to, as to a 

most certain guide unto life eternal. 

Lastly, This liglit, seed, &c. appears to be no power 
or natural faculty of man's mind ; because a man that 
is in his health can, when he pleases, stir up, move, 
and exercise the faculties of his soul ; he is absolute 
master of them; and except there be some natural 
cause or impediment in the way, he can use them at 
his pleasure : but this light and seed of God in man 
he cannot move and stir up when he pleaseth ; but it 
moves, blows, and strives with man, as the Lord 
seeth meet. For though there be a possibility of sal- 
vation to every man during the day of his visitation, 
yet cannot a man, at any time when he pleaseth, or 
The waiUng hath somc scnsc of his misery, stir up that light and 
upon the prrace, SO as to procure to himself tenderness of heart ; 

movingsof p ^ ' ^. p . , . , „ ' 

the light but he must wait lor it : which comes upon all at cer- 
aod grace, ^.^j^^ timcs and seasons, wherein it works powerfully 
upon the soul, mightily tenders it, and breaks it ; at 
which time, if man resist it not, but close with it, he 
comes to know salvation by it. Even as the lake of 
Bethesda did not cure all those that washed in it, but 
such only as washed first after the angel had mov^ 
upon the waters ; so God moves in love to mankind, 
in this seed in his heart, at some singular times,'setting 


his sins in order before him, and seriously inviting 
him to repentance, offering to him remission of sins 
and salvation ; which if man accept of, he may be 
saved. Now there is no man alive, and I am confi- 
dent there shall be none, to whom this paper shall 
come, who, if they will deal faithfully and honestly 
with their own hearts, will not be forced to acknow- 
ledge that they have been sensible of this in some 
measure, less or more; which is a thing that man 
cannot bring upon himself with all his pains and in- 
dustry. This then, O man or woman ! is the day of 
God's gracious visitation to thy soul, which if thou 
resist not, thou shalt be happy for ever. This is the 
day of the Lord, which, as Christ saith, is like the Aiatt. xxiv. 
lightning, which shineth from the east unto the west: *^^- 
and the wind or spirit, which bloivs upon the heart, Joha/nis, 
and no man knoios whither it goes, nor ivhence it 

\. XVII. And lastly. This leads me to speak cou-ques. 7. 
cerning the manner of this seed or light's operation ui 
the hearts of all men, which will show yet more mani- 
festly, how widely we differ from all those that exalt a 
natural power or light in man ; and how our principle 
leads above all others to attribute our whole salvation 
to the mere power, Spirit, and grace of God. 

To them then that ask us after this manner, How 
do ye differ from the Pelagians and Arminians? For 
if two men have equal sujflcie?it light and grace, and 
the one be saved by it, the other not; isjt not because 
the one improves it, the other 7iot? Is not then the 
will of man the cause of the ones salvation beyond the 
other ? I say, to such we thus answer : That as the The light's 
grace and light in all is sufficient to save all, and of ?f ^^^"^'""^ 
its own nature would save all ; so it strives and salvation, 
wrestles with all in order to save them ; he that resists 
its striving is the cause of his own condemnation ; he 
that resists it not, it becomes his salvation : so that 
in him that is saved, the working is of the grace, and 
not of the inaji; and it is passiveness rather^han an 


iact ; though afterwards, as a man is wrought upon, 
^here is a will raised in him, by which he comes to 
be a coworker with the grace ; for according to that 
of Augustine, He that made us without us, icill ?iot 
save us without us. So that the first step is not by 
man's working, but by his not contrary working. 
And we believe, that these singular seasons of every 
man's visitation abovementioned, as man is wholly 
unable of himself to work with the grace, neither can 
he move one step out of the natural condition, until 
the grace lay hold upon him ; so it is possible for him 
to be passive, and not to resist it, as it is possible for 
him to resist it. So we say, the grace of God works 
in and upon man's nature ; which, though of itself 
wholly corrupted and defiled, and prone to evil, yet 
is capable to be wrought upon by the grace of God ; 
even as iron, though a hard and cold metal of itself, 
may be warmed and softened by the heat of the fire, 
and wax melted by the sun. And as iron or wax, 
when removed from the fire or sun, retumeth to its 
former condition of coldness and hardness ; so man's 
heart, as it resists or retires from the grace of God, 
returns to its' former condition again. I have often 
had the manner of God's working, in 'order to salva- 
tion towards all men, illustrated to my mind by one 
or two clear examples, which I shall here add for the 
information of others. 
Tbe exam- Thc first is, Of a man heavily diseased; to whom I 
eMe"d ma" comparc man in his fallen and natural condition. I 
andtbepiiy. supposc God, who is the great physician, not only to 
'"'""• give this man physic, after he hath used all the indus- 
try he can for his own health, by any skill or know- 
ledge of his own ; as those that say, If a man im- 
prove his reason, or natural faculties, God will super- 
add gi^ace; or, as others say, that he cometh and 
maketh offer of a remedy to this man outwardly, leav- 
ing it to the liberty of mans will either to receive it or 
reject it. But He, even the Loi-d, this great physi- 
cian, cometh, and poureth the remedy into his mouth, 


and as it were layeth him in bis bed ; so that if the 
sick man be but passive, it will necessarily work the 
effect : but if he be stubborn and untoward, and will 
needs rise up and go forth into the cold, or eat such 
fruits as are hurtful to him, while the medicine should 
operate; then, though of its nature it tendeth to cure 
him, yet it will prove destructive to him, because of 
those obstructions which it meeteth with. Now as 
the man that should thus undo himself would certainly 
be the cause of his own death ; so who will say, that, 
if cured, he owes not his health wholly to the physi- 
cian, and not to any deed of his own ; seeing his part 
was not any action, but a passiveness ? 

The second example is. Of divers men lying in a The exam- 
dark fit together, where all their senses are so stupi- f^'|ng*^rupl 
jied, that they are scarce sensible of their own misery, fied in a 
To this I compare man in his natural, corrupt, fallen ^^ ^^{^ 
condition. I suppose not that any of these men, deliverer, 
wrestling to deliver themselves, do thereby stir up or 
engage one able to deliver them to give them his 
help, saying within himself, / see one of these men 
willing to be delivered, and doifig to hat in him lies, 
therefore he deserves to be assisted; as say the Soci- 
nians, Pelagians, and Semi-Pelagians. Neither do I 
suppose that this deliverer comes to the top of the 
pit, and puts down a ladder, desiring them that will 
to come up ; and so puts them upon using their own 
strength and will to come up : as do the Jesuits and 
Arminians ; yet as they say, such are not delivered 
without the grace ; seeing the grace is that ladder by 
which they were delivered. But I suppose that the 
deliverer comes at certain times, and fully discovers 
and informs them of the great misery and hazard they 
are in, if they continue in that noisome and pestiferous 
place ; yea, forces them to a certain sense of their 
misery (for the wickedest men at times are made sen- 
sible of their misery by God's visitation) and not only 
so, but lays hold upon them, and gives them a pull, in 
order to iift them out of their misery ; which, if they 


resist not, will save them; only they may resist it. 
This being applied as the former, doth the same way 
illustrate the matter. Neither is the grace of God 
frustrated, though the effect of it be divers, according 
to its object, being the viinisti^ation of mercy and love 
in those that reject it not, but receive it, John, i. 
12, but the ministration of wrath and condemfiation 
in those that do reject it, John, iii. 19, even as the 
A simile of suu, by ouc act or operation, melteth and softeneth 
mdtbg'and ^^ ^^^» ^^^ hardeucth the clay. The nature of the 
hardening sun is to chcrish the creation, and therefore the living 
power. ^^ refreshed by it, and the flowers send forth a good 
savour, as it shines upon them, and the fruits of the 
trees are ripened ; yet cast forth a dead carcass, a 
thing without life, and the same reflection of the sun 
will cause it to stink, and putrify it ; yet is not the 
sun said thereby to be frustrated of its proper effect. 
So every man during the day of his visitation is shined 
upon by the sun of righteousness, and capable of being 
influenced by it, so as to send forth good fruit, and a 
good savour, and to be melted by it ; but when he 
hath sinned out his day, then the same sun hardeneth 
him, as it doth the clay, and makes his wickedness 
more to appear and putrify, and send forth an evil 
All have §. XVIII. Lastly, As we truly affirm that God will- 

fienffwfai- ^^ ^^ "^^^ ^® pcrish, and therefore hath given to all 
vation given gracc sufficicut for salvation ; so we do not deny, but 
\^^ ° that in a special manner he worketh in some, in whom 
grace so prevaileth, that they necessarily obtain sal- 
vation ; neither doth God suffier them to resist. For 
it were absurd to say, that God had not far otherwise 
extended himself towards the virgin Mary and the 
apostle Paul, than towards many others : neither can 
we affirm that God equally loved the beloved disciple 
John and Judas the traitor ; yet so far, nevertheless, 
as none wanted such a measure of grace by which 
they might have been saved, all are justly inexcusa- 
ble. And also God working in those to whom this 


prevalency of grace is given, doth so hide liimself, to ) 

shut out all security and presumption, that such may I 

be humbled, and the free grace of God magnified, and \ 
• all reputed to be of the free gift ; and nothing from 
the strength of self Those also who perish, when 

they remember those times of God's visitation towards ^^ 

them, wherein he wrestled with them by his Light ] 

and Spirit, are forced to confess that there was a time ] 

wherein the door of mercy was open unto them, and , 
that they are justly condemned, because they rejected 

their own salvation. i 

Thus both the mercy and justice of God are estab- i 
lished, and the will and strength of man are brought 

down and rejected ; his condemnation is made to be i 
of himself, and his salvation only to depend upon 
God. Also by these positions two great objections, 

which often are brought against this doctrine, are I 

well solved. t 

The first is deduced from those places of scripture, object. - 

wherein God seems precisely to have decreed and \ 
predestinated some to salvation ; and for that end, to 
have ordained certain means, which fall not out to 

others ; as in the calling of Abraham, David, and ] 

others, and in the conversion of Paul ; for these being \ 

numbered among such to whom this prevalency is ] 
given, the objection is easily loosed. 

The second is drawn from those places, wherein Prede»tina- I 

God seems to have ordained some wicked persons to *'"" *" "*'; i 

n 1 11 il'l vation, and 

destruction ; and therefore to have obdured t^ieir hearts preordina- ; 

to force them unto great sins, and to have raised *,'°actiou^" \ 

them up, that he might show in them his power, answered. i 

who, if they be numbered amongst those men whose ■ 

day of visitation is passed over, that objection is also ; 

solved ; as will more evidently appear to any one that ' 

will make a particular application of those things, ! 

which I at this time, for brevity's sake, thought meet ■ 

to pass over. I 

§. XIX. Having thus clearly and evidently stated \ 
the question, and opened our mind and judgment in 


this matter, as divers objections are hereby prevented, 
so will it make our proof both the easier and the 
Prop. I. The first thing to be proved is, That God hath 
Pro? ed. gi'ijcn to cvcvy man a day or time of visitation^ wherein 
it is possible /of him to be saved. If we can prove 
that there is a day and time given, in which those 
might liave been saved that actually perish, the mat- 
ter is done : for none deny but those that are saved 
prooi I. have a day of visitation. This then appears by the 
regrets and complaints which the Spirit of God 
throughout the whole scriptures makes, even to those 
Those that that did perish ; sharply reproving them, for that they 
Tdi^^'o^f*'^ did not accept of, nor close with God's visitation and 
mercy offer- offcr of mcrcy to thcm. Thus the Lord expresses 
'^ '^'"'' himself then first of all to Cain, Gen. iv. 6, 7 : And 
Instances, the Lo7'd Said unto Cai?i, Why art thou wroth ? and 

1. Cain. ^^^ ^^ ^i^y countenance fallen ? If thou dost well, shalt 

thou not be accepted ? If thou dost not tvell, sin lieth 
at the door. This was said to Cain before he slew 
his brother Abel, when the evil seed began to tempt 
him, and work in his heart ; we see how God gave 
warning to Cain in season, and in the day of his 
visitation towards him, acceptance and remission, if 
he did well : for this interrogation, Shalt thou not 
be accepted! imports an affirmative, Thou shalt be 
accepted, if thou dost well. So that if we may trust 
God Almighty, the fountain of all truth and equity, it 
was possible in a day, even for Cain to be accepted. 
Neither could God have proposed the doing of good 
as a condition, if he had not given Cain sufficient 
strength, whereby he was capable to do good. This 
the Lord himself also shows, even that he gave a day 

2. The old of visitation to the old world, Gen. vi. 3 : And the 
world. ior^/ said, My Spiint shall not always strive in man ; 

for so it ought to be translated. This manifestly im- 
plies, that his Spirit did strive with man, and doth 
strive with him for a season ; which season expiring, 
God ceaseth to strive with him, in order to save him : 


for the Spirit of God cannot be said to strive with ; 
man after the day of his visitation is expired ; seeing ^ 
it naturally, and without any resistance, works its 
effect then, to wit, continually to judge and condemn ] 
him. From this dai/ of visitation, that God fiath given 
to every one, is it that he is said to wait to be gracious. God is long- \ 
Isa. XXX. 18; and to be longmffering, Exod. xxxiv. *^J[^,^'°^' ] 
6; Numb. xiv. 18; Psal. Ixxxvi. 15; Jer. xv. 15. waiting to ^ 
Here the prophet Jeremy, in his prayer, lays hold ^^^f^^^ll"" t 
upon the longsuffering of God; and in his expostu- ; 
lating with God, he shuts out the objection of our ad- ' 
versaries in the 18 th verse ; Why is my pain perpetual, 
and my wound incurable, which refuseth to be healedt 
Wilt thou altogether be unto me as a liar, and as wa- 
ters that fain Whereas, according to our adversaries' ! 
opinion, the pain of the most part of men is perpe- j 
tual, and their wound altogether incurable ; yea, the ■ 
offer of the gospel, and of salvation unto them, is as ; 
a lie, and as waters that fail, being never intended to j 
be of any eflfect unto them. The apostle Peter says \ 
expressly, that this longsuffering of God waited in the \ 
days of Noah for those of the old world, 1 Pet. iii. 20, [ 
which, being compared with that of Gen. vi. 3, be- ; 
forementioned, doth sufficiently hold forth our propo- \ 
sition. And that none may object that this loyigsuf ! 
fering or striving of the Lord was not in order to —in order 
save them, the same apostle saith expressly, 2 Pet. ^^^'^ i 
iii. 15 : That the longsuffering of God is to be ac- \ 
counted salvation; and with this longsuffering, a \ 
little befDre in the 9th verse, he couples. That God is 
not willing that any should perish. Where, taking ; 
him to be his own interpreter (as he is most fit) he . \ 
holdeth forth, That those to whom the Lord is long- { 
suffering (which he declareth he was to the wicked \ 
of the old world, and is now to all, not willing that \ 
any should perish), they are to account this longsuf- \ 
fering of God to them salvation. Now how or in \ 
what respect can they account it salvation, if there be \ 
not so much as a possibility of salvation conveyed to \ 

' l2 i 


them tlierein? For it were not salvation to them, if 
they could not be saved by it. In this matter Peter 
further refers to the writings of Paul, holding forth 
this to have been the universal doctrine. Where it is 
observable what he adds upon this occasion, how 
Some things thcrc art soTtie things in Paul's epistles hard to be un- 
epiruel' derstood, which the unstable and wilearned wrest to 
'"'d* *° ^\ their own destruction; insinuating plainly this of those 
. gjj.prgggjQjjg jj^ Paul's epistles, as Rom. ix. &c. which 
some, unlearned in spiritual things, did make to con- 
tradict the truth of Gods longsuffering towards ally 
in which he willeth not any of them should perish, 
and in which they all may be saved. Would to God 
many had taken more heed than they have done to 
this advertisement ! That place of the apostle Paul, 
which Peter seems here most particularly to hint at, 
doth much contribute also to clear the matter, Rom. 
ii. 4 : Despisest thou the riches of his goodness, and 
forbearance, and longsuffering, not knowing that the 
goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance! Paul 
speaketh here to the unregenerate, and to the wicked, 
who (in the following verse he saith) treasure up 
wrath unto the dai/ of wrath ; and to such he com- 
mends the riches of the forbearance and longsuffer- 
ing of God ; showing that the tendency of God s 
goodness leadeth to repentance. How could it ne- 
cessarily tend to lead them to repentance, how could 
it be called riches or goodness to them, if there were 
not a time wherein they might repent by it, and come 
to be sharers of the riches exhibited in it ? From all 
which I thus argue. 
Arc. If God plead with the wicked, from the possibility 

cod'i Spirit of their being accepted; if God's Spirit strive in them 
the wfckU. ^^^ ^ season, in order to save them, who afterwards 
perish; if he wait to be gracious unto them; if he 
be longsuffering towards them ; and if this longsuf- 
fering be salvation to them while it endureth, during 
which time God willeth them not to perish, but exhi- 
biteth to them the riches of his goodness and forbear- 


ance to lead tliem to repentance ; then there is a day 
, of visitation wherein such might have been, or some 
such now may be saved, who have perished ; and 
may perish, if they repent not : 

But the first is true ; therefore also the last. 

§. XX: Secondly, this appeareth from the prophet pr. ii. 
Isaiah, v. 4 : What could I have done jnore to my 
vineyard^. For in verse 2 he saith; He had fenced it, Thevine- 
and mtheixd out the stones thereof, and planted it ^^'^ p'*""*' 

-.1.1 I • ' J /'TIN 7 ^ed broai;ht 

With the choicest vme ; and yet (saith he) when /forth wild 
looked it should have brought forth grapes, it brought ^"p®** 
forth wild grapes. Wherefore he calleth the inhabi- 
tants of Jerusalem, and men of Judah, to judge be- 
twixt him and his vineyard, saying ; What could I 
have done more to my vineyard, than I have done in 
itl and yet (3,8 is S2iid) it brought forth wild grapes : 
which was applied to many in Israel who refused 
God's mercy. The same example is used by Christ, 
Matt. xxi. 33 ; Mark, xii. 1 ; Luke, xx. 9, where Jesus 
shows, how to some a vineyard was planted, and all 
things given necessary for them, to get them fruit to 
pay or restore to their master ; and how the master 
many times waited to be merciful to them, in sending 
servants after servants, and passing by many offences, 
before he determined to destroy and cast them out. 
First, then, this cannot be understood of the saints, 
or of such as repent and are saved ; for it is said ex- 
pressly, He will destroy them. Neither would the 
parable any ways have answered the end for which 
it is alleged, if these men had not been in a capacity 
to have done good; yea, such was their capacity, that 
Christ saith in the prophet. What could I have done 
morel So that it is more than manifest, that by 
this parable, repeated in three sundry evangelists, 
Christ holds forth his longsuffering towards men, 
and their wickedness, to w^hom means of salvation 
being afforded, do nevertheless resist, to their own 
condemnation. To these also are parallel these scrip- 
tures, Prov. i. 24, 25, 26 ; Jer. xviii. 9, 10 ; Matt, 
xviii. 32, 33, 34 ; Acts, xiii. 46. 


Pi. III. Lastly, That there is a day of visitation given \o 

the wicked, wherein they might have been saved, and 
which being expired, they are shut out from salva- 

chri«t'. u- tion, appears evidently by Christ's lamentation over 

"Tr j'°u Jerusalem, expressed in three sundry places, Matt. 

saiem. xxiii. 37 ; Luke, xiii. 34, and xix. 41, 42 : Atid when 
he was come neai\ he beheld the city, and wept over it, 
saying ; If thou hadst known, even thou, at least in 
this thy day, the things that belo?ig to thy peace ; but 
now they are hid from thine eyes! Than which no- 
thing can be said more evident to prove our doctrine. 
For, First, he insinuates that there was a day wherein 
the inhabitants of Jerusalem might have known those 
things that belonged to their peace. Secondly, That 
during that day he was willing to have gathered them, 
even as a hen gathereth her chickens. A familiar 
example, yet very significative in this case ; which 
shows that the offer of salvation made unto them was 
not in vain on his part, but as really, and with as 
great cheerfulness and willingness as a hen gathereth 
her chickens. Such as is the love and care of the. 
hen toward her brood, such is the care of Christ to 
gather lost men and women, to redeem them out of 
their corrupt and degenerate state. Thirdly, That 
because they refused, the things belonging to their 
peace were hid from their eyes. Why were they hid? 
Because ye would not suffer me to gather you ; ye 
would not see those things that were good for you, in 
the season of God's love towards you ; and therefore 
now, that day being expired, ye cannot see them : and, 
for a farther judgment, God suffers you to be hardened 
in unbelief. 

Codhar- So it is, after real offers of mercy and salvation 
rejected, that men's hearts are hardened, and not be- 
fore. Thus that saying is verified, To him that hath 
shall be given ; and from him that hath not, shall be 
taken away even that which he hath. Tliis may seem 
a riddle, yet it is according to this doctrine easily 
solved. He hath not, because he hath lost the season 
of using it, and so to him it is now as nothing; for 

dens, wh«o. 


Christ uses this expression, Matt. xxv. 26, upon the ^ 
occasion of the taking the one talent from the slothful The one ta- ^ 
servant, and giving it to him that was diligent; which /afficTe^nt. 
talent was no ways insufficient of itself, but of the i^ 
same nature with those given to the others; and I 
therefore the Lord had reason to exact the profit of it i 
proportionably, as well as from the rest : so, I say, it \ 
is after the rejecting of the day of visitation, that the i 
judgment of obduration is inflicted upon men and \ 
women, as Christ pronounceth it upon the Jews out j 
of Isaiah, vi. 9, which all the four evangelists make 
mention of^ Matt. xiii. 14; Mark, iv. 12; Luke, viii. 
10; John, xii. 40; and last of all the apostle Paul, \ 
after he had made offer of the gospel of salvation to ; 
the Jews at Rome, pronounceth the same. Acts, 
xxviii. 26, after that some believed not ; Well spake ] 
the Holy Ghost, by Isaiah the prophet, unto our ' i 
fathers, saying, Go unto this people, and say, Hearing \ 
ye shall hear, and shall not understand ; and seeing 1 
ye shall see, and [shall not perceive. For the heart of ] 
this people is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of 
hearing, and their eyes have they closed; lest they - 
should see with their eyes, a?id hear with iheir ears, 
and understand with their hearts, and should be con- \ 
verted, arul I should heal them. So it appears, that \ 
God would have them to see, but they closed their S 
eyes; and therefore they are justly hardened. Of 1 
this matter Cyrillus Alexandrinus upon John, lib. vi. CjrHi. hUx. 
cap. 21, speaks well, answering to this objection: 
^* But some say, If Christ be come into the world, \ 
that those that see may be blinded, their blindness is \ 
not imputed unto them; but it rather seems that 
Christ is the cause of their blindness, who saith, ] 
* He is come into the world, that those that see may be :\ 
blinded' But," saith he, " they speak not rationally, \ 
who object these things unto God, and are not afraid ^ 
to call him the author of evil. For, as the sensible \ 
sun is carried upon our horizon, that it may commu- 
nicate the gift of its clearness unto all, and make its \ 


Tiie oaose light shinc upon all ; yet if any one close his eyelids, 
of man's re- Qj^ willineflv tum himself from the sun, refusing: the 
darkiiew, benefit of Its light, he wants its illumination, and re- 
[^•^^^""^ mains in darkness, not through the defect of the sun, 
but through his own fault. So that the true Sun, 
who came to enlighten those that sat in darkness, 
and in the region of the shadow of death, visited the 
earth for this cause, that he might communicate unto 
all the gift of knowledge and grace, and illuminate 
the inward eyes of all by a spiritual splendour : but 
many reject the gift of this heavenly light freely given 
to them, and have closed the eyes of their minds, lest 
/ so excellent an illumination or irradiation of the eter- 
nal light should shine unto them. It is not then 
through defect of the true sun that they are blinded, 
but only through their own iniquity and hardness ; 
for, as the wise man saith. Wisdom, ii. their wick- 
edness hath blinded them."" 

From all which I thus argue : 
The obsii- If there was a day wherein the obstinate Jews 
w^IITkI. roig^it have known the things that belonged to their 
peace, which, because they rejected it, icei^e hid from 
their eyes ; if there was a time wherein Christ would 
have gathered them, who because they refused, could 
not be gathered ; then such as might have been saved 
do actually perish, that slighted the day of God's visi- 
tation towards them, wherein they might have been 
converted and saved. 

But the first is true ; therefore also the last. 
Prop. h. §. XXI. Secondly, That which comes in the second 
place to be proved is, That whereby God offers to work 
this salvation during the day of every nians visitation; 
and that is, That he hath given to evei^y man a mea- 
sure of saving, sufficient, and supernatm^al light and 
grace. This I shall do, by God's assistance, by some 
plain and clear testimonies of the scripture. 
Proof I. First, From that of John, i. 9, That was the true 
onitghfen- ^^^'/'^ whicli Ughtcth cvcry man that cometh into the 
inj •'•'j'^ world. This place doth so clearly favour us, that by 


some it is called the Quaker's text ; for it doth evi- j 
dently demonstrate our assertion ; so that it scarce J 
needs either consequence or deduction, seeing itself is ] 
a consequence of two propositions asserted in the 
former verses, from which it followeth as a conclusion 
in the very terms of our faith. The first of these pro- ] 
positions is, The life that is in him is the light of \ 
men: the second, The light shineth in the darkness ; ' 
and from these two he infers, and He is the true 
light, which lighteth every man that cometh i7ito the '] 
world. ' '\ 
From whence I do in short observe, That this obseuv. i. ' 
divine apostle calls Christ the light of men, and giveth : 
us this as one of the chief properties, at least consi- 
derably and especially to be observed by us ; seeing ] 
hereby, as he is the light, and as we walk with him 
in that light which he communicates to us, we come j 
to have fellowship and communion with him ; as the i 
same apostle saith elsewhere, 1 John, i. 7. Secondly, j 
That this light shineth in darkness, though the dark- \ 
ness comprehend it not. Thirdly, That this true light -not to a \ 
enlighteneth even/ man that cometh into the world. ^'/„' J,'"^ ,,f 
Where the apostle, being directed by God's Spirit, meo, but : 
hath carefully avoided their captiousness, that would ^"^^^ "*"* \ 
have restricted this to any certain number: where 
every one is, there is none excluded. Next, should > 
they be so obstinate, as sometimes they are, as to say 
that this [every man] is only every one of the elect ; ^ 
these words following, every man that cometh into the 
world, would obviate that objection. So that it is \ 
plain there comes no man into the world, whom ] 
Christ hath not enlightened in some measure, and in J 
whose dark heart this light doth not shine ; though 
the darkness comprehend it not, yet it shineth there ; ] 
and the nature thereof is to dispel the darkness, I 
where men shut not their eyes upon it. Now for The ligiit ] 
what end this light is given, is expressed verse 7, ^^^^ \ 
where John is said to come for a witness, to bear wit- begets faith. j 


neiis to the light, that all men through it might believe; 
to wit, througU the light, ^i uvth, which doth very 
well agree with ^wtoc, as being the nearest antece- 
dent, though most translators have (to make it suit 
with their own doctrine) made it relate to John, as if 
all men were to believe through John. For which, 
as there is nothing directly in the text, so it is con- 
trary to the very strain of the context. For, seeing 
Christ hath lighted every man with this light, is it 
not that they may come to believe through it ? All 
could not believe through John, because all men 
could not know of John's testimony ; whereas every 
man being lighted by this, may come there-through 
to believe. John shined not in darkness ; but this 
light shineth in the darkness, that having dispelled 
the darkiiess, it may produce and beget faith. And 
lastly. We must believe through that, and become be- 
lievers through that, by walking in which, fellowship 
with God is known and enjoyed ; but, as hath been 
above observed, it is by walking in this light that we 
have this communion and fellowship ; not by walk- 
ing in John, which were nonsense. So that this re- 
lative Si avTH, must needs be referred to the light, 
whereof John bears witness, that through that light, 
wherewith Christ hath lighted every man, all men 
might come to believe. Seeing then this light is the 
light of Jesus Christ, and the light through which 
men come to believe, I think it needs not to be 
The light is doubtcd, but that it is a supernatural, saving, and 
^Havlrg, sufficient light. If it were not supernatural, it could 
und soffici-' not be properly called the light of Jesus ; for though 
'"** all things be his, and of him, and from him ; yet 

those things which are common and peculiar to our 
nature, as being a part of it, we are not said in so 
special a manner to have from Christ. Moreover, 
the evangelist is holding out to us here the office of 
Christ as mediator, and the benefits which from him 
as such do redound unto us. 


Secondly, It cannot be any of the natural gifts or observ 2. 

faculties of our soul, whereby we are said here to be ! 

enlightened, because this light is said to shine in I 
the darkness, and cannot be comprehended by it. 
Now this darkness is no other but man's natural con- The dark- 
ditron and state ; in which natural state he can easily II,"^'s uatu- 

comprehend, and doth comprehend, those things that rai state and ; 

are peculiar and common to him as such. That man *'°"*^**""'* I 

in his natural condition is called darkness, see Eph. ; 

V. 8: For ye were sometimes darkness, but now are ye \ 

light in the Lord. And in other places, as Acts, \ 

xxvi. 18; Col. i. 3; 1 Thess. v. 5; where the con- \ 
dition of man in his natural state is termed darkness: 

therefore, I say this light cannot be any natural pro- \ 

perty or faculty of man's soul, but a supernatural gift \ 
and grace of Christ. 

Thirdly, It is sufficient and saving. odserv. •>. j 

That which is given that all men through it may aro. 1. ! 

believe, must needs be saving and sufficient : that, by i 

walking in which, fellowship with the saints and the \ 

blood of Christ, which deanseth from all sin, is pos- \ 

sessed, must be sufficient : I 

But such is the Light, 1 John, i. 7. 

Therefore, &c. \ 

Moreover ; 

That which we are commanded to believe in that arc. 2. \ 

we may become the children of the Light, must be a \ 

supernatural, sufficient, and saving principle : | 

But we are commanded to believe in this light : 

Therefore, &c. \ 

The proposition cannot be denied. The assump- j 

tion is Christ's own words, John, xii. 36 : While ye \ 
have the light, believe in the light, that ye may be the 

children of the light. \ 

To this they object. That by [light] here is under- object. \ 

stood Christ's outward person, i?i whom he would have i 

them believe. \ 

That they ought to have believed in Christ, that is, answ. 
that he was the Messiah that was to come, is not 


Whether denied; but how they evince that Christ intended 

wiidpcMon '^^^ ^^^^' ^ ^^^ "^* • ^^y ^^^^ P^^^^ ^^^^^ shows the 
wMthe contrary, by these words, Whi/e ye have the light; 
^^^^' and by the verse going before, Walk while yc have 
the light, lest darkness come upon you : which words 
import, that when that light in which they were to 
believe was removed, then they should lose the capa- 
city or season of believing. Now this could not be 
understood of Christ's person, else the Jews might 
have believed in him ; and many did savingly believe 
in him, as all Christians do at this day, when the 
person, to wit, his bodily presence, or outward man, is 
The light of far removed from them. So that this light in which 
Christ's "''* ^^^^y w^re commanded to believe must be that inward 
outward spiritual light that shines in their hearts for a season, 
ITn" *"^ ^^^ even during the day of man's visitation ; which while 
it continueth to call, invite, and exhort, men are said 
to have it, and may believe in it ; but when men re- 
fuse to believe in it, and reject it, then it ceaseth to 
be a light to show them the way; but leaves the 
sense of their unfaithfulness as a sting in their con- 
science, which is a terror and darkness unto them, 
and upon them, in which they cannot know where to 
go, neither can work any ways profitably in order to 
their salvation. And therefore to such rebellious 
ones the day of the Lord is said to be darkness, and 
. not light, Amos, v. 18. 

From whence it appears, that though many receive 
not the light, as many comprehend it not, neverthe- 
less this saving light shines in all, that it may save 
Cjriiius them. Concerning which also Cyrillus Alexandri- 
niI«V"on' ^^^ ^^^*^ "weW, and defends our principle : " With 
John, lih. i. great diligence and watchfulness," saith he, " doth 
chap. II. ^i^g apostle John endeavour to anticipate and prevent 
the vain thoughts of men : for there is here a wonder- 
ful method of sublime things, and overturning of ob- 
jections. He had just now called the Son the true 
light, by whom he affirmed that every man coming 
into the world was enlightened; yea, that he was in 


the world, and the world was made by him. One 

may then object, If the word of God be the light, and : 

if this light enlighten the hearts of men, and suggest ] 

unto men piety and the understanding of things ; if | 

he was always in the world, and was the creator or ; 

builder of the world, why was he so long unknown 

unto the world ? It seems rather to follow because he ■ 

was unknown to the world, therefore the world was not 

enlightened by him, nor he totally light. Lest any \ 

should so object, he divinely infers [and the world 

knew him not]. Let not the world," saitli he, " accuse 

the word of God, and his eternal light, but its own The sun en- 

weakness ; for the sun enlightens, but the creature bJl'*^"^ 1 

rejects the grace that is given unto it, and abuseth the througu \ 

sharpness of understanding granted it, by which it burilfHra- -i 

might have naturally known God ; and, as a prodigal, mination. ;. 

hath turned its sight to the creatures, neglecting to go | 

forward, and through laziness and negligence buried 

the illumination, and despised this grace. Which that 

the disciple of Paul might not do, he was commanded i 

to watch ; therefore it is to be imputed to their wick- .1 

edness, who are illuminated, and not unto the light. 

For as albeit the sun riseth upon all, yet he that is ■ 

blind receiveth no benefit thereby ; none thence can 

justly accuse the brightness of the sun, but will ascribe ] 

the cause of not seeing to the blindness : so I judge ^ 

it is to be understood of the only begotten Son of ] 

God ; for he is the true light, and sendeth forth his \ 

brightness upon all ; but the god of this world, as '!■ 

Paul saith, hath blinded the minds of those that be- .) 

lieve not, 2 Cor. iv. 4, that the light of the gospel • 

shine not unto them. We say then that darkness is 

come upon men, not because they are altogether de- i 

prived of light, for nature retaineth still the strength 

of understanding divinely given it, but because man \ 

is dulled by an evil habit, and become worse, and ' i 

hath made the measure of grace in some respect to < I 

languish. When therefore the like befalls man, the i 

Psalmist justly prays, crying^ Open mine eyes, that I < 


77iay behold the wonderful things of thy law. For the 
law was given that this light might be kindled in us, 
the blearedness of the eyes of our minds being wiped 
away, and the blindness being removed which de- 
tained us in our former ignorance. By these words 
then the world is accused as ungrateful and unsensi- 
ble, not knowing its author, nor bringing forth the 
good fruit of the illumination ; that it may now seem 
to be said truly of all, which was of old said by the 
prophet of the Jews, I expected that it should have 
brought forth grapes, but it brought forth wild 
grapes. For the good fruit of the Ulujnination was 
the knowledge of the only begotten, as a cluster hang- 
ing from a fruitful branch, &c." 
Grace no na- From whicli it appcars Cyrillus believed that a 
turui ifift. gfjyiyjg illumination was given unto all. For as to 
what he speaks of nature, he understands it not of the 
common nature of man by itself, but of that nature 
which hath the strength of understanding divinely 
given it : for he understands this uiiiversal illumina-^ 
Hon to be of the same kind with that gi^ace of which 
Paul makes mention to Timothy, saying. Neglect not 
the grace that is in thee. Now it is not to be believed 
that Cyrillus was so ignorant as to judge that grace 
to have been some natural gift. 
Prop. II. ^. XXII. That this saving light and seed, or a 
measure of it, is given to all, Christ tells us expressly 
in the parable of the sower, Matt, xiii* from verse 18 ; 
The»eed of Mark, iv. and Luke, viii. II, he saith. That this seed 
domV«7own sown in those several sorts of ground is the word of 
in sererai the kifigdom, whicli thc apostle calls the ivord of faith, 
groanda Rom. X. 8; Jamcs, i. 21 ; o Aoyoc f^^uroc, the im- 
tjrithoat planted engrafted word, which is able to save the soul ; 
the words themselves declare that it is that which is 
.*iavijig in the nature of it, for in the e^ood aromKl i< 
fructified abundantly. 

Let us then observe, that this seed of the kingdom, 
this saving, supernatural, and sufficient word, was 
really sown in the stony thorny ground, niid by tlie 


wayside, where it did not profit, but became useless 
as to these grounds : it was, I say, the same seed that 
was sown in the good ground. It is then the fear of 
persecution and deceitfulness of riches, as Christ him- 
self interpreteth the parable, which hindereth this 
seed to grow in the hearts of many : not but that in 
its own nature it is sufficient, being the same with 
that which groweth up and prospereth in the hearts 
of those who receive it. So that though all are not 
saved by it, yet there is a seed of salvation planted 
and sown in the hearts of all by God, which would 
grow up and redeem the soul, if it were not choked 
and hindered. Concerning this parable Victor An- 
tiochenus on Mark iv. as he is cited by Vossius, in 
his Pelagian Histoiy, book 7, saith, " That our Lord 
Christ hath liberally sown the divine seed of the word, 
and proposed it to all, without respect of persons ; 
and as he that soweth distinguisheth not betwixt 
ground and ground, but simply casteth in the seed 
without distinction, so our Saviour hath offered the 
food of the divine word so far as was his part, although 
he was not ignorant what would become of many. 
Lastly, he so behaved himself, as he might justly say, 
What should I have done that I have not done?" 
And to this answered the parable of the talents, Matt. 
XXV. he that had two talents was accepted, as well as 
he that had^z;e, because he used them to his master's 
profit : and he that had one might have done so ; his 
talent was of the same nature of the rest ; it was as 
capable to have proportionably brought forth its in- 
terest as the rest. And so thouo^h there be not a like 
proportion of grace given to all, to some^ve talents, 
to some two talents, and to some but one talent ; yet 
there is given to all that which is sufficient, and no 
more is required than according to that which is 
given : For unto whomsoever much is given, from him 
shall much he required, Luke, xii. 48. He that had 
the two talents was accepted for ^wm^ four, nothing 
less than he that srave the ten : so should he also that 


gave the one, if he had given tivo ; and no doubt one 
was capable to have produced two, as well as Jive to 
have produced ten, or two four. 
Prop. III. §. XXIII. Thirdly, This saving spiritual light is 
the gospel, which the apostle saith expressly is 
The ligbt is preached in every creature under heaven; even that 
tbe S^we^r' ^^^1 gosp^l wkereof Paul was made a minister. Col. i. 
of God 23. For the gospel is not a mere declaration of good 
everf crta° thiu^s, bciug the pcTwer of God unto salvation to all 
tureander tlwsc that beUeve, Rom. i. 16. Though the outward 
^*^*°* declaration of the gospel be taken sometimes for the 
gospel ; yet it is but figuratively, and by a metonymy. 
For to speak properly, the gospel is this inward power 
and>life which preacheth glad tidings in the hearts of 
alKmen, offering salvation unto them, and seeking to 
redeem them from their iniquities, and therefore it is 
said to be preached in every creature under heaven: 
whereas there are many thousands of men and women 
to whom the outward gospel was never preached. 
Therefore the apostle Paul, Romans, i. where he saith 
the gospel is the power of God unto salvation, adds, 
that therein is revealed the i^ighteousness of God from 
faith to faith ; and also the wrath of God against 
such as hold the truth of God in unrighteoustu^s : for 
this reason, saith he, because that which may be known 
of God is mafiifest in them ; for God hath shouted it 
unto them. Now that which may be known of God, 
is known by the gospel, which was manifest in them. 
For those of whom the apostle speaks had no outward 
gospel preached unto them ; so that it was by the ivLz 
ward manifestation of the knowledge of God in them, 
which is indeed the gospel preached in man, that the 
righteous?}css of God is revealed from faith to faith ; 
that is, it reveals to the soul that which is just, good, 
and righteous ; and that as the soul receiveth it and 
believes, righteousness comes more and more to be 
revealed from one degree of faith to another. For , 
though, as the following verse saith, the outward crea- 
tion declares the power of God ; yet that which may 


be known of him is manifest within : by which inward 
manifestation we are made capable to see and discern 
the Eternal Power and Godhead in the outward crea- 
tion; so were it not for this inward principle, we 
could no more understand the invisible things of God 
by the outward visible creation, than a blind man can 
see and discern the variety of shapes and colours, or 
judge of the beauty of the outward creation. There- 
fore he saith, first, That which may be known of God 
is manifest in them, and in and by that they may read 
and understand the power and Godhead in those 
things that are outward and visible. And though 
any might pretend that the outward creation doth of 
itself, without any supernatural or saving principle in 
the heart, even declare to the natural man tjiat ther^ 
is a God ; yet what would such a knowledge avail, 
if it did not also communicate to me what the will of 
God is, and how I shall do that which is acceptable 
to^ him ? For the outward creation, though it may be- The out- 
let a persuasion that there is some eternal power or Z""'^ "^t' 

• 1 1-11 111 111' 1.. tionmaybe- 

virtue by which the world hath had its beginning ; get a per- 
yet it doth not tell me, nor doth it inform me of that 1^^? '° 

11 1111 1 T ' 

which is just, holy, and righteous ; how I shall be eternal 
delivered from my temptations and evil affections, vhiul.°' 
and come unto righteousness ; that must be from some 
inward manifestation in my heart. Whereas those 
Gentiles of whom the apostle speaks knew by that 
inward law and manifestation of the knowledsfe of 
God in them to distinguish betwixt good and evil, as 
in the next chapter appears, of which we shall speak 
hereafter. The prophet Micah, speaking of man in- 
definitely, or in general, declares this, Mic. vi. 8, He 
hath showed thee, O man, what is good. And what 
doth the Lord require of thee, but to do justly, and to 
love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God? He 
doth not say God requires, till he hath first assured 
that he hath showed unto them. Now because this 
is showed unto all men, and manifest in them, there- 
fore, saith the apostle, is the wrath of God revealed 



as^ainst them, for that they hold the truth in imrighteous- 

iiess; that is, the measure of truth, the light, the seed, 

the grace in them : for that they hide the talent in the 

earth ; that is, in the earthly and unrighteous part in 

their hearts, and suffer it not to bring forth fruit, but 

to be choked with the sensual cares of this life, the 

fear of reproach, and the deceitfulness of riches, as 

by the parables above mentioned doth appear. But 

the apostle Paul opens and illustrates this matter yet 

more, Rom. x. where he declares, 'Fliat the word tvhich 

he preached (now the word which he preached, and 

the gospel which he preached, and whereof he was a 

minister, is one and the same) is not far off, but nigh 

ifi the heart and in the mouth ; which done, he frameth 

as it were the objection of our adversaries in the 14th 

and 15th verses, Haio shall they believe in him of 

whom they have not heard ^. And how shall they hear 

without a preacher'! This he answers in the 18th 

verse, saying. But, I say, have they 7iot heard 1 Yes 

verily, their sound went into all the eai^th, and their 

words unto the ends of the world; insinuating that 

ThcdiTine this divinc preacher had sounded in the ears and 

the word b^^rts of ull mm : for of the outtoai^d apostles that 

nigh, bath saying was not true, neither then, nor many hundred 

the earf and Y^ars after ; yea, for aught we know there may be yet 

hearts of all great and spacious nations and kingdoms that never 

have heard of Christ nor his apostles as outwardly. 

This inward and powerful word of God is yet more 

fully described in the epistle to the Hebrews, chap. iv. 

12, 13 : For the word of God is quick and powerful, 

and shatper than any two-^dged sicord, piercing even 

to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the 

joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts 

and intents of the heart. The virtues of this spiritual 

word are here enumerated ; it is quick, because it 

searches and tries the hearts of all ; no man's heart 13 

exempt from it : for the apostle gives this reason of 

Before its being so in the following verse. But all things are 

tbin^. are ^^kcd ttnd opcncd unto the eyes of him with whom we 



have to do : and there is not any creature that is not 
manifest in his sight. Though this ultimately and 
mediately be referred to God, yet nearly and imme- 
diately it relates to the word or light, which, as hath 
been before proved, is in the hearts of all, else it had 
been improper to have brought it in here. The 
apostle shows how every intent and thought of the And ererj 
heart is discerned by the word of God, because all |J°e°nfof the 
things are naked before God ; which imports nothing heart, 
else but it is in and by this word whereby God sees 
and discerns man's thoughts, and so it must needs be 
in all men, because the apostle saith, the?'e is no crea- 
ture that is not manifest in his sight. This then is 
that faithful witness and messenger of God that bears The faithfai 
witness for God, and for his righteousness in the ""'*""'• 
hearts of all men : for he hath not left himself without 
a witness, Acts, xiv. 17, and he is said to be given for 
a witness to the people, Isa. Iv. 4. And as this word 
beareth witness for God, so it is not placed in men 
only to condemn them : for as he is given for a wit- 
ness, so saith the prophet, he is given for a leader and ku^Atr 
commander. The light is given, that all through it ^^^^^' 
may believe, John, i. 7, for faith cometh by hearing, 
and hearing by the word of God, which is placed in 
man's heart, both to be a witness for God, and to be 
a means to bring man to God through faith and re- 
pentance : it is therefore powerful, that it may divide 
betwixt the so^d and the spirit : it is like a two-edged a two-edg. 
sword, that it may cut off iniquity from him, and ®^ '*°'^*** 
separate betwixt the precious and the vile ; and be- 
cause man's heart is cold and hard like iron naturally, 
therefore hath God placed this word in him, which is 
said to be like a^re, and like a hammer, Jer. xxiii. 29, a fire and a 
that like as by the heat of the fire the iron, of its own ''*""°^''* 
nature cold, is warmed and softened, and by the 
strength of the hammer is framed according to the 
mind of the worker ; so the cold and hard heart of 
man is by the virtue and powerfulness of this word 
of God near and in the heart, as it resists not, warmed 

M 2 


and softened, and receiveth a heavenly and celestial 
impression and image. The most part of the fathers 
have spoken at large touching this toord, seed, light, 
and saving voice calling all unto salvation, and able 
to save. 
Clem. Alex. Clcmens Alexandrinus saith, lib. 2. Stromat. " The 
divine word hath cried, calling all, knowing well 
those that will not obey ; and yet, because it is in our 
power either to obey or not to obey, that none may 
have a pretext of ignorance, it hath made a righteous 
call, and requireth but that which is according to the 
ability and strength of every one." The selfsame, 
in his warning to the Gentiles ; " For as," saith he, 
" that heavenly ambassador of the Lord, the grace of 
God, that brings salvation, hath appeared unto all, 
&c. This is the new song, coming and manifesta- 
tion of the word, which now shows itself in us, which 
was in the beginning, and was first of all." And 
again, " Hear therefore, ye that are afar off; hear, ye 
who are near ; the word is hid from none, the light 
is common to all, and shineth to all. There is no 
darkness in the word: let us hasten to salvation, to 
The gather- the ucw birth, that we being many, may be gathered 
onr.nd **" into the one alone love." Ibid, he saith, " That there 
aioue lore, is iufiised iuto all, but principally into those that are 
trained up in doctrine, a certain divine influoice, rlq 
airoppoia 0eca." And again he speaks concerning the 
innate witness, worthy of belief, which of itself doth 
plainly choose that w}iich is most honest." And 
again he saith, "That it is not impossible to come 
unto the truth, and lay hold of it, seeing it is most 
near to us, in our own houses, as the most wise Moses 
declareth, living in three parts of us, viz. in our hands, 
in our mouth, and in our hearts. This," saith he, 
" is a most true badge of the truth, which is also ful- 
filled in three things, namely, in counsel, in action, 
in speaking." And ae^ain he saith also unto the un- 
believing nations, " Receive Christ, receive light, 
receive sight, to the end thou mayest rightly know 


both God and man. The word that hath enlightened The en- 
us is more pleasant than gold, and the stone of great '^ord?'"^ 
value." And again he saith, " Let ns receive the 
light, that we may receive God ; let us receive the 
light, that we may be the scholars of the Lord." And 
again he saith to those infidel nations, " The heavenly 
Spirit helpeth thee; resist and flee pleasure." Again, 
lib. 5. Strom, he saith, *^ God forbid that man be not 
a partaker of divine acquaintance, Otlag twotac, who 
in Genesis is said to be a partaker of inspiration." 
And Paed. lib. L cap. 3, *' There is," saith he, "some 
lovely and some desirable thing in man, which is 
called the in-breathing of God, Efitpvarifia Of 5." The 
same man, lib. 10. Strom, directeth men unto the 
light and water in themselves, who have the eye of 
the soul darkened or dimmed through evil education 
and learning : let them enter in unto their own do- 
mestic li^ht. or unto the lin'ht which is in their own 
house, irpog TO oiKHov (fttoQ (da^iUrw, unto the truth, 
which manifests accurately and clearly these things 
that have been written. 

Justin Martyr, in his first Apology, saith, " That j. Martjr. 
the word, which was and is, is in all ; even that very 
same word, which, through the prophets, foretold 
things to come." 

The writer of the Calling of the Gentiles, saith, lib. Aath. de 
i. cap. 2. " We believe according to the same (viz. ^°*'* ^*''' 
scripture), and most religiously confess, that God 
was never wanting in care to the generality of men ; 
who although he did lead by particular lessons a peo- 
ple gathered to himself unto godliness, yet he with- 
drew from no nation of men the gifts of his own 
goodness, that they might be convinced that they had 
received the words of the prophets, and legal com- 
mands in services and testimonies of the first princi- 
ples." Cap. 7, he saith, " That he believes that the 
help of grace hath been wholly withdrawn from no 
man." Lib. ii. cap. 1, " Because, albeit salvation is- 
far from sinners, yet there is nothing void of the pre- 


sence and virtue of his salvation." Cap. 2, " But 
seeing none of that people over whom was set both 
the doctrines, were justified but through grace by the 
spirit of faith, who can question but that they, who 
of whatsoever nation, in whatsoever times, could 
please God, were ordered by the Spirit of the grace 
of God, which although in foretime it was more 
sparing and hid, yet denied itself to no ages, being 
in virtue one, in quantity different, in counsel un- 
changeable, in operation multifarious?" 
Prop. III. §. XXIV. The third proposition which ought to 
^d^g s,j. be proved is. That it is by this light, seed, or grace 
vation that God works the salvation of all men, and many 
IhTv^hi^l conie to partake of the benefit of Christ's death, and 
»"• salvation purchased by him. By the inward and 

effectual operations of which, as many heathefis have 
come to be partakers of the promises who were not of 
the seed of Abraham after the flesh, so may some 
now, to whom God hath rendered the knowledge of 
the history impossible, come to be saved by Christ. 
Having already proved that Christ hath died for all, 
that there is a day of visitatioji given to all, during 
which salvation is possible to them, and that God 
hath actually given a measure of saving grace and 
light unto all, preached the gospel to and in them, 
and placed the word of faith in their hearts, the mat- . 
ter of this proposition may seem to be proved. Yet 
shall I a little, for the farther satisfaction of all who 
desire to know the truth, and hold it as it is in Jesus, 
prove this from two or three clear scripture testimo- 
nies, and remove the most common as well as the 
more strong objections usually brought against it. 

1 Part. Our theme then hath two parts ; First, That those 

that have the gospel and Christ outwardly preached 
unto them, ^re not saved but by the working of the 
grace and light in their heai^ts, 

2 Part. Secondly, That by the working and operation of 

this, many have been, and some may be saved, to whom 
the gospel hath never been outwardly preached, and 


who are utterly ignorant of the outward histo?y of 

Christ. j 

As to the first, though it be granted by most, yet i Part \ 

because it is more in words than deeds (the more full p'°''**^- \ 

discussing of which will occur in the next proposition ^ 

concerning Justification) I shall prove it in few I 

words. And first from the words of Christ to Nico- i 

demus, John, iii. 3, Verily, veiily, I say unto thee,^ | 

except a man be born again, he camiot see the king- ] 

dom of God. Now this birth cometh not by the out- The new • 
ward preachino^ of the 2:ospel, or knowledge of Chri^, ^''"^ °^ ''«■ 

1 • . • 1 P^.^ ' ^ ' • °i 1 'generation » 

or historical laith in him ; seeing many have that, cometh noC 
and firmly believe it, who are never thus renewed, ^^/d Uow ^ 
The apostle Paul also goes so far, while he commends ledge of \ 
the necessity and excellency of this new creation^ as ^**"**' \ 
in a certain respect to lay aside the outward know- \ 
ledge of Christ, or the knowledge of him after the \ 
flesh, in these words, 2 Cor. v. 16, 17: Wherefore ] 
henceforth know we no man after the flesh ; yea, \ 
though we have known Christ after the flesh, yet ?iow 
henceforth know we him no more. Therefore if any \ 
man be in Christ, he is a new creature, old thiiigs are 
passed away, behold all things are become 7iew. Whence ,: 
it manifestly appears, that he makes the knowledge of \ 
Christ after the flesh but as it were the rudiments 
which young children learn, which after tliey are 'i 
become better scholars, are of less use to them, be- 
cause they have and possess the very substance of 1 
those first precepts in their minds. As all compari- 
sons halt in some part, so shall I not affirm this to = 
hold in every respect ; yet so far will this hold, that 
as those that go no farther than the rudiments are 5 
never to be accounted learned, and as they grow be- ; 
yond these things, so they have less use of them; even 
so such as go no farther than the outward knowledge \ 
of Christ shall never inherit the kingdom of heaven. j 
But such as come to know this new birth, to be in \ 
Christ indeed, to be a new creature, to have old 
thijigs passed away, and all things become new, may 


safely say with the apostle, Though we have known 
Christ after the fleshy yet now henceforth ktiow we 
bat by the km HO morc. Now this new creature proceeds from 
iTh^Md ^^ work of this light and grace in the heart : it is 
grace in the that word which we speak of, that is sharp and 
*'*"'*• piercing, that implanted word, able to save the soul, 
by which this birth is begotten ; and therefore Christ 
has purchased unto us this holy seed, that thereby 
" this birth might be brought forth in us, which is 
therefore also called the incinifestation of the Spirit, 
given to every one to profit withal; for it is written, 
that by one Spirit we are all baptized into one body. 
And the apostle Peter also ascribeth this birth to the 
seed and word of God, which we have so much de- 
clared of, saying, 1 Pet. i. 23 : Beijig born again, 
not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the 
word of God, which liveth and abideth for ever. 
Though then this seed be small in its appearance, so 
that Christ compares it to a grain of mustard seed, 
which is the least of all seeds. Matt. xiii. 31, 32, and 
that it be hid in the earthly part of man's heart ; yet 
therein is life and salvation towards the sons of men 
wrapped up, which comes to be revealed as they give 
The king- Way to it. And in this seed in the hearts of all men 
tiZ ?he^^ ^^ ^^ kingdom of God, as in capacity to be produced, 
seed in the or rather exhibited, according as it receives depth, is 
heart, of all nourished, and not choked : hence, Christ saith, that 
the kingdom of God was in the vei^ Pharisees, Luke, 
xvii. 20, 21, who did oppose and resist him, and were 
justly accounted as se?yents, and a generation of vipers. 
Now the kingdom of God could be no otherways in 
them than in a seed, even as the thirtyfold and the 
hundredfold is wrapt up in a small seed, lying in a 
barren ground, which springs not forth, because it 
wants nourishment : and as the whole body of a great 
tree is wrapped up potentially in the seed of the tree, 
and so is brought forth in due season; and as the 
capacity of a man or woman is not only in a child, 
but even in the very embryo, even so the kingdom of 


Jesus Christ, yea Jesus Christ himself, Christ within, i 

who is the hope of glory, and becometh wisdom, righ- \ 
teousness, sanctijication, and redemption, is in every 

man's and woman's heart, in that little incorruptible ^ 

seed, ready to be brought forth, as it is cherished and . 

received in the love of it. For there can be no men I 
worse than those rebellious and unbelieving Pharisees 

were; and yet this kitigdom was thus within them, \ 

and they were directed to look for it there : so it is " j 

neither lo here, nor lo there, in this or the other obser- ." 

vation, that this is known, but as this seed of God in ■ 

the heart is minded and entertained. And certainly . 

hence it is, even because this light, seed, and grace ; 

that appears in the heart of man is so little regarded, \ 

and so much overlooked, that so few know Christ \ 

brought forth in them. The one sort, to wit, the Cal- Caivinists, J 

vinists, they look upon grace as an irresistible power, ,^E''„^„^a' ' 

and therefore neglect and despise this eternal seed of socinians i 
the kingdom in their hearts, as a low, insufficient, n^^n" tte • \ 

useless thing as to their salvation. On the other ''g^ '° ^^ \ 

hand, the Papists, Arminians, and Socinians, they go **'""^* ; 
about to set up their natural power and will with one 

consent, denying that this little seed, this small ap- I 

pearance of the light, is that supernatural saving \ 

grace of God given to every man to save him. And ' 

so upon them is verified that saying of the Lord Jesus \ 

Christ, This is the conde7miation of the world, that j 

light is come into the world, but men love darkness ] 

rather than light ; the reason is added, because their \ 

deeds are evil. All confess they feel this ; but they ' \ 

will not have it to be of that virtue. Some will have ' 

it to be reason; some a natural conscience ; some, cer- 'J 

tain relics of God's image that remained in Adam, \ 

So that Christ, as he met with opposition from all ! 

kinds of professors in his outward appearance, doth \ 
now also in his inward. It was the meanness of his The 

outward man that made many despise him, saying, J,®^"^*.^" 
Is not this tlie son of the carpenter 1 Are not his ^re- pearance 
thr6n and sisters among us? Is not this a Galilean ? ^^^ ''"*'• 

mean- i 


8 ap- 


And came there ever a prophet out of Galilee ? And ■ 
such like reasonings. For they expected an outward 
deliverer, who as a prince should deliver them with 
great ease from their enemies, and not such a Mes- 
siah as should be crucified shamefully, and as it were ' 
led them into many sorrows, troubles, and afflictions. : 
So the meanness of this appearance makes the crafty \ 
Jesuits, the pretended i-ational Socinians, and the 
learned Arminians overlook it ; desiring rather some- \ 
thing that they might exercise their subtilty, reason, | 
and learning about, and use the liberty of their own ' 
wills. And the secure Calvinists, they would have ! 
a Christ to save them without any trouble ; to destroy - 
all their enemies for them without them, and nothing 
or little within, and in the meanwhile to be at ease to ' 
live in their sins secure. Whence, when all is well 
The nature examined, the cause is plain ; it is because their deeds \ 
of the lighu ^^g evzY, that with one consent they reject this light: •. 
for it checks the wisest of them ail, and the leamedest ; 
of them all ; in secret it reproves them ; neither can 
all their logic silence it, nor can the securest among 
them stop its voice from crying, and reproving them ; 
within, for all their confidence in the outward know- 
ledge of Christ, or of what he hath suffered outwardly ' 
for them. For, as hath been often said, in a day it 
strives with all^ wrestles with all; and it is the unmor- ' 
tified nature, the first nature, the old Adam, yet alive ] 
in the wisest, in the learnedest, in the most zealous \ 
for the outward knowledge of Christ, that denies this, : 
that despises it, that shuts it out, to their own con- ; 
demnation. They come all under this description, \ 
Every one that doth evil, hateth the light, neither I 
Cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be i^roved^ \ 
John, iii. 20. So that it may be said now, and we ! 
can say, from a true and certain experience, as it was • 
of old. Psalm cxviii. 22; Matt. xxi. 42; Mark, xii. \ 
10; Luke, xx. 17 ; Acts, iv. 11: The stofie which the ^ 
builders of all kinds have rejected, the same is becoine ; 
' imto us the head of the corner. Glory to God for 


ever ! who hath chosen us as first-fruits to himself in 
this day, wherein he is arisen to plead with the na- 
tions ; and therefore hath sent us forth to preach this 
everlasting gospel unto all, Christ nigh to all, the light 
in all, the seed sown in the hearts of all, that men may 
come and apply their minds to it. And we rejoice 
that we have been made to lay down our wisdom and 
learning (such of us as have had some of it) and our 
carnal reasoning, to learn of Jesus ; and sit down at the 
feet of Jesus in our hearts, and hear him, who there 
makes all things manifest and reproves all things 
by his light, Eph. v. 13. For many are wise and The wise 
learned in the notion, in the letter of the scripture, as *°^ '!""** 
the Pharisees were, and can speak much of Christ, Hod, cruci- 
and plead strongly against Infidels, Turks, and Jews, ^^^^-^l 
and it may be also against some Heresies, who in the 
meantime, are crucifying Christ in the small appear- 
ance of his seed in their hearts. Oh ! better were it 
to be stripped and naked of all, to account it as dross 
and dung, and become a fool for Christ's sake, thus 
knowing him to teach thee in thy heart, so as thou 
mayest witness him raised there, feel the virtue of his 
cross there, and say with the apostle, / glory in no- 
thing, save in the cross of Chvjist, whereby I am cru- 
cifiecl to the ivorlcl, and the world unto me. This is 
better than to write thousands of commentaries, and 
to preach many sermons. And it is thus to preach 
Christ, and direct people to his pure light in the 
heart, that God hath raised us up, and for which the None are 
wise men of this world account us fools ; because by J^rifnow- 
the operation of this cross of Christ in our hearts, weiedgeofthe 
have denied our own wisdom and wills in many b^^th^ipe" 
things, and have forsaken the vain worships, fashions, ration of the 
and customs of this world. For these divers cent u-cLisUn the 
ries the world hath been full of a dry, fruitless, and mystery- 
barren knowledge of Christ, feeding upon the husk, 
and neglecting the kernel; following after the sha- 
dow, but strangers to the substance. Hence the devil , 
matters not how much of that knowledge abounds, 


provided lie can but possess the heart, and rule in 
the will, crucify the appearance of Christ there, and 
so keep the seed of the kingdom from taking root. 
Contentions For hc has led them abroad, lo here, and lo there, and 
tlTrdobser-^^ made them wrestle in a false zeal so much one 
T.uon. and agaiust attothcr, contending for this outward observa- 
Lo here s. ^j^^^^ ^^^ £^j. ^^ other outward observation, seeking 
ChristJu this and the other external thing, as in bread 
and wine; contending one with another how he is 
there, while some will have him to be present therein 
this way, and some the other way ; and some in scrip- 
tures, in books, in societies, and pilgrimages, and 
merits. But some, confiding in an external barren 
faith, think all is well, if they do but firmly believe 
that he died for their sins past, present, and to come ; 
while in the meantime Christ lies crucified and slain, 
The call of and is daily resisted and gainsayed in his appearance 
Winded i"^ ^^^ir hearts. Thus, from a sense of this blindness 
Christen- and iguoraucc that is come over Christendom, it 
is that we are led and moved of the Lord so con- 
stantly and frequently to call all, invite all, request 
all to turn to the light in them, to mind the light in 
them, to believe in Christ, as he is in them : and that 
in the name, power, and authority of the Lord, not 
in school arguments and distinctions (for which many 
of the wise men of this world account us fools and 
madmen), we do charge and command them to lay 
aside their wisdom, to come down out of that proud, 
airy, brain-knowledge, and to stop that mouth, how 
eloquent soever to the worldly ear it may appear, and 
to be silent, and sit down as in the dust, and to mind 
the light of Christ in their own consciences; which, if 
minded, they would find as a sharp two-edged sword in 
their hearts, and as 2ijire and a hammer, that would 
knock against and burn up all that carnal, gathered, 
natural stuff, and make the stoutest of them all trem- 
ble, and become Quakers indeed : which those that 
come not to feel now, and kiss not the Son while the 
day lasteth, but harden their hearts, will feel to be a 



certain truth when it is too late. To conclude, as 
saith the apostle, All ought to ed'ami7ie themselves, 
whether they be in the faith indeed; and try their own- 
selves : for except Jesus Christ be in them, they are 
certainly reprobates, 2 Cor. xiii. 5. 

§. XXV. Secondly, That which remains now to be 2 Part 
proved is. That by the operation of this light and seed xJiaf manr 
some have been and may yet be saved, to whom the gos- bj the light 
pel is not outwardly preached, nor the history of Christ Ta^ed.^ihat 
outwardly known. To make this the easier, we have I'ave uo* the 
already shown how that Christ hath died for all men; knowledge 
and consequently these are enlightened by Christ, of^^'Ji'ist. 
and have a measure of saving light and grace ; yea, 
that the gospel, though not in any outward dispensa- 
tion, is preached to them, and in them : so that there- 
by they are stated in a possibility of salvation. From 
which I may thus argue : 

To whom the gospel, the power of God unto sal- aro. 
vation, is manifest, they may be saved, whatever out- 
ward knowledge they want : 

But this gospel is preached in every creature ; in 
which are certainly comprehended many that have 
not the outward knowledge : 

Therefore of those many may be saved. 

But to those arguments, by which it hath been 
prove*d, That all men have a measure of saving grace, 
I shall add one, and that very observable, not yet 
mentioned, viz. that excellent saying of the apostle 
Paul to Titus, chap. ii. verse 1 1 : The grace of God, 
that brings salvation, hath appeared to all men ; teach- 
ing us, that denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we 
should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this pre- 
sent world: than which there can be nothing more 
clear, it comprehending both the parts of the contro- 
versy. First, It testifies that it is no natural principle 
or light, but saith plainly, It brings salvation. Se- 
condly, It says not, that it hath appeared to a few, 
but unto all men. The fruit of it declares also how 
efficacious it is, seeing it comprehends the whole duty The saving 


grace of of man : it both teacheth us, first, to forsake evil, to 
SMhe**^**" ^^'^y ungodliness and worldly lusts ; and then it 
whole dotj teacheth us our whole duty. First, to live Soberly ; 
of man. ^^^qX comprehends temperance, chastity, meekness, 
and those things that relate unto a man's self. Se- 
condly, Righteously ; that comprehends equity, jus- 
tice, and honesty, and those things which relate to 
our neighbours. And lastly. Godly ; which compre- 
hends piety, faithfulness, and devotion, which are the 
duties relating to God. So then there is nothing 
required of man, or is needful to man, which this 
grace teacheth not. Yet I have heard a public 
preacher (one of those that are accounted zealous men) 
to evite the strength of this text, deny this grace to 
be saving, and say, It was only intended of common 
favours and graces^ such as is the heat of the fire, and 
outward light of the sun. Such is the darkness and 
ignorance of those that oppose the truth; whereas 
the text saith expressly, that it is saving. Others, 
The absnr- that cauuot dcuy but it is saving, allege. This [all] 
dityofour comprehends not every individual, but only all kinds: 

adversaries , ^. , . /v • i_ 

comment but IS a bare negation sumcient to overturn the 
^ZVail strength of a positive assertion? If the scriptures may 
denying' bc SO abuscd, what so absurd, as may not be pleaded 
Mvbg?m for from them ? or what so manifest, as may not be 
i'. 11. denied? But we have no reason to be staggered by 
their denying, so long as our faith is found in express 
terms of the scripture ; they may as well seek to per- 
suade us, that we do not intend that which we affirm 
(though we know the contrary) as make us believe, 
that when the apostle speaks forth our doctrine in 
plain words, yet he intends theirs, which is quite the 
contrary. And indeed, can there be any thing more 
absurd, than to say, where the word is plainly [all] 
few is only intended? For they will not have [all] 
taken here for the greater number. Indeed, as the 
case may be sometimes, by a figure [all] may be taken, 
of two numbers, for the greater number ; but let them 
sliow us, if they can, either in scripture, or profane or 


ecclesiastical writings, that any man that wrote sense j 
did ever use the word [alf] to express, of two num- i 
bers, the lesser. Whereas they affirm, that the far \ 
lesser number have received saving grace, and yet 
will they have the apostle, by [all] to have signified 1 
so. Though this might suffice, yet, to put it further ' 
beyond all question, I shall instance another saying i 
of the same apostle, that we may use him as his own 
commentator, Rom. v. 18 : Therefoj^e as hy the offence 
of one, judgment came upon all men to condemnation^ 
even so by the righteousness of one, the free gift came \ 
upon all men unto justification of life. Here no man \ 
of reason, except he will be obstinately ignorant, will i 
deny, but this similitive particle [els'] makes the [all] l 
which goes before, and comes after, to be of one and \ 
tlie same extent ; or else let them show one example, 
either in scripture or elsewhere, among men that speak ^ 
proper language, where it is otherwise. We must then \ 
either affirm that this loss, which leads to condemna- 
tion, hath not come upon all; or say, that this free gift : 
is come upon all by Christ. Whence I thus argue : j 

If all men have received a loss from Adam, which arc. ^ 

leads to condemnation ; then all men have received a 1 
gift from Christ, which leads to justification : 

But the first is true ; therefore also the last. . \ 

From all which it naturally follows, that all men, J 
even the heathens , may be saved: for CA mr was Even tbe j 
2:iven as a lis^ht to enlisrhten the Gentiles, Isai. xlix. 6. •'*«^'l^°* ^ 
Now, to say that though they might have been saved, saved by the | 
yet none were, is to judge too uncharitably. I see^'^**^* \ 
not what reason can be alleged for it ; yea, though it ; 
were granted, which never can be, that none of the { 
heathens were saved ; it will not from thence follow | 
that they could not have been saved ; or tliat none \ 
now in their condition can be saved. For, A non ^ 
esse ad non posse non datur sequela, i, e. That conse- 
quence is false, that concludes a thing cannot be, be- ■ 
cause it is not. \ 

But if it be objected, which is the great objection, object. \ 


That there is no 7iame under heaven, by ichkh salva- 
tion is known, but by the nanw Jesus : 

Therefore they (not knowing this) cannot be saved : 

answ. I answer; Though they know it not outwardly, 

yet if they know it inwardly, by feeling the virtues 

and power of it, the name Jesus indeed, which sig- 

The literal nifies a Saviour, to free them from sin and iniquity in 

knowledge ^|^g-j. ^garts, they are saved by it : I confess there is 

of Christ IS ' J 111 1 • T 1 

not saving, no othcr name to be saved by : but saivatioiLlieth not 
XeHmen'*"^ the_ literal, but in the Jex'penmenfat] knowledge : 
tai. albeit, those that have the literal knowledge are not 

saved by it, without this real experimental knowledge : 
yet those that have the real knowledge may be saved 
without the external ; as by the arguments hereafter 
brought will more appear. For if the outward dis- 
tinct knowledge of him, by whose means I receive 
benefit, were necessary for me before I could reap any 
fruit of it ; then, by the rule of contraries, it would 
follow, that I could receive no hurt, without I had 
also the distinct knowledge of him that occasioned it; 
whereas experience proves the contrary. How many 
are injured by Adam's fall, that know nothing of 
there ever being such a man in the world, or of his 
eating the forbidden fruit ? Why may they not then 
be saved by the gift and grace of Christ in them, 
making them righteous and holy, though they know 
not distinctly how that was purchased unto them by 
the death and sufferings of Jesus that was crucified at 
Jerusalem; especially seeing God hath made that 
knowledge simply impossible to them ? As many men 
are killed by poison infused into their meat, though 
they neither know what the poison was, nor who in- 
fused it ; so also on the other hand, how many are 
cured of their diseases by good remedies, who know 
not how the medicine is prepared, what the ingre- 
dients are, nor oftentimes who made it? The like may 
also hold in spiritual things, as we shall hereafter 
Tu* oat- §. XXVI. First, If there were such an absolute 


necessity for this outward knowledge, that it were ward know- ] 

even of the essentials of salvation, then none could essfnfi!a\o i 

be saved without it ; whereas pur adversaries deny salvation ; j 

not, but readily confess, that many infants and deaf |°f*^,J^^^5 I 

persons are saved without it : so that here they break <Jeaf per- ^ 

that general rule, and make salvation possible without *''"^* '] 

it. Neither can they allege, that it is because such * ! 

are free from sin; seeing they also affirm, that all ; 

infants, because of Adam's sin, deserve eternal con- *i 

demnation, as being really guilty in the sight of God ; \ 

and of deaf people, it is not to be doubted, and expe- 
rience shows us, that they are subject to many com- 
mon iniquities, as well as other men. | 

If it be said. That these children are the children o/*object. i. \ 

believing 'parents : \ 

What then ? They will not say that they transmit answ. 
grace to their children. Do they not affirm that the \ 

children of believing parents are guilty of original 
sin, and deserve death as well as others ? How prove i 

they that that makes up the loss of all explicit know- \ 

ledge ? 1 

If they say. Deaf people may he made sensible of ouject. 2. \ 

the gospel by signs : \ 

All the signs cannot give them any explicit know- answ. 
ledge of the history of the death, sufferings, and i 

resurrection of Christ. For what signs can inform a '• 

deaf man. That the Son of God took on him man's l 

nature^ was born of a virgin, and suffered under Pon- \ 

tins Pilate? '\ 

' And if they should further allege, TJiat they are object, z. 
within the bosom of the visible church, and partakers 
of the sacraments : 

All that gives no certainty of salvation ; for, as the answ. < 

Protestants confess, they confer not grace e.v opere 
operato. And will they not acknowledge, that many ^ 

are in the bosom of the church, who are visibly no j 

members of it ? But if this charity be extended to- ] 

wards such who are where the gospel is preached, so ] 

that they may be judged capable of salvation, because ;. 


they are under a simple impossibility of distinctly 
knowing the means of salvation ; what reason can be 
alleged why the like charity may not be had to such, 
as though they can hear, yet are under a simple im- 
possibility of hearing, because it is not spoken unto 
A Chinese them ? Is uot a man in China, or in India, as much 
"xiwabre ^^ ^^ excused for not knowing a thing which he never 
for not heard of, as a deaf man here, who cannot hear ? For 
hr»°rrv of*** ^ t^^^' ^^^^ ^^^ ^s not to be blamed, because God 
the death of bath bccn plcascd to suifer him to lie under this infir- 
chnst, 0. j^.^ . g^ .g ^j^^ Chinese or the Indian as excusable 
because God hath withheld from him the opportunity 
of hearing. He that cannot hear a thing, as being 
necessarily absent, and he that cannot hear it, as being 
naturally deaf, are to be placed in the same category. 
Answ. 2. Secondly, This manifestly appears by that saying 
of Peter, Acts, x. 34 : Of a truth I perceive that God 
is no respecter of persons ; but in every nation, he that 
feareth him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted of 
him. Peter was before liable to that mistake that the 
rest of the Jews were in ; judging that all were un- 
clean, except themselves, and that no man could be 
saved, except they were proselyted to their religion, 
and circumcised. But God showed Peter otherways 
in a vision, and taught him to call nothing common 
God regard- or unclcun ; and therefore, seeing that God regarded 
CM of Co*r- ^^^ prayers of Cornelius, who was a stranger to the 
neiius, a law and to Jesus Christ as to the outward, yet Peter 
th?uw.*° saw that God had accepted him; and he is said to 
fear God before he had this outward knowledge; 
therefore Peter concludes that every one in every 
nation, without respect of persons, that feareth God 
and worketh righteousness, is accepted of him. So 
he makes the fear of God and the working of righte- 
ousness, and not an outward historical knowledge, 
the qualification : they then that have this, wherever 
they be, they are saved. Now we have already 
proved, that to every man that grace is given, whereby 
he may live godlily and righteously; and we see, that 


by this grace Cornelius did so, and was accepted, and 
his prayers came up for a memorial before God before 
he had this outward knowledge. Also, Was not Job From what 
a 'perfect and upright mariy that feared God, ^'^^/d^a job^ 
eschewed evil? Who taught Job this ? How knew Job leam hu 
Adam's fall ? And from what scripture learned he knowledge ? 
that excellent knowledge he had, and that faith, by 
which he knew his Redeemer lived? (for many make 
him as old as Moses.) Was not this by an inward 
grace in the heart? Was it not that inward grace 
that taught Job to eschew evil, and to fear God? 
And was it not by the workings thereof that he be- 
came a just and upright man ? How doth he reprove 
the wickedness of men, chap, xxiv? And after he 
hath numbered up their wickedness, doth he not con- 
demn them, verse 13, for rebelling against this light, 
for not knowing the way thereof, nor abiding in the 
paths thereof? It appears then Job believed that men 
had a light, and that because they rebelled against it, 
therefore they knew not its ways, and abode not in its 
paths ; even as the Pharisees, who had the scriptures 
are said to err, not knowing the scriptures. And Joh's 
also Job's friends, though in some things wrong ; yet thefr'^eicei 
who taught them all those excellent sayings and |ent saj- 
knowledge v/hich they had ? Did not God give it "'^^' 
them, in order to save them? or was it merely to 
condemn them ? Who taught Elihu, That the inspi- 
ration of the Almighty giveth understandi?ig ; tluit the 
Spirit of God made him, and the breath of the Al- 
mighty gave him life ? And did not the Lord accept a 
sacrifice for them ? And who dare say that they are 
damned? But further, the apostle puts this contro- 
versy out of doubt ; for, if we may believe his plain 
assertions he tells us, Rom. ii. That the heathens ^/V/ 
the thino's contained in the law. From whence I thus 


argue ; 

In every nation, he that feareth God, and worketh aro. 
righteousness, is accepted : 

N 2 


But many of the heathens feared God, and wrought 
righteousness : 

Therefore they were accepted. 

The minor is proved from the example of Corne- 
lius : but I shall further prove it thus ; 

He that doth the things contained in the law, fear- 
eth God, and worketh righteousness : 

But the heathens did the things contained in the 
law : 

Therefore they feared God, and wrought righte- 

Can there be any thing more clear ? For if to do 
the things contained in the law be not to fear God, 
and work righteousness, then what can be said to do 
so, seeing the apostle calls the law spiritual, holy, 
just, and goodf But this appears manifestly by ano- 
ther medium, taken out of the same chapter, verse 13. 
So that nothing can be more clear: the words are, 
The doers of the law shall be justified. From which I 
thus argue, without adding any word of my own ; 
Arc. The doers of the law shall be justified : 

,But the Gentiles do the things contained in the 
The Gen- All, that kuow but a conclusion, do easily see what 
led^doill* ^•'^l^^ws from these express words of the apostle. And 
t'lfe law."^ indeed, he through that whole chapter labours, as if 
he were contending now with our adversaries, to con- 
firm this doctrine, verse 9, 10, 11: lYibulation and 
anguish upo?i eve?y soul of 7nan that doth evil, to the 
Jew first, and also to the' Gentile : for there is no 
repeat of persons with God, Where the apostle 
clearly homologates, or confesses to the sentence of 
Peter before mentioned ; and shows that Jew and 
Gentile, or as he himself explains in the following 
verses, both they that have an outward law, and they 
that have none, when they do good, shall he justified. 
And to put us out of all doubt, in the very following 
verses, he tells, That the doers of the law arejusti- 


Jiecl; and that the Gentiles did the law. So that 
except we think he spake not what he intended, we 
may safely conclude, that such Gentiles were justi- 
fied, and did partake of that honour, glory, and peace, 
which comes upon every one that doth good ; even 
the Gentiles, that are without the law, when they 
work good; seeing with God there is no respect of 
persons. So as we see, that it is not the having the 
outward knowledge that doth save, without the in- 
ward; so neither doth the want of it, to such to whom 
God hath made it impossible, who have the inward, 
bring condemnation. And many that have wanted 
the outward, have had a knowledge of this inwardly, 
by virtue of that inward grace and light given to 
every man, working in them, by which they forsook 
iniquity, and became just and holy, as is above proved ; 
who, though they knew not the history of Adam's Many want- 
fall, yet were sensible in themselves of the loss that io?j,''were' 
came by it, feeling their inclinations to sin, and the sensible of 
body of sin in them : and tiiough they knew not the Adamjlnd 
coming of Christ, yet were sensible of that inward salvation 
power and salvation which came by him, even before c^xLiL 
as well as since his appearance in the flesh. For I themselves, 
question whether these men can prove, that all the 
patriarchs and fathers before Moses had a distinct 
knowledge either of the one or the other, or that they 
knew the history of the tree of knowledge of good 
and evil, and of Adam's eating the forbidden fruit ; 
far less that Christ should be born of a virgin, should 
be crucified, and treated in the manner he was. For 
it is justly to be believed, that what Moses wrote of 
Adam, and of the first times, was not by tradition, 
but by revelation ; yea, we see that not only after the 
writing of Moses, but even of David and all the pro- 
phets, who prophesied so much of Christ, how little How little 
the Jews, that were expecting and wishing for the ^5,^^;^^'"* 
Messiah, could thereby discern him when he came, Christ, mis- 
that they crucified him as a blasphemer, not as a Mes- p*op£u.^ 
siah, by mistaking the prophecies concerning him ; 


for Peter saith expressly, Acts, iii. 17, to the Jews, 
That both they and their rulers did it through igno- 
rance. And Paul saith, 1 Cor. ii. 8 ; That had they 
known it, they would not have crucijied the Lord of 
glory. Yea, Mary herself, to whom the angel had 
spoken, and who had laid up all the miraculous things 
accompanying his birth in her heart, she did not 
understand how, when he disputed with the doctors in 
the temple^ that he was about his Fathers business. 
And the apostles that had believed him, conversed 
daily with him, and saw his miracles, could not un- 
derstand, neither believe those things which related to 
his death , sufferings^ and resurrection^ but were in a 
certain respect stumbled at them. 

§. XXVII. So we see how that it is the inward 
work, and not the outward history and scripture, that 
gives the true knowledge ; and by this inward light 
The bea- many of the heathen philosophers were sensible of the 
Iwisfbre^of ^^^^ received by Adam, though they knew not the 
the loss re- outward history : hence Plato asserted. That mans 
Adl^'I ^^ ^^^^ '^^^ fallen into a dark cave, where it only con- 
versed with shadows. Pythagoras saith, Man wan- 
dereth in this world as a stranger, banished from the 
Heathen prcscncc of God. And Plotinus compareth mans 
pherff'divine soul, fullcn from God, to a cinder, or dead coal, out of 
knowledge, which thc firc is extinguished. Some of them said, 
p/th°ag. That the wings of the soul were clipped or fallen off, so 
piotin. ' i/idi ificy could not flee unto God. All which, and 
many more such expressions, that might be gathered 
out of their writings, show, that they were not without 
a sense of this loss. Also they had a knowledge and 
discovery of Jesus Christ inwardly, as a remedy in 
them, to deliver them from that evil seed, and the 
evil inclinations of their own hearts, though not under 
that particular denomination. 

Some called him a Holy Spirit, as Seneca, Epist. 

41, who said, There is a Holy Spirit in us, that treat- 

it wTonate* €th US US wc treat him. Cicero calleth it an innate 

Kluiuin- ^^^^^^^ ^" '^^^ hoo\if De Republica, cited by Lactantius, 


6 Instit. where he calls this, Right Reason, given 
unto all, constant and eternal, calling unto duty by 
commanding, and deterring from deceit by forbidding. 
Adding, That it cannot be abrogated, neither can any 
be freed from it, neither by senate or people ; that it 
is one, eternal, and the same always to all nations ; so 
that there is not one at Rome, and another at Athens : 
Whoso obeys it 7iot, must flee from himself; and in this 
is greatly tormented, although he should escape all 
oilier punishments. Plotinus also calls him Light, 
saying, That as the sun ca?i?iot be known but by its own 
light, so God camwt be known but with his own light: 
and as the eye cannot see the sun but by receiving its 
image, so man cannot know God but by receiving his 
image ; and that it behoveth man to come to purity of 
heart before he could know God; calling him also 
Wisdom, a name frequently given him in scripture ; 
see Prov. i. 20, to the end ; and Prov. viii. 9, 34, 
where Wisdom is said to cry, entreat, and invite all 
to come unto her, and learn of her : and what is this 
Wisdom but Christ ? Hence such as came, among the 
heathen, to forsake evil, and cleave to righteousness, 
were called philosophers, that is, lovers of wisdom. Pbiioso- 
They knew this wisdom was nigh unto them, and that P|j®"^g ^^ 
the best knowledge of God, arid divine mysteries, was called ^^ 
by the inspiration of the wisdom of God. Phocylides Phooyiide». 
affirmed, that the word of the wisdom of God was best. "^ 

His words in the Greek are, T^^ Zl GfOTrvcvtrrnc <To^tac 

\oyoq kariv apiarog. 

And much more of this kind might be instanced, 
by which it appears they knew Christ ; and, by his 
working in them, were brought from unrighteousness 
to righteousness, and to love that power by which 
they felt themselves redeemed ; so that, as saith the 
apostle. They showed the work of the law written in 
their hearts, and did the things contairied in the law ; 
and therefore, as all doers of the law are, were no doubt 
justified, and saved thus by the power of Christ in 
them. And as this was the judgment of the apostle. 


SO was it of the primitive Christians. Hence Justin 
Socrates a Martyr stuck not to call Socrates a Christian, saying, 
chmtian, ^Y\2X all such as lived according to the divine word in 
them, which was in all men, were Christ ia?is, such as 
Socrates and Heraclitus, atui others among the Greeks, 
&c. That such as live with the word are Christians 
without fear or anxiety. 
cum. Alex. Clcmens Alexandrinus saith, Apol. 2. Strom, lib. i. 
That this wisdom or philosophy was necessary to the 
Gentiles, and was their schoolmaster to lead them unto 
Christ, by which of old the Greeks werejusti/ied. 
Aauastin. NoT do I think, saith Augustine, in his book of 
deCir.Dei.^l^g City of God, lib. xviii. cap. 47, that the Jews 
dare affirm that none belonged unto God but the Israel- 
Lad. vwe». ttcs, llpon vi^hicli placc, Ludovicus Vives saith. That 
thus the Gentiles, not having a law, were a law unto 
theinselves ; and the light of so living is the gift of 
God, and proceeds from the Son; of whom it is writ- 
ten, that he enlighteneth every man that cometh into 
the world. 
The Plato- Augustine also testifies in his Confessions, lib. i. 
"lirw^rd in cap. 9 : That he had read in the writings of the Pla- 
the begin- toiiists, though 7iot In thc very sajne words, yet that 
WM light? which by many and multiplied reasons did persuade, 
that in the beginfiifig was the ioord, and the tcord was 
with God; this was in the beginning with God, by 
which all things were made, and without which ?iothing 
was made that was made: i?i him was life, and the life 
was the light of men : and the light shined in the dark- 
ness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. And, 
albeit the soul gives testimojiy concerning the light, yet 
it is 7wt the light, but the word of God ; for God is 
the true Light, which enlighteneth every man that 
cometh into the world ;^ and so repeats to verse 14 of 
John, i. adding. These things have I there read. 

§. XXVIII. Seeing then it is by this inward gift, 
grace, and light, that both those that have the gospel 
preached unto tliem, come to have Jesus brought 
forth in them, and to have the saving and sanctified 


use of all outward helps and advantages; and also j 

by this same light, that all may come to be saved ; . | 

and that God calls, invites, and strives with all, in a : 

day, and saveth many, to whom he hath not seen , ^ 

meet to convey this outward knowledge; therefore The day of j 

we, having the experience of the inward and power- JJ'rocuamed. ' 

ful work of this light in our hearts, eyjen Jesus ] 

revealed in us, cannot cease to proclaim the day of ^ 
the Lord that has arisen in it, crying out with the 
woman of Samaria ; Come and see one that hath told 

me all that ever I have done? Is not this the Christ? J 
That others may come and feel the same in them- 
selves, and may know, that that little small thing that 
reproves them in their hearts, however they have 
despised and neglected it, is nothing less than the 

gospel preached in them; Christ, the wisdom, and J 

power of God, being i7i and bi/ that seed seeking to 1 
save their souls. 

Of this light therefore Augustine speaks in his J 

Confessions, lib. ii. cap. 9 : In this begimiing, O ■ 

God! thou madest tlie heave?is and the earth, in thy \ 

word, in thy Son, in thy virtue, in thy wisdom, won- \ 

derfully saying, and wonderfully doing. Who shall 1 

comprehend it ? Who shall declare it ? What is that Aagnstine \ 
which shineth in unto me, and smites my heart without [[i^n!shin- 

hurt, at which I both tremble, and am inflamed? /ingsofthe \ 

tremble, in so far as I am unlike unto it ; and I am ^^^ "nd" ] 

inflamed in so far as I am like unto it: it is wisdom, "by ? ^ 

wisdom which shineth in unto me, and dispelleth my { 

cloud, which had again covered me, after I was de- j 

parted from it, with darkness and the heap of my \ 

punishments. And again he saith, lib. x. cap. 27 : j 
It is too late that I have loved thee, O thou beautiful- 
ness, so ancient and so new ! late have I loved thee, 

and behold thou wast within, and I was without, and i 
there was seeking thee ! thou didst call, thou didst cry, 

thou didst break my deafness, thou glancedst, thou 1 

didst shine, thou chasedst away my darkfiess. :i 

Of this also our countryman George Buchanan Buchanan 


t«i.ufyiDg to speaketh thus in his book De Jure Regni apud Scotos : I 
tbe light. Xj^niy I understand no other thing at present than , 
that light which is divinely infused into our souls: for ; 
when God formed nmn, he not only gave him eyes to 
his body^ by which he 9night shun those things that : 
are hurtful to him, and follow those things that are \ 
profitable; but also hath set before his mind as it I 
were a certain light, by which he may discern things \ 
that are vik from things that are honest. Some call \ 
this power nature, others the law of nature ; / truly \ 
Judge it to be divine, and am persuaded that ?iature \ 
and wisdom 7iever say different things. Moreover i 
God hath given us a compend of the law, which in \ 
few words coynpi'ehends the whole; to wit, that we 
should love him from our hearts, and our neighbours 
as ourselves. And of this law all the books of the holy \ 
scriptures, which pertain to the forming of manners, I 
contain no other but an explication. i 

Jew and This is that universal evangelical principle, in and i 

Sc7iilian ^7 which this salvation of Christ is exhibited to all . 
and Barba- men, both Jcw and Gentile, Scythian and Barbarian, 
tlkeM*of of whatsoever countiy or kindred he be : and there- ' 
the iaiva- fore God hath raised up unto himself, in this our age, ' 
Christ. faithful witnesses and evangelists to preach again his ! 
everlasting gospel, and to direct all, as well the high | 
professors, who boast of the law and the scriptures, 
and the outward knowledge of Christ, as the infidels 
and heathens that know him not tliat way, that they 
may all come to mind the light in them, and know i 
Christ in them, the just one, tov Aucaiov, whom they 
have so long killed, and made merry over, and he hath 
7iot resisted, James, v. 6 ; and give up their sins, iniqui- 
ties, false faith, professions, and outside rigliteous- 
ness, to be crucified by the power of his cross in them^ \ 
so as they may know Christ within to be the hoj)e of \ 
glory, and may come to walk in his light and be | 
saved, who is that tjnte light that enlighteneth every \ 
man that cometh into the world. : 




As many as resist not this light, but receive the same, it be- 
comes in them a holy, pure, and spiritual birth, bringing forth 
holiness, righteousness, purity, and all those other blessed 
fruits which are acceptable to God : by which holy birth, to 
wit, Jesus Christ formed within us, and working his works in 
us, as we are sanctitied, so are we justified in the sight of God, 
according to the apostle's words ; But ye are washed, but ye 
are sanctified, hut ye are justified in the name of the Lord 
Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God, 1 Cor. vi. 11. There- 
fore it is not by our works wrought in our will, nor yet by good 
works considered as of themselves; but by Christ, who is both 
the gift and the giver, and the cause producing the eflfects in 
us ; who, as he hath reconciled us while we were enemies, 
doth also in his wisdom save us and justify us after this man- 
ner, as saith the same apostle elsewhere ; According to his 
mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and the 
renewing of the Holy Ghost, Tit. iii. 5. 

§. I. The doctrine of justification comes well in order 
after the discussing of the extent of Christ's death, 
and of the grace thereby communicated, some of the 
sharpest contests concerning this having from thence 
their rise. Many are the disputes among those called 
Christians concerning this point; and indeed, if all 
were truly minding that which justifieth, there would 
be less noise about the notions of justijication. I 
shall briefly review this controversy as it stands 
among others, and as I have often seriously observed 
it ; then in short state the controversy as to us, and ' 

open our sense and judgment of it ; and lastly prove 
it, if the Lord will, by some scripture testimonies, 
and the certain experience of all that ever were truly 

§. II. That this doctrine of justificafion hath been observat. 
and is greatly vitiated in the church of Rome, is not of^^^.^Jffie""^ 
by us questioned ; though our adversaries, who for tion taken 
want of better arguments do often make lies their ^.J^^^ob of 
refuge, have not spared in this respect to stigmatize Ron»c- 



US with popery, but how untruly will hereafter appear. \ 
For to speak little of their mcritum e.v condigno, which j 
was no doubt a very common doctrine of the Romish v 
church, especially before Luther, though most of their \ 
modern writers, especially in their controversies with | 
Protestants, do partly deny it, partly qualify it, and | 
seem to state the matter only as if they were propa- ! 
gators and pleaders for good works by the others j 
denied ; yet if we look to the effects of this doctrine ■ 
among them, as they appear in the generality of their \ 
church members, not in things disapproved, but ! 
highly approved and commended by their father the : 
The pope's Popc and all his clients, as the most beneficial casualty \ 
^i[i!'h^ of all his revenue, we shall find lluit Luther did not : 
most bene- without great ground oppose himself to them in this j 
Wsreven'ul. matter : and if he had not run himself iiiio another ' 
extreme, of which hereafter, his work would have \ 
stood the better. For in this, as in most other things, •, 
he is more to be commended for what he pulled down j 
of Babylon, than for what he built of his own. What- : 
ever then the Papists may pretend, or even some good ; 
men among them may have thought, experience i 
showeth, and it is more than manifest by the univer- ' 
sal and approved practice of their people, that they j 
place not their just ijicat ion so much in works that are i 
truly and morally good, and in their being truly re- ! 
newed and sanctified in the mind, as in such things i 
as are either not good nor evil, or may truly be called ; 
evil, and can no otherways be reckoned good than • 
Papisi'sjiis- because the Pope pleases to call them so. So that if ' 
tification ^Yie matter be well sifted, it will be found, that the j 

depend* f, ..... . , , ,i 

upon the greatest part of then- justijtcalion depends upon the | 
pope tbuiis. authority of his bulls, and not upon the power, virtue, ; 

and grace of Christ revealed in the heart, and renew- 

proof I. ing of it, as will appear. First, From their principle 

Their sacra- conccming their sacraments^ which they say confer ' 

"**"**• grace ex opert opcrato. So that if a man partake 

but of them, he thereby obtains remission of sin, 

though he remains as he was ; the virtue of the sacra^ } 


. merits making up the want that is in the man. So 
that this act of submission and faith to the laws of 
the church, and not any real inward change, is that 
which justifieth him. As for example; if a man 
make use of the sacrament, as they call it, of penance, Papists' pe- 
so as to tell over his sins to a priest, though he have °*"'^*'* 
not true contrition, which the Lord hath made abso- 
lutely necessary for penitent sinners, but only attri- 
tion, a figment of their own, that is, if he be sorry he 
hath sinned, not out of any love to God, or his law 
which he hath transgressed, but for fear of punish- 
ment, yet doth the virtue of the sacrament, as they 
affirm, procure to him remission of sins ; so that being 
absolved by the priest, he stands accepted and justi- 
fied in the sight of God. This man's justification 

^hen proceedeth not from his being truly penitent, 
and in any measure inwardly changed and renewed by 
the working of God's grace in his heart, but merely 
from the virtue of the sacrament, and authority of the 
priest, who hath pronounced him ahsohjed; so that 
his justification is from somewhat without him, and 
not within him. 

Secondly, This will yet more appear in the matter of proof ii, 
indulgences, where remission of all sins, not only past Papist in- 
but for years to come, is annexed to the visiting such '^"'f^'"'**- 
and such churches and relics, saying such and such 
prayers ; so that the person that so doth is presently 
cleared from the guilt of his sin, and justified and 
accepted in the sight of God. As for example : he 
that in the gv^^X jubilee will go to Rome, and present 
himself before the gate of Peter and Paul, and there 
receive the Pope's blessing ; or he that will go a pil- 
grimage to James's sepulchre in Spain, or to Mary of 
Loretto, is upon the performance of those things pro- 
mised forgiveness of sins. Now if we ask them the 
reason how such things as are not morally good in 
themselves come to have virtue ? they have no other 
answer but because of the church and Pope's autho- 
riti), who being the great treasurer of the magazine 


of Christ's meints, lets them out upon such and such \ 
p«pitio>M« conditions. Thus also the invention of saying mass ■ 
wbatitii. jg made a chief instrument oi justijication ; for in it ! 
they pretend to offer Christ daily to the Father a 'pro- 
pitiatory sacrijice for the sins of the living and dead ; j 
so that a man for money can procure Christ thus to \ 
be offered for him v^hen he pleases ; by which offer- j 
ing he is said to obtain remission of sins, and to ; 
stand justified in the sight of God. From all which, 
and much more of this nature which might be men- ; 
tioned, it doth appear, that the Papists place their i 
justification, not so much in any work of holiness i 
really brought forth in them, and real forsaking of 
iniquity, as in the mere performance of some ceremo- ^ 
nies, and a blind belief which their teachers have ; 
begotten in th^m, that the church and the pope \ 
having the absolute dispensation of the merits of \ 
Christ, have power to make these merits effectual for. I 
the remission of sins, and justification of such as will | 
perform those ceremonies. This is the true and real ^ 
method oi justification taken by the generality of the \ 
church of Rome, and highly commended by their ! 
public preachers, especially the nionks, in their ser- | 
mons to the people, of which I myself have been an ; 
ear and an eyewitness ; however some of their modern 
writers have laboured to qualify it in their controver- i 
Luther and sics. This doctriuc Luther and the Protestants then \ 
u^J'op ." had good reason to deny and oppose ; though many i 
pofing the of them ran into another extreme, so as to deny good \ 
frlne of^"*" works to bc neccssdry to justification, and to preach up \ 
works, fell ^ot only remission of sins, but justification by faith \ 
olhw e*x. alojie, without all works, however good' So that men i 
*ooTwo ks ^° ^^^ obtain ihm justification according as they are 
Jecessl^jto iuwardly sanctified and renewed, but are justified | 
ju.tifica- merely by believincr that Christ died for them ; and 
SO some may be perfectly justified, though they be j 
lying in gross wickedness ; as appears by the exam- j 
pie of David, who they say was fully and p)erfectly i 
justified while he was l)ring in the gross sins of mur- \ 




der and adultery. As then the Protestants have suf- ' 

ficient ground to quarrel and confute the Papists j 

concerning those many abuses in the matter ofjiistiji- ] 

cation, showing how the doctrine of Christ is thereby \ 

vitiated and overturned, and the word of God made 
void by many and useless traditions, the law of God \ 

neglected, while foolish and needless cereinonies are \ 

prized and followed, through a false opinion of being i 

justified by the performance of them ; and the merits . \ 

and sufferings of Christ, which is the only sacrifice i 

appointed of God for remission of sins, derogated j 

from, by the setting up of a daily sacrifice never j 

appointed by God, and chiefly devised out of covet- Papists' de- '] 

ousness to get money by; so the Protestants on the^^^J"^^^ i 

other hand, by not rightly establishing and holding ; 

forth the doctrine oi justification accoraing as it is 
delivered in the holy scriptures, have opened a door 
for the Papists to accuse them, as if they were neg- 
lecters of good works, enemies to mortification and j 

holiness, such as esteem themselves justified while \ 

lying in great sins : by which kind of accusations, 
for which too great ground hath been given out of 
the writings of some rigid Protestants, the reforma- i 

lion hath been greatly defamed and hindered, and ,^ 

the souls of many insnared. Whereas, whoever will : 

narrowly look into the matter, may observe these de- 1 

bates to be more in specie than in genere, seeing both \ 

do upon the matter land in one; and like two men 
in a circle, who though they go sundry ways, yet 
meet at last in the same centre. i 

For the Papists say. They obtain remission of sins, Papists' be- j 

and are justified by the ??ierits of Christ, as the same ficltton"'*'' l 

are applied unto them in the use of the sacraments of^^^ets in the 
the church, and are dispensed in the performance o/^wTb the— ^ 
such and such ceremonies, pilgrimages, prayers, and 
performances, though there be not any inward renew- 
ing of the mind, nor knowing of Christ inwardly 
formed; yet they are remitted and made righteous ex 
opere operato, because of the power and authority 

same centric \ 


accompanying the sacraments and the dispensers of \ 

them. j 

—Protest- The Protestants say, That they obtain ixmission of \ 

•nu' belief. ^/,;j^ (jjid stand justijied in the sight of God by virtue \ 

So saith the of the merits and sufi'erings of Christ, not by infusing \ 

^rc^iife ^^ghteousness into them, but by pardonifig their sins^ \ 

sionof and by accounting and acceptmg their pe?'so?is as , 

ih'll*'ct*''i'** righteous, they resting on him and his y^ghteousncss 1 

by faith ; which faith, the act of believing, is not im- \ 

puted unto them for righteous?iess. \ 

So X\\e justification of neither here is placed in any \ 

inward renewing of the mind, or by virtue of any 

spiritual birth, or formation of Christ in them ; but \ 

only by a bare application of the death and suftbrings ; 

of Christ outwardly performed for them : whereof 

the one lays hold on a faith resting upon them, and \ 

hoping to be justified by them alone ; the other by ; 

the saying of some outward prayers and ceremonies, 

which they judge makes the death of Christ effectual 

unto them. I except here, being unwilling to wrong , 

any, what things have been said as to the necessity ; 

of inward holiness, either by some modem Papists, or 

some modern Protestants, who in so far as they have j 

laboured after a midst betwixt these two extremes : 

have come near to the truth, as by some citations out 

of them hereafter to be mentioned will appear: though 1 

this doctrine hath not since the apostacy, so far as ^ 

ever I could observe, been so distinctly and evidently ; 

held forth according to the scripture's testimony, as it \ 

hath pleased God to reveal it and preach it forth in j 

this day, by the witnesses of his truth whom he hath ; 

raised to that end; which doctrine, though it be \ 

briefly held forth and comprehended in the thesis 1 

State of the itsclf, yct I shall a little more fully explain, and show ! 

^u,ntrover- ^|^^ ^^^^ ^£ ^l^^ controvcrsy as it stands betwixt us ; 

and those that now oppose us. ; 

ExpL. 1. §. III. First then, as by the explanation of the ' 
former thesis appears, we renounce all natural power ^ 
and ability in ourselves, in order to bring us out of 


our lost and fallen condition and first nature ; and 

confess, that as of ourselves we are able to do nothing ' 

that is good, so neither can we procure remission of ] 

sins or justification by any act of our own, so as to Justifica- \ 

merit it, or draw it as a debt from God due unto us ; J^",Jfi:"^ 

but we acknowledge all to be of and from his love, the love of \ 

which is the original and fundamental cause of our ^"**' j 

acceptance. \ 

Secondly, God manifested this love towards us, in expl. 2. \ 

the sendinof of his beloved Son the Lord Jesus Christ ^ 

into the world, who gave himself for us an offering \ 
and a sacrifice to God, for a sweet smelling savour ; 
and having made peace through the blood of his cross, 
that he might reconcile us unto himself, and by the 

Eternal Spirit offered himself without spot unto God, ] 
and suffered for our sins, the just for the unjust, that 
he might bring us unto God. 

Thirdly then, Forasmuch as all men who have expl. 3. | 

come to man's estate (the man Jesus only excepted) ] 

have sinned, therefore all have need of this Saviour, ! 

to remove the wrath of God from them due to their , 

offences ; in this respect he is truly said to have borne ' 

the iniquities of us all in his body on the tree, and i 

therefore is the onli/ Mediator, having qualified the j 

wrath of God towards us ; so that our former sins \ 
stand not in our way, being by virtue of his most 
satisfactory sacrifice removed and pardoned. Neither 
do we think that remission of sins is to be expected. The remis- 

sought, or obtained any other way, or by any works """ °^ '""• i 
or sacrifice whatsoever ; though, as has been said 

formerly, they may come to partake of this remission 1 

that are ignorant of the history. So then Christ by The only j 

his death and sufferings hath reconciled us to God, "e^t^f^t" ^ 
even while we are enemies ; that is he offers recon- God and 

ciliation unto us; we are put into a capacity of""** ; 

being reconciled ; God is willing to forgive us our ; 

iniquities, and to accept us, as is well expressed by \ 

the apostle, 2 Cor. v. 19 : God was in Christ, recon- \ 

ciling the world unto himself, not imputing their tres- \ 

o ! 


passes unto them, and hath put in us the tuord of 
reconcillatmi. And therefore the apostle, in the next 
verses, entreats them in Christ's stead to be reconciled 
to God; intimating that the wrath of God being 
removed by the obedience of Christ Jesus, he is will- 
ing to be reconciled unto them, and ready to remit i 
the sins that are past, if they repent. i 

A two-fold We consider then our redemption in a two-fold ] 
redemption, rggpect or statc, both which in their own nature are '■ 
perfect, though in their application to us the one is ; 
not, nor can be, without respect to the other. 
!• The First is the redemption performed and accom- ] 

'e^miytioa of P^^shed by Christ for us in his crucified body without ; 
Christ with- us : the other is the redemption wrought by Christ i 
**"* "*• /;/ us, which no less properly is called and accounted i 
a redemption than the former. The first then is that i 
whereby a man, as he stands in the fall, is put into a 
capacity of salvation, and hath conveyed unto him a { 
measure of that power, virtue, spirit, life, and grace | 
that was in Christ Jesus, which, as the free gift of 
God, is able to counterbalance, overcome, and root ^ 
out the evil seed, wherewith we are naturally, as in 
the fall, leavened. 
II. The'^econd is that whereby we witness and know | 

Tbe re- (his purc and perfect redemption in ourselves, purify- \ 
wrought bj ing, cleansing, and redeeming us from the power of \ 
Christ in US. corruptiou, and bringing us into unity, favour, and ; 
friendship with God. By the first of these two, we . 
that were lost in Adam, plunged into the bitter and ] 
corrupt seed, unable of ourselves to do any good j 
thing, but naturally joined and united to evil, forward 
and propense to all iniquity, servants and slaves to j 
the power and spirit of darkness, are, notwithstand- ' 
ing all this, so far reconciled to God by the death of > 
his Son, while enemies, that we are put into a capa- ': 
city of salvation, having the glad tidings of the gos- ; 
pel of peace offered unto us, and God is reconciled | 
unto us in Christ, calls and invites us to himself; in I 
Eph.ii.i5. which respect we understand these scriptures: He f 
10. slew the enmity in hwiself He loved usjirst ; seeing . 


US in aur bloody he said unto us, Live ; he who did not Ezek. xtI. ^ 

sin his ownsdf, bare our sins in his own body on the Jp^^ jj ^g 
tree ; and he died for our sins, the just for the unjust. 24 ; and iii. 

By the Second, we witness this capacity brought ^^' 
into act, whereby receiving and not resisting the pur- 
chase of his death, to wit, the light, spirit, and grace '^ 
of Christ revealed in us, we witness and possess a 
real, true, and inward redemption from the power and 
pre valency of sin, and so come to be truly and really ] 
redeemed, justified, and made righteous, and to a I 
sensible union and friendship with God. Thus ^exit. ii. u. j 
died for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity; ^^*'- '"• ^^* 
and thus we know him and the power of his resurrec- j 
tion, and the fellowship of his suffejings, being made \ 
conformable to his death. This last follows the first ' 
in order, and is a consequence of it, proceeding from ^ 
it, as an effect from its cause : so as none could have } 
enjoyed the last, without the first had been, such ^ 
being the will of God ; so also can none now partake 
of the first, but as he witnesseth the last. Where- i 
fore as to us, they are both causes of our justification ; I 
the first the procuring efficient, the other the formal ' 
cause. \ 

Fourthly, We understand not by \h\s justification Exri..4. j 

by Christ, barely the good works even wrought by the 
Spirit^f Christ ; for they, as Protestants truly affirm, *■ 

are rather an effect oi justification than the cause of 
it ; but we understand theforfnation of Christ in us, The fbrma- I 

Christ born and brought forth in us, from which good chris^Un as 5 

works as naturally proceed as fruit from a fruitful begets good 
tree. It is this inward birth in us, bringing forth '""'''^' \ 

righteousness and holiness in us, that doth justify us ; \ 

which having removed and done away the contrary | 

nature and spirit that did bear rule and bring condem- 
nation, now is in dominion over all in our hearts. j 
Those then that come to know Christ thus formed in \ 
them, do enjoy him wholly and undivided, who is the \ 
LORD our RIGHTEOUSNESS, Jer. xxiii. 6. 
This is to be clothed with Christ, and to have put 

o2 , 


him on, whom God therefore truly accounteth righte- 
6\Xs and just. Thi^' is so far from being the doctrine 
of Papists, that as the generality of them do not 
understand it, so the learned among them oppose it, 
and dispute against it, and particularly Bellarmine. 
Thus then, as I may say, the formal cause of justifi- 
cation is not the works, to speak properly, they being 
but an eftect of it ; but this inward birth, this Jesus 
brought forth in the heart, who is the well beloved, 
whom th^ Father cannot but accept, and all those 
who thus are sprinkled with the blood of Jesus, and 
washed with it. By this also comes that communi- 
cation of the goods of Christ unto us, by which we 
come to be made partakers of the divine ?iature, as 
saith Peter, 2 Pet. i. 4, and are made one with hini, 
as the branches with the vine, and have a title and 
right to what he hath done and suffered for us ; so 
Christ's that his obedience becomes ours, his righteousness 
ri*ghll*o°a7-' ours, his death and sufferings ours. And by this 
ness, death, ncamcss we comc to have a sense of his sufferings, 
in"gs'a"re^^ aud to suffcr with his seed, that yet lies pressed and 
^'^ crucified in the hearts of the ungodly, and so travail 
with it, and for its redemption, and for the repentance 
of those souls that in it are crucifying as yet the Lord 
♦ of Glory. Even as the apostle Paul, who by his suf- 

ferings is said io fill up that which is behind of the 
afflictions of Christ for his body which is the church. 
Though this be a mystery sealed up from all the wise 
men that are yet ignorant of this seed in themseWes, 
and oppose it, nevertheless some Protestants speak 
of this justification by Christ inwardly put on, as 
shall hereafter be recited in its place. 
ExpL.5. Lastly, Though we place remission of sins in the 
righteousness and obedience of Christ pej formed by 
him in the flesh, as to what pertains to the remote 
procuring cause, and that we hold ourselves /or;;/ j% 
justified by Christ Jesus formed ami brought forth in 
Good works US, yet cau we not, as some Protestants have unwarily 
do<il°djaV. ^o"^> delude viorVs frmn justification. For though 



properly we be not justified /or them, yet are we jus- 
tified in them ; and they are necessary, even as causa 
sine qua non, i. e. the cause, without tvhich none are 
justified. For the denying of this, as it is contrary 
to the scripture's testimony, so it hath brought a great 
scandal to the Protestant religion, opened the mouths , 
of Papists, and made many too secure, while they 
have believed to be justified without good works. 
Moreover, though it be not so safe to say they are 
meritorious, yet seeing they are rewarded, many of 
those called the Fathers have not spared to use the 
word [merit] which some of us have perhaps also 
done in a qualified sense, but no ways to infer the 
Popish abuses abovementioned. And lastly, if we 
had that notion oi good works which most Protestants 
have, we could freely agree to make them not only 
not necessary, but reject them as hurtful, viz. That 
the best works even of the saints are dejiled and pol- 
luted. For though we judge so of the best works 
performed by man, endeavouring a conformity to the 
outward law by his own strength, and in his own 
will, yet we believe that such works as naturally pro- 
ceed from this spiritual birth and formation of Christ 
in us are pure and holy, even as the root from which 
they come ; and therefore God accepts them, justi- 
fies us in them, and rewards us for them out of his 
own f?re grace. The state of the controversy being 
thus laid down, these following positions do from 
hence arise in the next place to be proved. 

§. IV. First, That the obedience, sufferings, and posit, i. 
death of Christ is that by which the soul obtains re- 
mission of sins, and is the procuring cause of that 
grace, by whose inward working Christ comes to be 
formed inwardly, and the soul to be made conformable 
unto him, and so just and justified. And that there- 
fore, in respect of this capacity and offer of grace, 
God is said to be reconciled ; not as if he were ac- 
tually reconciled, or did actually justify, or account 


any just, so long as they remain in their sins really 
impure and unjust^ 
Posit. 2. Secondly, 7 hat it is hy this inward birth of Christ 
in man that man is made just, and therefore so ac- 
counted by God: wherefore, to be plain, we are 
thereby, and not till that be brought forth in us, yb; - 
m^lii/y if we must use that word, justified in the sight 
of God ; because justification is both more properly 
and frequently in scripture taken in its proper signi- 
fication for making one just, and not reputing one 
merely such, and is all one with sancti/ication. 
Posit. 8. Thirdly, That since good works as naturally follow 
from this birth as heat from fire, therefore are they of 
Good works absolute necessity to justijication, as causa si fie qua 
'[ne"ur ^on, i- ^' though not as the cause for which, yet as 
""0— ofjas- that in which we are, and without which we cannot 
be, justified. And though they be not meritorious, 
and draw no debt upon God, yet he cannot but ac- 
cept and reward them : for it is contrary to his nature 
to deny his own, since they may be perfect in their 
kind, as proceeding from a pure holy birth and root. 
Wherefore their judgment is false and against the 
truth that say, that the holiest wffrks of the saints are 
defiled and sinful in the sight of God : for these good 
works are not the works of the law, excluded by the 
apostle from justification. 
Posit. 1. §. V. As to the first, I prove it from Rom. iii. 25, 
Whom God hath sctfoHh to be a propitiation through 
Proof I. faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the 
^i^^l^Wul\ remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance 
deaih to re- of God. Hcrc the apostle holds forth the extent and 
ont ouJi'i. efficacy of Christ's death, showing that thereby, and 
by faith therein, remission of sins that are past is 
obtained, as being that wherein the forbearance of 
God is exercised towards mankind. So tliat though 
men for the sins they daily commit deserve eternal 
death, and that the wrath of God shoidd lay hold 
u{«on tliem ; yet, by virtue of that most satisfactnnf 


sacrifice of Christ Jesus, the grace and seed of God j 

moves in love towards them, during the day of their \ 
visitation ; yet not so as not to strike against the evil, 

for that must be burnt up and destroyed, but to redeem i 

man out of the evil. ^ 

Secondly, If God were perfectly reconciled with puoof ii. ^ 
men, and did esteem them just while they are ac- 
tually unjust, and do continue in their sins, then "! 
should God have no controversy with them* ; how ." 
comes he then so often to complain, and to expostu- 
late so much throughout the whole scripture with ] 
such as our adversaries confess to be justified, telling 
them that their sins separate betwLvt him and them ? \ 
Isa. lix. 2. For where there is a perfect and full 
reconciliation, there is no separation. Yea, from this | 
doctrine it necessarily follows, either that such for ^ 
whom Christ died, and whom he hath reconciled, v 
never sin, or that when they do so, they are still re- l 
conciled, and their sins make not the least separation 
from God : yea, that they are justified in their sins. \ 
From whence also would follow this abominable con- 
sequence, that the good works and greatest sins of \ 
such are alike in the sight of God, seeing neither the i 
one serves to justify them, nor the other to break their ^ 
reconciliation, which occasions great security, and \ 
opens a door to every lewd practice. \ 

Thirdly, This would make void the whole practi- proof hi. \ 

cal doctrine of the gospel, and make faith itself need- j 

less. For if faith and repentance, and the other con- i 

ditions called for throughout the gospel, be a qualifi- ■ 
cation upon our part necessary to be performed, 

then, before this be performed by us, we are either :; 

* I do not only speak concerning men before conversion, who ! 

afterwards are converted, whom yet some of our antagonists, 
called Antinomians, do aver were justified from the beginning; ] 

but also touching those who according to the common opinion 
of Protestants have been converted ; whom albeit they confess 
they persist always in some misdeeds, and sometimes in heinous '^ 

sins, as is manifest in David's adultery and murder, yet they J 

assert to be perfectly and wholly justified. ! 


fully reconciled to God, or but in a capacity of being 
reconciled to God, he being ready to reconcile and 
justify us as these conditions are performed ; which 
latter, if granted, is according to the truth we profess. 
And if we are already perfectly reconciled and justi- 
fied before these conditions are performed (which 
conditions are of that nature that they cannot be per- 
formed at one time, but are to be done all one's life- 
time), then can they not be said to be absolutely need- 
ful ; which is contrary to the very express testimony 
of scripture, which is acknowledged by all Chris- 
Heb. xi. 6. tians : For without faith it is impossible to please God. 
John iii. 18. yy^^ ^Ij^^ believe fiot are eondeimied already, because 
Kom. Tiii. they believe not in the only begotten oow of Uoa, At- 
^** cept ye repent, ye cannot be saved : for if ye live after 

the fleshy ye shall die. And of those that were con- 
Apoc. ii. 6. verted ; / vnll 7xmove your candlestick from you, un- 
less ye repent. Should I mention all the scriptures 
that positively and evidently prove this, I might 
transcribe much of all the doctrinal part of the Bible. 
For since Christ said, It is finished, and did finish 
his work sixteen hundred years ago and upwards ; 
if he so fully perfected redemption then, and did 
actually reconcile every one that is to be saved, not 
A door of simply opening a door of mercy for them, ofi'ering the 
rdT/chHst sacrifice of his body, by which they may obtain re- 
apon re- missiou of their sins when they repent, and commu- 
pentance. j^i^^^^jj^g ^j^|^q thcm a mcasurc of his grace, by which 
they may see their sins, and be able to repent ; but 
really making them to be reputed as just, either be- 
Tbe Anti- forc they believe, as say the Antinomians, or after 
opiiion'lf ^^y *^^v^ assented to the truth of the history of Christ, 
reconciiiii- or ai*e sprinkled with the baptism of water, while 
tifioa't'ion."' nevertheless they are actually unjust, so that no part 
of their redemption is to be wrought by him now, 
as to their reconciliation and justification ; then the 
whole doctrinal part of the Bible is useless, and of no 
profit : in vain were the apostles sent forth to preach 
repentance and remission of sins ; and in vain do all 


the preachers bestow their labour, spend their breath, 
and give forth writings ; yea, much more in vain do 
the people spend their money vy^hich they give them 
for preaching ; seeing it is all but actum agere, but 
a vain and ineffectual essay, to do that which is 
already perfectly done without them. 

But Lastly, To pass by their human labours, as proof iv. 
not worth the disputing whether they be needful or 
not, since (as we shall hereafter show) themselves 
confess the best of them is sinful; this also makes 
void the present intercession of Christ for men. What 
will become of that great article of faith, by which 
we affirm. That he sits at the right hand of God, chrhCudid' 
daily making intercession for us ; ^^id for ichich end^-^^^^^^^^}^^^ 
the Spitit itself maketh intercession for us tvith groan- for us. 
ijigs which cannot be uttered? For Christ maketh not 
intercession for those that are not in a possibility of 
salvation ; that is absurd. Our adversaries will not 
admit that he prayed for the world at all ; and to 
pray for those that are already reconciled, and per- 
fectly justified, is to no purpose : to pray for remission 
of sins is yet more needless, if all be remitted, past, 
present, and to come. Indeed there is not any solid 
solving of this, but by acknowledging according to 
the truthy That Christ by his death removed the 
wrath of God, so far as to obtain remission of sins 
for as many as receive that grace and light that he 
communicates unto them, and hath purchased for 
them by his blood; which, as they believe in, they 
come to know remission of sins past, and power to 
save them from sin, and to wipe it away, so often as 
they may fall into it by unwatchfulness or weakness, 
if, applying themselves to this grace, they truly re- 
pent ; for to as many as receive him, he gives power to 
become the sons of God: so none are sons, none are 
justified, none reconciled, until they thus receive him 
in that little seed in their hearts : And life eternal is 
offered to those roho, by patient continuance in well 
doing, seek for glory, honour, and immortality : for if 
the righteous man depart from his righteousness, his 


righteousness shall be remembered 710 vio7^e. And 
therefore on the other part, none are longer sons of 
God, and justified, than they patiently continue in 
righteousness and well doing. And therefore Christ 
lives, always making intercession, during the day of 
every man's visitation, that they may be converted : 
and when men are in some measure converted, he 
makes intercession that they may continue and go on 
and not faint, nor go back again. Much more might 
be said to confirm this truth ; but I go on to take 
notice of the common objections against it, which are 
the arguments made use of to propagate the errors 
contrary to it. 

§. VI. The Jirst and chief is drawn from that say- 
ing of the apostle before mentioned, 2 Cor. v. 18, 19, 
God hath recoiciled us to himself by Jesus Christ : 
God ivas in Christ recojiciling the world unto him^lf 
not ifnputi7ig their trespasses unto them. 
Object. 1. From hence they seek to infer. That Christ fully 
perfected the work of reco7iciUatio7i while he was on 
A NSW. I answer ; If by \reco7iciUation^ be understood the 

(removing of wrath, and the purchase of that grace 
^ by which we may come to be reconciled, we agree 
(to it ; but that that place speaks no more, appears 
from tlie place itself; for when the apostle speaks in 
the perfect time, saying, He hath 7^eco7iciled us, he 
speaks of himself and the saints ; who having received 
The differ- the gracc of God purchased by Christ, were through 
ence be- £g^j^|^ jj^ j^jjjj actuallv reconcilcd. But as to the wo7'ld, 
conciied to hc saitli [reco7icili7ig] not [7XC07iciled] ; which recon- 
rcronciUDg. (^^^^'{^1 though it dcuotes a time somewhat past, yet 
it is by the imperfect fniie, denoting that the thing 
begun was not perfected. For this work of Christ 
began towards all in the days of his flesh, yea, and 
long before : for He was the Mediator fro77i the begifh- 
7iing, and the Lamb slain /rowi the foundatio7i of the 
7corld: but in his Hesh, after he had perfectly /w/- 
fillcd the lav), and the )ighteouJmess\)\ereoi', had rent 
the veil, and made wav for the more clear aTid uni- 


versal revelation of the gospel to all, both Jew and 
Gentile ; he gave up himself a most satisfactory sacri- 
fice for si?i ; which becomes effectual to as many as 
receive him in his inward appearance, in his light in 
the heart. Again, this very place showeth that no 
other reconciliation is intended, but the opening of 
a door of mercy upon God's part, and a removing of 
wrath for sins that are past ; so as men, notwithstand- 
ing their sins, are stated in a capacity of salvation : 
for the apostle, in the following verse, saith. Now 
then we are ambassadors for Chjist, as though God 
did beseech you by us ; ive pray you in Chrisfs stead, 
be ye i^econciled to God. For if their reconciliation 
had already been perfecdy accomplished, what need 
any entreating then to be reconciled ? Ambassadors 
are not sent after a peace already perfected, and re- 
conciliation made, to entreat for a reconciliation; for 
that implies a manifest contradiction. 

Secondly, They object, verse 21 of the same chap- Object. 2. 
ter. For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew 
no sin, that we might he made the righteousness of 
God in him. From whence they argue, That as our 
sin is imputed to Christ, who had no sin ; so Christ's 
righteousness is imputed to us, without our beiiig 

But this interpretation is easily rejected ; for though answ. 
Christ bare our sins, and suffered for us, and was 
among men accounted a siiiner, and numbered among 
transgressors ; yet that God reputed him a sinner is 
no where proved. For it is said, He was found be- Heb.Tii.26. 
fore him, holy, hai^mless, and undefiled, neither %vas ^^^^''''^^' 
there found any guile in his mouth. That we de- 
served these things, and much more for our sins, 
which he endured in obedience to the Father, and 
according to his counsel, is true ; but that ever God 
reputed him a sinner is denied : neither did he ever Mens im- 
die that we should be reputed righteous, though no p"^^*^ "§•"*" 

r e^ IP eoasness 

more really such than he was a sinner, as hereafter soiidiy re- 
appears. For indeed, if this argument hold, it might ^"'^**' 


be stretched to that length, as to become very pleas- 
ing to wicked men that love to abide in their sins : 
for if we be made righteous^ as Christ was made a 
sinner^ merely by imputation ; then as there was no 
sin J not in the least, in Christ, so it would follow, that 
there needed no more righteousness, no more holiness, 
710 more inward sanctification in us, than there was 
sin in him. So then, by his [being made sin for us] 
must be understood his suffering for our sins, that we 
might be made partakers of the grace purchased by 
him ; by the workings whereof we are made the 
righteousness of God in him. For that the apostle 
understood here a being made really righteous, and 
not merely a being reputed such, appears by what 
follows, seeing in verses 14, 15, 16, of the following 
chapter, he argues largely against any supposed 
agreement of light and darkness, righteousness and 
unrighteousness ; which must needs be admitted, if 
men are to be reckoned ingrafted in Christ, and real 
members of him, merely by an imputative righteous- 
ness, wholly without them, while they themselves are 
actually unrighteous. And indeed it may be thought 
strange, how some men have made this so fundamen- 
tal an article of their faith, which is so contrary to 
the whole strain of the gospel : a thing which Christ 
in none of all his sermons and gracious speeches ever 
willed any to rely upon ; always recommending to us 
works, as instrumental in our justification. And the 
more it is to be admired, because that sentence or 
term (so frequently in their mouths, and so often 
pressed by them, as the very basis of their hope and 
Christ's im- confidence), to wit. The imputed righteousness of 
Itt^ltoi Christ, \s not to be found in all the Bible, at least is 
found in all to my obscrvation. Thus have I passed through the 
'!**• first part, and that the more briefly, because many, 
who ^s&esi ih\^justifiC£tionhy bare iruputatioD, do 
nevertheless corifcss, tHaLeven the elect 4ire not justi- 
lied until \\\v\ 1)( (oiiyerted ; that is^ not until thisoin- 
putative justification be applied to thcD3 by the^ifit. 


§. VII. I come then to the second thing proposed posit. r. 
by me, which is ; That it is by this inward birth, or Bj chmt 
Christ formed within, that we are (so to speak) for- ^[t^fn^we 
mallij justified in the sight of God. I suppose I have are justi- 
said enough already to demonstrate how much we ^^^' 
ascribe to the death and sufferings of Christ, as that 
whereby satisfaction is made to the justice of God, 
remission of sins obtained, and this gi^ace and seed 
purchased, by and from which this birth proceeds. The 
thing now to be proved is, That by Christ Jesus formed 
in us, we are justified, or made just. Let it be marked, 
I usejusti/ication in this sense upon this occasion. 

First then, I prove this by that of the apostle Paul, proof i. 
1 Cor. vi. 1 1 : And such were some of you ; but ye justified, 
are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye cire justified ^^l^^V^^^ 
in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of reaUj, not 
our God. First, This \justifiedr\ here understood, l^/J^^"'*' 
must needs be a being really made just, and not a 
being merely imputed such; else [sanctified^ and 
[washed^ might be reputed a being esteemed so, and 
not a being really so; and then it quite overturns 
the whole intent of the context. For the apostle 
showing them in the preceding verses, how the un- 
righteous cannot inherit the kingdom of God, and 
descending to the several species of wickedness, sub- 
sumes, That they were sometnnes such, but now are 
not any more such. Wherefore, as they are now 
washed and sanctified, so are they justified : for if this 
justification were not 7^eal, then it might be alleged 
that the Corinthians had not forsaken these evils ; 
but, though they still continued in them, were not- 
withstanding jW6"^i/f'e6?; which as in itself it is most 
absurd, so it very clearly overturneth the very import 
and intent of the place ; as if the Corinthians turning 
Christians had not wrought any real change in them, 
but had only been a belief of some barren notions, 
which had wrought no alteration in their affections, 
will, or manner of life. For my own part, I neither 
see any thing, nor could ever yet hear or read any 


thing', that with any colour of reason did evince [jus- 
tijicd] in this place to be understood any otherways 
than in its own proper and genuine interpretation of 
The deriTa- bciu^ made just. And for the more clear under- 
wo?d°jul'iify standing hereof, let it be considered, that this word 
considered, [just'ify] is derived either from the substantive j*w*- 
tice^ or the adjective just : both which words import 
the substantive^ that true and real virtue in the soul, 
as it is in itself; to wit, signifies really, and not swp- 
positively, that excellent quality expressed and under- 
stood among men by the word [justice;^ and the 
adjective [^just^ as applied, signifies a man or woman 
who IS, just, that is, in whom this quality of justice is 
stated : for it would not only be great impropriety, 
but also manifest falsity, to call a man just, merely by 
supposition ; especially if he were really unjust. Now 
this word [justify^ formed from justice, or just, doth 
beyond all question signify a making just ; it being- 
nothing else but a composition of the verb facio, and 
the adjective J W6-///6', which is nothing else than thus, 
justijico, i. e. justu7n facio, I make just; and [justi- 
Jied] of Justus and //o, ^sjustusjio, I become just, and 
justi/icatus, i. e. Justus /actus, I am made just. Thus 
also is it with verbs of this kind, as sanctijico, from 
sanctus, holy, andyjsrc/o; honorijico, from honor idxA 
facio ; sacrijico, from sacer and facio : all which are 
still understood of the subject really and truly endued 
with that virtue and quality from which the verb is 
jastiHed derived. Therefore, as none are said to be sanctified 
whife'tife' ^^^ ^^^ really unholy, while they are such ; so nei- 
actoaiij re- ther cau any be truly said to hejustijied, while they 
mainunjast. actually remain unjust. Only this verh justify hath, 
in a metaphorical and figurative sense, been other- 
wise taken, to wit, in a law sense ; as when a man 
really guilty of a crime is freed from the punishment 
of his sin, he is said to he justified ; that is, put in 
the place as if he were just. For this use of the 
word hath proceeded from that true supposition, That 
none ought to be aajuitted, but the imiocent. Hence 


also tliat manner of speaking, / will justify such a 
man, or / loill justify this or that, is used from the 
supposition that the person and thing is reaily justi- 
fiable : and where there is an error and abuse in the 
matter, so far there is also in the expression. 

This is so manifest and apjjarent, that Paraeus, a Paraens de 
chief Protestant, and a Calvinist also in his opinion, ^^^l{ [;""*; 
acknowledges this : " We never at any time said vii. p. 469. 
(saith he), nor thought, that the righteousness of 
Christ was imputed to us, that by him we shoidd be 
n^med fo7'ma lit/ just, and not be so, as we have divers 
times already showed ; for that would no less soundly 
fight with right reason, than if a guilty man absolved 
in judgment should say, that he himself was ybn;/^///j/ 
just by the clemency of the judge granting him his 
life." Now is it not strange, that men should be so 
facile in a matter of so great concernment, as to build 
the stress of their acceptance with God upon a mere 
borrowed and metaphorical signification, to the ex- 
cluding, or at least esteeming not necessary, that 
without which the scripture saith expressly, No man 
shall ever see God? For if holiness be requisite and Holiness 
necessary, of which this is said, then must good works [herefofe 
also ; unless our adversaries can show us a holy man good works 
without good icorks. But, moreover, [justified] in *'''• 
this figurative sense is used for approved ; and indeed 
for the most part, if not always in scripture, when 
the word [justifij] is used, it is taken in the worst 
part ; that is, that as the use of the word that way is 
a usurpation, so it is spoken of such as usurp the 
thing to themselves, while it properly doth not belong 
unto them ; as will appear to those that will be at 
the pains to examine these places. Exod. xxiii. 7 ; 
Job, ix. 20, and xxvii. 5; Prov. xvii. 15; Isai. v. 
23; Jer. iii. 11; Ezek. xvi. 51, 52; Luke, x. 29, 
and xvi. 15; which are all spoken of men justifying 
the wicked, or of luicked men justifying themselves ; 
that is, approving themselves in their wickedness. 
If it be at any in this signification taken in good 


part, it is very seldom, and that so obvious and plain 
by the context, as leaves no scniple. But the ques- 
tion is not so much of the use of the vx>rd^ where it is 
passingly or occasionally used, as where the very doc- 
trine of justijicatiofi is handled. Where indeed to 
mistake it, viz, in its proper place, so as to content 
ourselves with an imaginarii justijication^ while God 
requires a real, is of most dangerous consequence. 
For the disquisition of which let it be considered, 
that in all these places to the Romans, Corinthians, 
Galatians, and elsewhere, where the apostle handles 
this theme, the word may be taken in its own proper 
signification without any absurdity. As, where it is 
often asserted in the abovementioned epistles to the 
Justi6ed, in Romans and Galatians, That a man can?iot be jitsti- 
irnE" J^^^^ ^y ^^^^ ^^^ of Moses, nor by the works of the law; 
tion. there is no absurdity nor danger in understanding it 

according to its own proper signification, to wit, that 
a man cannot be madejw^^ by the law of Moses; 
seeing this so well agrees with that saying of the 
same apostle, That the law makes nothing perfect. 
And also where it is said, We are justified by faith, it 
may be very well understood of being inadejust; see- 
ing it is also said, ThoX faith purifies the heart; and no 
doubt the pure in heart are just ; and theju^t live by 
faith. Again, where it is said, We are justified by 
grace, we are justified by Christ, we are justified by 
the Spirit ; it is no ways absurd to understand it of 
being made just, seeing by his Spirit and grace he 
doth make men just. But to understand it universally 
the other way, merely for acceptajice and imputation, 
would infer great absurdities, as may be proved at 
large ; but because I judged it would be acknow- 
ledged, I forbear at present for brevity's sake. But 
further, in the most weighty places where this word 
justify is used in scripture, with an immediate rela- 
Juiifica tion to the doctrine o{ justification, our adversaries 
tion •igt.i- inust uccds acknowledge it to be understood of making 
ing ja>t. just, and not barely in the legal acceptation : as first, 


in that of 1 Cor. vi. 11. But ye are washed, but ye are 
sanctified, but ye are justified, as I before have proved ; 
which also many Protestants are forced to acknow- 
ledge. " Neither diffide we," saith Thysius, '^ be- Tbysiu? 
cause of the most great and strict connexion, that ^a'sf^'Th^s. 
justification doth sometimes seem also to comprehend 3. 
sanctijicatio7i as a consequence, as in Rom. viii. 30 ; 
Tit. iii. 7 ; 1 Cor. vi. 11; And such sometimes were 
ye, but ye are ivashed, &c." Zanchius, having spoken zaudiias in 
concerning this sense of justification, adds, saying ; ^- J"- ^* 'f- 
^' There is another signification of the word, viz. for locke Just. 
a man from unjust to be made j'i/^^, even as sanctified 
signifies from unholy to be made holy : in which sig- 
nification the apostle said, in the place abovecited, 
And such were some of you, &c. that is, of unclean ye 
are made holy, and of unjust ye are made just by the 
Holy Spirit, for Christ's sake, in whom ye have be- 
lieved. Of this signification is that, Rev. xxii. 11, 
Let him that is just be still just ; that is, really from 
just become more just, even as from unjust he became 
just. And according to this signification the Fathers, 
and especially Augustine, have interpreted this word.'' 
Thus far he, H. Bullinger, on the same place, 1 Cor. h. HhWw^, 
vi. speaketh thus ; '* By divers words," saith he, 
" the apostle signifies the same thing, when he saith, 
Ye are washed, ye are sanctifed, ye arejustijied."' 

Secondly, In that excellent saying of the apostle, pr. h. 
so much observed, Rom. viii. 30, Whom he called, 
them he also justijied, and whom he justified, them he 
also glorifed: this is commonly called the golden 
chain, as being acknowledged to comprehend the 
method and order of salvation. And therefore, if 
[justified] were not understood here in its proper 
signification of being made just, sanctification would 
be excluded out of this chain. And truly it is very 
worthy of observation, that the apostle, in this suc- 
cinct and compendious account, makes the word [jus- 
tified] to comprehend all betwixt calling and glorify- 
ing ; thereby clearly insinuating, that the being really 


Righieoa*. viglitcous is that only viedium by which from our 
00?* me- calling we pass to glorification. Almost all do acknow- 
diuin by ledge the word to be so taken in this place ; and not 
Mr cainSg o"^y so, but most of those who oppose are forced to 
we pass to ackuowledgc, that as this is the most proper, so the 
fion! *^* most common signification of it : thus divers famous 
D. Cham, Protestants acknowledge. " We are not," saith D. 
Sanct'"'. 10. Chamierus, '* such impertinent esteemers of words, 
p. 1- as to be ignorant, nor yet such importunate sophists, 

as to deny, that the words justification and sanctijica- 
tion do infer one another; yea, we know that the saints 
are chiefly for this reason so called, because that in 
Christ they have received remission of sins : and we 
read in the Revelations, Let him that is just, be juJit 
still; which cannot be understood, except of the fruit of 
inherent righteousness. Nor do we deny, but perhaps 
in other places they may be promiscuously taken, espe- 
Beza in c. 3. cially by the Fathers." " I take," saith Beza," the name 
ad Tit. ver. q{ justijication largely, so as it comprehends whatso- 
ever we acquire from Christ, as well by imputation, 
as by the efficacy of the Spirit in sanctifying us. So 
likewise is the wordjustijication taken, Rom. viii. 30." 
Meianct. in Mclancthon saith, ^' That to be justified by faith, sig- 
Apoi- Conf. uifies in scripture not only to be pronounced just, but 
also of unrighteous to be made righteous." Also some 
chief Protestants, though not so clearly, yet in part, 
hinted at our doctrine, whereby we ascribe unto the 
death of Christ remission of sins, and the work of 
justification unto the grace of the Spirit acquired by his death. Martinus Borhaeus, explaining that place 
cr*e"didit*^' ^^ *^*^ apostle, Rom. iv. 25 : Who was given for our 
Abraham, sius, uud rose again for our justijicatiori, saith : 
Deo, p. 161. « There are two things beheld in Christy which are 
necessary to our justification ; the one is his death, 
the other is his arising from the dead. By his death, 
the sins of this world behoved to be expiated : by his 
rising from the dead, it pleased the same goodness of 
God to give the Holy Spirit, whereby both the gos- 
pel is believed, and the righteousness, lost by the 


fault of the first Adam, is restored." And afterwards 
be saith ; " The apostle expresseth both parts in these 
words, Who was given for our sins, &c. In his death 
is beheld the satisfaction for sin ; in his resurrection, 
the gift of the Holy Spirit, by which our justification 
is perfected." And again the same man saith else- 
where; " Both these kinds of righteousness are there- idem. lib. 
fore contained in justification, neither can the one '"* ^^^' . 

tj %j ^ _ cap. IX. V. l. 

be separate from the other. So that in the definition p. 68i. 
oi justification, the merit of the blood of Christ is 
included, both with the remission of sins, and with 
the gift of the Holy Spirit of justification and rege- 
neration." Martinus Bucerus saith ; " Seeing by Bacems, in 
one sin of Adam the world was lost, the grace of feTie! "** 
Christ hath not only abolished that one sin, and 
death which came by it; but hath together taken 
away those infinite sins, and also led into full justifi- 
cation as many as are of Christ ; so that God now Rigbtooa*- 
not only remits unto them Adam's sin, and their own, "^^*V^ ''""^ 
but also gives them therewith the Spirit of a solid and the image of 
perfect righteousness, which renders us conform unto ^ouen!*^* 
the image of the first-begotten." And upon these 
words \hy Jesus Christ] he saith ; " We always 
judge that the whole benefit of Christ tends to this, 
that we might be strong through the gift of righte- 
ousness, being rightly and orderly adorned with all 
virtue, that is, restored to the image of God." And 
lastly, William Forbes our countryman. Bishop ofw. Forbe* 
Edinburgh, saith ; " Whensoever the scripture makes 5^"o^est!*de 
mention of the justification before God, as speaketh Just. lib. ii. 
Paul, and from him (besides others) Augustine, it '**''^' ^' 
appears that the word [just if i/] necessarily signifies 
not only to pronounce just in a law sense, but also 
really and inherently to make just ; because that God 
doth justify a wicked man otherwise than earthly 
judges. For he, when he justifies a wicked or unjust iiow God 
man, doth indeed pronounce him as these also do ; J^"j^*^^^^//''® 
but by pronouncing him just, because his judgment 
is according to truth, he also makes him really of 



unjust to become just." And again, the same man, | 
upon the same occasion, answering the more rigid 
Protestants, who say, That God Jii^st justifies, and 
then makes just ; he adds : " But let them have a 
care, lest by too great and empty subtilty, unknown I 
both to the scriptures and the fathers, they lessen and 
diminish the weight and dignity of so great and j 
divine a benefit, so much celebrated in the scripture, \ 
to wity just ijicat ion of the wicked. For if to the for- 
mal reason o^ justification of the ungodly doth not at ' 
all belong his justiJicatio7i (so to speak), i. e. his being 1 
made righteous, then in the justification of a sinner, I 
although he be justified, yet the stain of sin is not 
taken away, but remains the same in his soul as be- \ 
fore justification : and so, notwithstanding the benefit | 
of justification, he remains as before, unjust and a ; 
sinner ; and nothing is taken away, but the guilt and 
obligation to pain, and the offence and enmity of 
God through nonimputation. But both the scrij>- : 
tures and fathers do affirm, that in the justification of ■ 
a sinner, their sins are not only remitted, forgiven, 
covered, not imputed, but also taken away, blotted . 
out, cleansed, washed, purged, and very far removed ' 
from us, as appears from many places of the holy ; 
scriptures." The same Forbes shows us at length, ; 
in the following chapter, That this was the confessed [ 
judgment of the fathers, out of the writings of those | 
who hold the contrary opinion ; some whereof, out 
caiy. in.t. of him, I shall note. As first, Calvin saitli, "That | 
xi!'ieci?ir>. t^6 judgment of Augustine, or at least his manner of j 
speaking, is not throughout to be received ; who ] 
although he took from man all praise of righteous- \ 
ness, and ascribed all to the grace of God, yet he '] 
refers grace to sanctification, by which we are rege- j 
nerate tlirough the Spirit unto newness of life." ) 
chemnit. in Chemuitius saith, " That they do not deny, but that I 
cun"*Trid ^^^ fathers take the word \,justiftf\ for renetvingy by | 
d«^J"«<i»- which works of righteousness are wrought in us by | 
the Spirit." And p. 130, " I am not ignorant, that | 



the fathers indeed often use the word [justify] in this 
signification, to wit, of making Just,'' Zanchius saith, zanchins 
" That the fathers, and chiefly Augustine, interpret Ep^'fer.*! 
the word [^justify] according to this signification, to locdejust. 
wit, of inaking just ; so that, according to them, to ^^^** ^^' 
be justified was no other than of unjust to be made 
just, through the grace of God for Christ." He inen- 
tioneth more, but this may suffice to our purpose. 

§. VIIL Having thus sufficiently proved, that by asser. i. 
justification is to be understood a really being made 
rngliteous, I do boldly affirm, and that not only from 
a 7iotional knowledge, but from a real, inward e.vperi- 
mental feeling of the thing, That the immediate near- Christ re- 
est, or formal cause (if we must in condescendence to ^o*r*J,®ed "j""* 
some use this word) of a man's justification in the the soui of 
sight of God, is, the revelation of Jesus Christ in the fb"formli 
soul, changing, altering, and renewing the mind, by caase of 
whom (even the author of this inward work) thus lic^Jiion.""' 
formed and revealed, we are truly justified and ac- 
cepted in the sight of God. For it is as we are thus pkoof i. 
covered and clothed with him, in whom the Father is 
always well pleased, that we may draw near to God, 
and stand with confidence before his throne, being 
purged "by the blood of Jesus inwardly poured into 
our souls, and clothed with his life and righteousness 
therein revealed. And this is that order and method 
of salvation held forth by the apostle in that divine 
saying, Rom. v. 10: For if when we were enemies, 
we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son ; 
much more, being reconciled, ice shall bt saved by his 
life. For the apostle first holding forth the recon- 
ciliation wrought by the death of Christ, wherein 
God is near to receive and redeem man, holds forth 
his salvation and justification to be by the life of 
Jesus. Now, that this life is an inward, spiritual 
thing revealed in the soul, whereby it is renewed 
and brought forth out of death, where it naturally 
hath been by the fall, and so quickened and made 
alive unto God, the same apostle shows, Eph. ii. 5 : 


Evefi when we were dead in sins and trespasses, he 
hath quickened us together in Christ (by whose grace 
ye are saved), and hath raised us up together. Now 
this none will deny to be the inward work of renova- 
tion, and therefore the apostle gives that reason of 
their being saved by grace; which is the inward 
virtue and power of Christ in the soul : but of this 
place more hereafter. Of the revelation of this in- 
ward life the apostle also speaketh, 2 Cor. iv. 10: 
That the life also of Jesus might be made manifest in 
our bodies; and verse 11, That the life also of Jesus 
might be made manifest in our mortal flesh. Now 
this inward life of Jesus is that whereby, as is before 
observed, he said, we are saved. 
pb. II. Secondly, That it is by this revelation of Jesus 

Christ, and the new creation in us, that we aix justi- 
fied, doth evidently appear from that excellent saying 
of the apostle included in the proposition itself. Tit. 
iii. 5 : According to his mercy he hath saved us, by 
the washing of regeiieration, and 7^e?iewing of the 
Holy Ghost, &c. Now that whereby we are saved, 
that we are also no doubt justified by ; which words 
Theimme- are iu this respect synonymous. Here the apostle 
^HusiiHc" clearly ascribes the inwiediate cause of justification 
tion is the to this in Ward work of regeneration, which is Jesus 
wrrk^ofre- ChjHst rcvcalcd in the soul, as being that which for- 
gencration. mally statcs US iu a capacity of being reconciled with 
God ; the washing or regeneration being that inward 
power and virtue, whereby the soul is cleansed, and 
clothed with the righteousness of Christ, so as to be 
made fit to appear before God. 
PR. III. Thirdly, This doctrine is manifest from 2 Cor. 
xiii. 5, Examine yourselves whether ye be in the faith; 
prove your ownselves : know ye 7iot your mvnselves, 
how that Jesus Christ is in you, except ye be repro- 
bates ? First, It appears here how earnest the apostle 
was that they should know Christ in them ; so that 
lie presses this exhortation upon them, and inculcates 
Tb«e«uM it three times. Secondly, He makes the cause of 


reprobation, or not justification, the want of Christ of reproba- 
thus revealed and known in the soul : whereby it ^5^";^^ „^t 
necessarily follows, by the rule of contraries, where known bv 
the parity is alike (as in this case it is evident) that y'daaon? 
where Christ is inwardly known, there the persons 
subjected to him are approved and justified. For 
there can be nothing more plain than this, That if 
we must know Christ in us, except we be reprobates, 
or unjustified persons ; if we know him in us, we are 
not reprobates, and consequently justified ones. Like 
unto this is that other saying of the same apostle, 
Gal. iv. 19 : My little children, of whom I travail in 
hirth again, imtil Christ be formed in you ; and there- 
fore the apostle terms this, Christ ivithin, the hope of 
glory, Col. i. 27, 28. Now that which is the hope 
of glory can be no other than that which we imme- 
diately and most 7iearly rely upon for our justification, 
and that whereby we are really and truly made just. 
And as we do not hereby deny, but the original and 
fundamental cause of our justification is the love of 
God manifested in the appearance of Jesus Christ in cbHst by 
the flesh, who by his life, death, sufterings, and obe- ^nd^/J^jfL 
dience made a way for our reconciliation, and became ings baa 
a sacrifice for the remission of sins that are past, and "''aj'for^ou 
purchased unto us this seed and grace, from which reconciiia- 
this birth arises, and in which Jesus Christ is in- 
wardly received, formed, and brought forth in us, in 
his own pure and holy image of righteousness, by 
which our souls live unto God, and are clothed with 
him, and have put him on, even as the scripture 
speaks, Eph. iv. 23, 24 ; Gal. iii. 27 ; we stand jus- 
tified and saved in and by him, and by his Spirit and 
grace, Rom. iii. 24 ; 1 Cor. vi. 11; Tit. iii. 7. So 
again, reciprocally, we are hereby made partakers of 
the fulness of his merits, and his cleansing blood is 
near, to wash away every sin and infirmity, and to 
heal all our backslidinofs, as often as we turn towards 
him by unfeigned repentance, and become renewed 
by his Spirit. Those then that find him thus raised, 



and ruling in them, have a true ground of hope to ! 
believe that they are justified by his blood. But let 

not any deceive themselves, so as to foster themselves ! 
in a vain hope and confidence, that by the death 
and sufferings of Christ they are justified, so long as 

sin lies at their door, Gen. iv. 7, iniquity prevails, j 
and they remain yet unrenewed and unregenerate ; 

lest it be said unto them, / know you 72ot. Let that -\ 

saying of Christ be remembered, Not every one. that i 
saith, Lord, Lord, shall enter, but he that doth the 
will of my Father, Matt. vii. 21. To which let these 

excellent sayings of the beloved disciple be added ; ; 

Little children, let ?io niafi deceive you ; he that doth \ 

ris^hteousness is ri<fhteous, even as he is ris^hteous. { 
He that committeth sin is of the devil; because if our 

heart condemn us, God is greater than our heart, and I 

knoweth all things, 1 John, iii. 7, 20. ' i 

Many famous Protestants bear witness to this in- 
ward justification by Christ inwardly revealed and ! 
BoriiBUBin formed in man. As M. Borhaeus : ''In the imputa- I 
Gen. p. 162. ^-^^^^ ^^Xth hc, whcrciu Christ is ascribed and imputed ' 
^ to believers for righteousness, the merit of his blood, j 
and the Holy Ghost given unto us by virtue of his ■ 
The testi- merits, are equally included. And so it shall be i 
°^^"jI„* P^o. confessed, that Christ is our righteousness, as well \ 
lestanuof from liis merit, satisfaction, and remission of sins • 
ufioaUoo"* obtained by him, as from the gifts of the Spirit of j 
righteousness. And if we do this, we shall consider | 
the whole Christ proposed to us for our salvation, ', 
and not any single part of him." The same man, p. j 
1G9, "In our justification then Christ is considered, I 
who breathes and lives in us, to wit, by his Spirit \ 
put on by us; concerning which putting on the \ 
apostle saith. Ye have put on Christ ^ And again, | 
p. 171, " We endeavour to treat in justification, not | 
of part of Christ, but him wholly, in so far as he is | 
our righteousness every way." And a little after: | 
"As then blessed Paul, in our justification, when he 
saith, Whom he justified them he glorified, compre- 


hends all things which pertain to our being recon- 
ciled to God the Father, and our renewing, which 
fits us for attaining unto glory, such as faith, righte- 
ousness, Christ, and the gift of righteousness ex- 
hibited by him, whereby we are regenerated, to the 
fulfilling of the justification which the law requires ; 
so we also will have all things comprehended in this 
cause, which are contained in the recovery of righte- 
ousness and innocency." And p. 181, '^ The form, 
saith he, of our justification is the divine righteous- 
ness itself, by which we are formed just and good. 
This is Jesus Christ, who is esteemed our righteous- 
ness, partly from the forgiveness of sins, and partly 
from the renewing and the restoring of that integrity, 
which was lost by the fault of the first Adam : so 
that this new and heavenly Adam being put on by us, 
of which the apostle saith. Ye have put on Christy ye 
have put him on, I say, as the form, so the righte- 
.ousness, wisdom, and life of God." So also affirm- 
eth Claudius Alberius Inuncunanus, see his Orat. 
Apodict. Lausaniae Excus. 1587. Orat. ii. p. 86, 87. 
Zuinglius also, in his epistle to the princes of Ger- Zuingii»s. 
many, as cited by Himelius, c. vii. p. 60, saith, 
"That the sanctification of the Spirit is true justifica- 
tion, which alone suffices to justify." Estius, upon E»iiu«. 
1 Cor. vi. 11, saith, "Lest Christian righteousness 
should be thought to consist in the washing alone, 
that is, in the remission of sins, he addeth the other 
degree or part, [but ye are sanctified'] that is, ye have 
attained to purity, so that ye are now truly holy before 
God. Lastly, Expressing the sum of the benefit re- 
ceived in one word, which includes both the parts. 
But ye are justified (the apostle adds) in the name 
of the Lord Jesus Christ, that is, by his merits, and 
in the Spirit of our God, that is, the Holy Spirit 
proceeding from God, and communicated to us by 
Christ." And lastly, Richard Baxter, a famous R. Baxter. 
English preacher, in his book called Aphorisms of 
Justification, p. 80, saith, " That some ignorant 


wretches gnash their teeth at this doctrine, as if it 
were flat Popery, not understanding the nature of 
the righteousness of the new covenant ; which is all 
out of Christ in ourselves, though wrought by the 
power of the Spirit of Christ in us." 
Pos. in. §. IX. The third thing proposed to be considered 
is, concerning the necessity of good works tojustijica- 
tion, I suppose there is enough said before to clear us 
from any imputation of being popish in this matter. 
Object. But if it be queried, Whether we have not f^nid, or 

will not ({Ifinn, that a man is justified by works ? 
answ. I answer; I hope none need, neither ought, to 

take offence, if in this matter we use the plain lan- 
guage of the holy scripture, which saith expressly in 
That works answcr hereunto, James, ii. 24 : Ve see then how that 
"r/fojJs- kV ^^'orks a man is just if ed, and not by faith only. I 
liiication. shall uot offcr to prove the truth of this saying, since 
what is said in this chapter by the apostle is sufiicient 
to convince any man that will read and believe it ; I 
shall only from this derive this one argument. 
aro. If no man can be justified without faith, and no 

faith be living, nor yet available to justification with- 
out works, then works are necessary io justification : 
But the first is true ; therefore also the last. 
For this truth is so apparent and evident in the 
scriptures, that for the proof of it we might transcribe 
most of the precepts of the gospel. I shall instance 
a few, which of themselves do so clearly assert the 
thing in question, that they need no commentary, nor 
farther demonstration. And then I shall answer the 
objections made against this, which indeed are the 
arguments used for the contrary opinion. Heb. xii. 
14. Without holiness ?w man shall see God, Matt 
^ollhc8«J- vii. 21. Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, 
Hoer^irJ*"' ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^"^^ ^^^ kingdom of heaven, but he that 
biewed. doth the will of my Father which is in heaven. John, 
xiii. 7. If ye knmo these things, happy are ye if ye do 
them. 1 Cor. vii. 19. Circumcision is nothing, and 
uncircumcision is ?wthing, but the keeping of the conir 


mandments of God. Rev. xxii. 14. Blessed are they 
that do his commandments, that they may have right 
to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates 
into the city : and many more that might be instanced. 
From all which I thus argue : 

If those only can enter into the kingdom that do the arc. 
will of the Father; if those be accounted only the 
wise builders and happy that do the sayings of Christ ; 
if no observations avail, but only the keepi??g of the 
commandments; and if they be blessed that do the 
commandments, and thereby have right to the tree of 
life, and entrance through the gates into the city; 
then works are absolutely necessary to salvation and 
justification : 

But the first is true ; and therefore also the last. 

The consequence of the antecedent is so clear and 
evident, that I think no man of sound reason will call 
for a proof of it. 

§. X. But they object, That works are not ?ieces- objkct. i. 
sary to justification : First, because of that saying of 
Christ, Luke, xvii. 10: Whe?i ye shall have done all Vnprotit- 
these things that are commanded you, say. We are J^Ifts'*"^" 
unprofitable servants, 8cc. 

Answer ; As to God we are indeed unprofitable, answ. ■ 
for he needeth nothing, neither can we add any thing ft^^nyfi^^' 
unto him: but as to ourselves we are not unprofit- 
able ; else it might be said, that it is not profitable 
for a man to keep God's commandments; which is 
most absurd, and would contradict Christ's doctrine 
throughout. Doth not Christ, Matt. v. through all 
those beatitudes, pronounce men blessed for their 
purity, for their meekness, for their peaceableness, Scc.l 
And is not then that for which Christ pronounceth 
men blessed, profitable unto them ? Moreover, Matt. Those that 
XXV. 21, 23. Doth not Christ pronounce the men Jj^^^'^" 
good and faithful servayits that improved their talents ? their ta- 
Was not their doing of that then profitable unto ['^^\'JlZd 
them ? And verse 30, it is said of him that hid his and faithful 
talent, and did not improve it, Cast ye the unprofit- ^"''""''• 
able servant into utter darkness. If then not improv- 



ing of the talent made the man unprofitable^ and he \ 
was therefore cast into uttei^ darkness, it will follow 
by the rule of contraries, so far at least, that the im- 
proving made the other profitable; seeing, if our j 
adversaries will allow us to believe Christ's words, I 
this is made a reason, and so at least a cause instru- ''. 
mental of their acceptance ; Well done, good and faith- 
ful servant, thou hast been faithful over a few things, \ 
I will 7nake thee ruler over many things ; enter thou • 
into the Joy of thy Lord. 
Object. 2. Secondly, They object those sayings of the apostle, 
where he excludes the deeds of the law from justifi- ; 
cation ; as first, Rom. iii. 20 : Because by the deeds j 
of the law there shall be no flesh justified in his sight. 
y And verse 28, Therefore %ve conclude, that a man w j 
justified by faith, without the deeds of the law. 
An$w. 1. Answer ; We have shown already what place we ; 
give to works, even to the best of works, in justifica- \ 
tion; and how we ascribe its immediate and formal ; 
cause to the worker brought forth in us, but not to j 
The works the luorks. But in answer to this objection, I say, 
peUf^^ace tl^^^^ is a great difference betwixt the works of the \ 
distiDRuiih- law, and those of grace, or of the gospel. The first ' 
those^o'f the are excluded, the second not, but are necessary. The i 
*•''• first are those which are performed in man's own will, . 

and by his strength, in a conformity to the outward i 
law and letter ; and therefore are man's own imper- \ 
feet works, or works of the law, which makes ?wthing \ 
perfect : and to this belong all the ceremonies, purifi- J 
cations, washings, and traditions of the Jews. The . 
second are the works of the Spirit of grace in the ■ 
heart, wrought in conformity to the inward and spi- ] 
ritual law ; which works are not wrought in man s I 
will, nor by his power and ability, but in and by the i 
power and Spirit of Christ /;/ us, and therefore are i 
pure and perfect in their kind (as shall hereafter be \ 
proved) and may be called Chrisfs works, for that he \ 
is the immediate author and worker of them ; such ; 
works we affirm absolutely necessary to justification, ^ 
so that a man cannot be justified without them ; and | 

;* I 


all faith without them is dead and useless, as the \ 

apostle James saith. Now, that such a distinction is i 

to be admitted, and that the works excluded by the l 

apostle in the matter of justification are of the first '> 

kind, will appear, if we consider the occasion of the I 

apostle's mentioning this, as well here, as throughout ; 

his epistle to the Galatians, where he speaks of this ■ 

matter and to this purpose at large : which was this, { 

That whereas many of the Gentiles, that were not of \ 
the race or seed of Abraham, as concerning the flesh, 

were come to be converted to the Christian faith, ] 
and to believe in him, some of those that were of the 

Jewish proselytes, thought to subject the faithful and \ 

believing Gentiles to the legal ceremonies and obser- I 

vations, as necessary to their justification : this gave The occa- | 

the apostle Paul occasion at length, in his epistle to ^ °o°sUe's'^ ' 

the Romans, Galatians, and elsewhere, to show the speaking of \ 

use and tendency of the law, and of its works, and to %\^quI^ \ 

contradistinguish them from the faith of Christ, and wbich are \ 

the righteousness thereof : showing how the former ^^"^ " * * I 

was ceased and become ineffectual, the other re- i 

maining, and yet necessary. And that the works \ 

excluded by the apostle are of this kind of works of i 

the law, appears by the whole strain of his epistle to i 

the Galatians, chap. i. ii. iii. and iv. For after, in ] 

chap. iv. he upbraideth them for their returning unto \ 

the observation of days and times, and that, in the ,1 

beginning of chap. v. he showeth them their folly, \ 

and the evil consequence of adhering to the ceremo- ; 

nies of circumcision, then he adds, verse 6 : For in \ 

Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision \ 
availeth, but faith, which loorketh by love; and thus 

he concludes again, chap. vi. 15 : For in Christ Jes^us \ 

neither circumcision availeth, nor uncircumcision, but \ 

a new creature. From which places appeareth that j 

distinction of works beforementioned, whereof the J 

one is excluded, the other necessary to justification. J 

For the apostle showeth here, that circumcision (which ; 

word is often used to comprehend the whole ceremo- \ 
nies and legal performances of the Jews) is not ne- 


cessaiy, nor doth avail. Here then are the tvorks \ 
which are excluded, by which ?io man is justified; 
but faithy which worketh by love, but the fiew a^ea- 
titre, this is that which availeth, which is absolutely 
necessary : for faith, that worketh by love, cannot be j 
without works, for, as it is said in the same 6tli chap- j 
ter, verse 22 : Love is a work of the Spirit ; also the 
Tiew creatuj^e, if it avail and be necessary, cannot be ' 
without works; seeing it is natural for it to bring ^ 
forth works of righteousness. Again, that the apostle 
no ways intends to exclude such good works appears, 
in that in the same epistle he exhorts the Galatians to \ 
them, and holds forth the usefulness and necessity of 1 
Tbe useful- them, and that very plainly, chap. vi. 7, 8, 9 : Be not \ 
ce"i*y tr deceived, saith he, God is not mocked; for whatsoever • 
woodworks. « man soweth, that shall he also reap: for he that ' 
soweth to the flesh, shall of the flesh reap corruption; ■ 
but he that soweth to the Spirit, shall of the Spirit \ 
reap life everlasting. And let us not be weaty of well ■ 
doing, for in due season we shall reap, if we faint ?7ot: : 
Doth it not hereby appear, how necessary the apostle ; 
would have the Galatians know that he esteemed 
good works to be ? To wit, not the outward ceremo- : 
nies and traditions of the law, but the fruits of the \ 
Spirit, mentioned a little before ; by which Spirit he ' 
would have them to be led, and walk in those good ; 
works : as also, how much he ascribed to these good ; 
works, by which he affirms life everlasting is reaped. 
Now, that cannot be useless to man's justification, ; 
which capacitates him to reap so rich a harvest. j 

answ.2. But lastly, For a full answer to this objection, and | 
for the establishing of this doctrine of good works, I ': 
shall instance another saying of the same apostle \ 
Paul, which our adversaries also in the blindness of j 
their minds makes use of against us ; to wit, Tit. iii. 5 : ! 
Justified not Not by works of righteousness which we have done, 3 
perform*^ ^«^ accordlng to his mercy he saved us, by the wash- \ 
ance». hut ing of regeneration, and ?mewing of the Holy Ghost, '\ 
ibr spwt°' I^ ^^ generally granted by all, that [saved] is here all j 
one as if it had oeen said [justifie/i.] Now there are | 



two kinds of worths here mentioned : one by which \ 
we are not saved, that is, not justified ; and another by j 
which we are saved, or justified. The first, the works of \ 
righteousness which we have wrought, that is, which ] 
we in our first fallen nature, by our own strength, ^ i 
have wrought, our own legal performances, and there- 
fore may truly and properly be called ours, whatever \ 
specious appearances they may have. And that it I 
must needs and ought to be so understood, doth ] 
appear from the other part. By the washing of rege- \ 
neration, and renewing of the Holrj Ghost ; seeing \ 
regeneration is a work, comprehensive of many good \ 
works, even of all those which are called the fruits of i 
the Spirit. \ 

Now in case it should be objected, That these may object. | 

aUo be called ours, because ivrought in us, and also by ^ 

us many, times as instruments ; - 

I answer ; It is far otherwise than the former : for Answ. i 

in the first we are yet alive in our own natural state, j 

unrenewed, working of ourselves, seeking to save ' 
ourselves, by imitating and endeavouring a confor- 
mity to the outward letter of the law ; and so wrest- 
ling and striving in the carnal mind, that is enmity 
to God, and in the cursed will not yet subdued. But 

in this second we are crucified with Christ, we are ; 

become dead with him, have partaken of the fellow- \ 

ship of his sufferings, are made conforjnable to his • \ 

death ; and our first man, our old man with all his ] 

deeds, as well the openly wicked as the seemingly \ 

righteous, our legal endeavours and foolish wrest- ^ 

lings, are all buried and nailed to the o^ss of Christ; i 

and so it is no more we, but Christ alive in us, the Not we, but ; 

worker in us. So that though it be w;e in a sense, C'the work- \ 

yet it is according to that of the apostle to the same erof righte- ^ 

Galatians, chap. ii. 20 : I am crucified, yet neverthc- °"^"^"' \ 

less I live, yet not I, but Christ liveth in me : not /, \ 

but the grace of Christ in me. These works are I 

especially to be ascribed to the Spirit of Christ, and \ 

the grace of God in us, as being immediately thereby \ 

acted and led in them, and enabled to perform them. ; 


And this manner of speech is not strained, but fami- 
liar to the apostles, as appears, Gal. ii. 8 : For lie that 
wrought effectually in Peter to the apostleship of the 
circumcision, the same was mighty in me, kc. Phil, 
ii. 13 : For it is God which worketh in you, both to 
will and to do, &c. So that it appears by this place, 
that since the washing of regeneratio7i is necessary 
to justification, and that regetieration comprehends 
works, works are necessary ; and that these works of 
the law that are excluded, are different from those 
that are necessary and admitted. 

Object. 3. §. XL Thirdly, They object that no works, yea, 
not the works of Christ in us, can have place in justi- 
fication, because nothing that is impure can be useful 
in it ; and all the works wrought in us are impure. 
For this they allege that saying of the prophet Isaiah, 
Ixiv. 6 : All our righteousnesses are as fdthy rags; 
adding this reason. That seei)ig we are impure, so 
must our works be; which though good in themselves, 
yet as performed by us, they receive a tincture of im- 
purity, even as clean water passing through an unclean 
pipe is defiled. 

aksw. 1. That no impuix works are used to justification is 
confessed ; but that all the works wrought in the* 
saints are such is denied. And for answer to this, 
the former distinction will serve. We confess, that 
the first sort of works abovementioned are impure ; 
but not the second : because the first are wrought in 
the unrenewed state, but not the other. And as for 
that of Isaiah, it must relate to the first kind ; for 

wiiat nort thougli hc saith. All our righteousnesses are as filthy 

oasnewTs ^^^^*' y^^ ^^^* ^^^^ ^^^ comprchcud the righteousness 
as fiiihjr of Christ /// us, but only that which we work of and 
"*'• by ourselves. For should we so conclude, then it 
would follow, that we should throw away all holiness 
and righteousness ; since that which is 2ls filthy rags, 
and as a menstmious garment, ought to be thrown 
away ; yea, it would follow, that all the fruits of the 
Spirit, mentioned Gal. iv. were zsfilthy rags: whereas 
on the contrary, some of the works of the saints are 


said to have a sweet savour in the nostrils of the Lord; 
are said to be an ornament of great price in the sight 
of God; are said to prevail with him, and to be ac- 
ceptable to him ; which filthy 7^ags and a mensti^uous 
garment cannot be. Yea, many famous Protestants 
have acknowledged, that this place is not therefore so 
to be understood. Calvin upon this place saith, '' That Caivin nnd 
it is used to be cited by some, that they may prove "'^ers, their 

, . Ti •• 1 1 1 sense con- 

there IS SO little merit in our works, that they are ceming isa. 

before God filthy and defiled : but this seems to me ^o^l\\'^^^. 
to be different from the prophet's mind," saith he, ousness. 
" seeing he speaks not here of all mankind." Mus- Mascuius. 
cuius upon this place saith, " That it was usual for 
this people to presume much of their legal righte- 
ousness, as if thereby they were made clean ; never- 
theless they had no more cleanness than the unclean 
garment of a man. Others expound this place con- 
cerning all the righteousness of our flesh ; that opi- 
nion indeed is true ; yet I think that the prophet did 
rather accommodate these sayings to the impurity of 
the people in legal terms'' The author (commonly 
supposed Bertius) speaking concerning the true sense Beniua. 
of the 7th chapter of the epistle to the Romans, ^fl^^^^^,^ ■ 
hath a digression touching this of Isaiah, saying ; dissert, ano. 
'' This place is commonly corrupted by a pernicious 
wresting ; for it is still alleged, as if the meaning 
thereof inferred the most excellent works of the best 
Christians, &c." James Coret, a French minister in Ja. Coret 
the church of Basil, in his Apology concerning Jus- ^f^l^ '™J. 
tification against Alescales, saith ; " Nevertheless ac- ris, ann. 
cording to the counsel of certain good men, I must ^^^^'^•^®' 
admonish the reader, that it never came into our 
minds to abuse that saying of Isaiah, Ixiv. 6. against 
good wo7'ks, in which it is said, that all our righte- 
ousnesses are as filthy rags, as if he would have that 
which is good in our good works, and proceedeth 
from the Holy Spirit, to be esteemed as a filthy and 
unclean thing." 

§. XII. As to the other part. That seeing the best 
of men are still impure and imperfect, therefore their 



works must be so ; it is to beg the question, and de- 
pehds upon a proposition denied ; and which is to be 
) discussed at farther length in the next proposition. 

But though we should suppose a man not thoroughly 
perfect in all respects, yet will not that hinder, but 
good and perfect works in their kind may be brought 
forth in him by the Spirit of Christ: neither doth 
the example of water going through an unclean pipe 
hit the matter ; because though water may be capa- 
ble to be tinctured with uncleanness, yet the Spirit of 
God cannot, whom we assert to be the immediate 
author of those works that avail in Justification : and 
therefore Jesus Christ's works in his children are 
pure and perfecty and he worketh in and through 
that pure thing of his own forming and creating in 
them. Moreover, if this did hold, according to our 
adversaries' supposition, lliat no man ever was or can 
Were the be perfccl, it would follow, that the very miracles and 
miracles works of the apostlcs, which Christ wrouo^ht in them, 

and works r » G . . » 

of the apos- and they wrought m and by the power, opirit, and 
Urtbrpo^w! grace of Christ, were also impure and imperfect ; 
er of Christ such as their converting of the nations to the Chris- 
potewd^^ ^/flr;2 faith ; their gathering of the churches, their 
perfect? Writing of the holy scj^iptui^es ; yea, and their offer- 
ing up and sacrificing of their lives for the testimony 
of Jesus. What may our adversaries think of this 
argument, whereby it will follow, that the holy scrip- 
tures, whose perfection and excellency they seem 
so much to magnify, are provied to be impure and 
imperfect, because they came through impure and 
imperfect vessels 1 It appears by the confessions of 
Protestants, that the Fathers did frequently attribute 
unto works of this kind that instrumental work, which 
we have spoken of in Justification, albeit some igno- 
rant persons cry out it is popery ; and also divers, and 
those famous Protestants, do of themselves confess it. 
A. PoUn. Amandus Polanus, in liis Symphonia Catholica, cap. 
Our doc- xxvii. de Remissione Peccatorum, p. 651, places this 
*[^J*j?[j"*' thesis as the common opinion of Protestants, most 
ud works agreeable to the doctrine of the Fathers : " We ob- 


tain the remission of sins by repentance, confession, is not po- 
prayers, and tears, proceeding from faith, but do not p^*^^* 
merit, to speak properly; and therefore we obtain . 
remission of sins, not by the merit of our repentance 
and prayers, but by the mercy and goodness of God." 
Innocentius Gentiletus, a lawyer of great fame among Gentiieias 
Protestants, in his Examen of the Council of Trent, ceiTsie!' 
p. QQ, 67, oi justification, having before spoken of 
faith and works, adds these words : " But seeing the 
one cannot be without the other, we call them both 
conjunctly instrumental causes.'' Zanchius, in his Zanci.ius. 
fifth book, De Natura Dei, saith ; " We do not sim- 
ply deny, that good works are the cause of salvation, 
to wit, the instrumental, rather than the efficient 
cause, which they call [sine qua ;w;l"] And after- 
wards, " Good works are the instrumental cause of 
the possession of life eternal; for by these, as by a 
means and a lawful way, God leads unto the pos- 
session of life eternal^ G. Amesius saith, " That g. Ames, in 
our obedience, albeit it be not the principal and xbet?ogi»! 
meritorious cause of life eternal, is nevertheless a i. ii. c. i. ' 
cause in some respect, administering, helping, and ^*'*''** ^^' 
advancing towards the possession of the life." Also 
Richard Baxter, in his book above cited, p. 155, R. Baxter. 
saith, " That we are justified bj/ works in the same 
kind of causality as by faith, to wit, as being both 
causes sine qua non, or conditions of the new covena7it 
on our part requisite to justification." And p. 195, 
he saith, " It is needless to teach any scholar, who 
hath read the writings of Papists, how this doctrine 
differs from them." 

But lastly. Because it is fit here to say something or the me- 
of the merit and reward of works, I shall add some- "l^a tf * 
thing in this place of our sense and belief concerning works, 
that matter. We are far from thinking or believing, 
that man merits any thing by his works from God, 
all being oi free grace ; and therefore do we, and 
always have denied that popish notion of meritum 
ex condigno. Nevertheless we cannot deny, but that 
God, out of his infinite goodness wherewith he hath 



loved mankind, after he communicates to him his 

holy grace and Spimt, doth, according to his own 

God re- will, Fccompense and reward the good woi^hs of his 

^"*'t children; and therefore this merit of comridty or 

good works / ^ b J ^ 

ofhi.cbii- rewara, m so tar as the scripture is plain and posi- 
*""• tive for it, we may not deny ; neither wholly reject 
the work, in so far as the scripture makes use of it. 
For the same Greek ahov which signifies [jiierii] is 
also in those places where the translators express it 
worth, or Worthy, as Matt. iii. 8; 1 Thess. ii. 12; 
2 Thess. i. 5, 11. Concerning which R. Baxter 
saith, in the book above cited, p. 8, "But in a larger 
sense, as promise is an obligation, and the thing pro- 
niised is said to be debt, so the performers of the 
conditions are called worthy, and that which they 
perform merit; although properly all be of grace, 
and not of debty All those, who are called the 
fathers of the church, frequently used this word of 
vierit, whose sayings concerning this matter I think 
not needful to insert, because it is not doubted, but 
evident, that many Protestants are not averse from this 
word, in the sense that we use it. Tlie Apology for 
the Augustan Confession, art. xx. hath these words ; 
" We agree that works are truly meritorious, not of 
remission of sins, or justification ; but they are meri- 
torious of other rewards corporal and spiritual, which 
are indeed as well in this life, as after this life." And 
further, "Seeing works are a certain fulfilling of the 
law, they are rightly said to be meritorious; it is 
rightly said, that a reward is due to them." 
Conference In the acts of tlic confercncc of Oldenburgh, the 
burgh*" electoral divines, p. 1 10 and 265, say, " In this sense 
our churches also are not averse from the word \jnerit^ 
used by the fathers ; neither therefore do they defend 
the Popish doctrine of merit'' 

G. Vogiiat G. V< 

oj^theword ^^^ ^^^^i^3 

ventured to condemn the word [fnerit] wholly, as 
being that which both many of the ancients use, and 
also the reformed churche^s have used in their confcs- 

ossius in his Theological Thesis concerning t 
its of good works, saith ; " We have not ad- !J 



sions. Now; that God judgeth and accepteth men 
according to their works, is beyond doubt to those 
that seriously will read and consider these scriptures/' 
Matt. xvi. 27; Rom. ii. 6, 7, 10; 2 Cor. v. 10; 
James, i. 25; Heb. x. 35; 1 Pet. i. 17; Rev. xxii. 12. 

§. XIII. And to conc\\xdie\\i\s proposition, let none 
be so bold as to mock God, supposing themselves 
justified and accepted in the sight of God, by virtue 
of Christ's death and sufferings, while they remain 
unsanctified and unjustified in their own hearts, and 
polluted in their sins, lest their hope prove that of 
tke hypocrite, which perisheth. Neither let any job viii. 13. 
foolishly imagine, that they can by their own works, 
or by the performance of any ceremonies or traditions, 
or by the giving of gold or money, or by afflicting 
their bodies in will worship and voluntary humility, 
or foolishly striving to conform their way to the out- The iiope of 
ward letter of the law, flatter themselves that they crUeS 
merit before God, or draw a debt upon him, or that perish, but 
any man or men have powder to make such kind of f^g'^^^^^J*^ 
things effectual to their justification, lest they be 
found foolish boasters, and strangers to Christ and 
his righteousness indeed. But blessed for ever are 
they, that having truly had a sense of their own un- 
worthiness and sinfulness, and having seen all their 
own endeavours and performances fruitless and vain, 
and beheld their own emptiness, and the vanity of 
their vain hopes, faith and confidence, while they 
remained inwardly pricked, pursued, and condemned 
by God's holy witness in their hearts ; and so having 
applied themselves thereto, and suffered his gi^ace to 
work in them, are become changed and 7'enewed in 
the spirit of their minds, passed from death to life, 
and know Jesus arisen in them, working both the will 
and the deed; and so having put on the Lord Jesus 
Cnrist, in effect are clothed with him, and partake of 
his righteousness and nature ; such can draw near to 
the Lord with boldness, and know their acceptance m, 
and by \\\m; in whom, and in as many as are found 
in him, the Father is well pleased. 




In whom this pure and holy birth is fully brought forth, the body 
of death and sin comes to be crucified and removed, and their 
hearts united and subjected to the truth ; so as not to obey 
any suggestions or temptations of the evil one, but to be free 
from actual sinning and transgressing of the law of God, and in 
that respect />6//<?cf; yet doth i\\\s perfection still adroit of a 
growth ; and there remaineth always id some part a possibi- 
lity of sinning, where the mind doth not most diligently and 
watchfully attend unto the Lord. 

§. I. Since we have i^\^c(idi justification in the reve- 
lation of Jesus Christ formed and brought forth in 
the heart, there working his works of righteousness, 
and bringing forth the fruits of the Spirit, the ques- 
tion is, How far he may prevail in us while we are in 
this life ; or we over our soul's enemies, in and by his 
strength? Those that plead for Just ijicatiofi wholly 
without them, merely by imputative righteousness, 
denying the necessity of being clothed with real and 
These ure iuward rightcousuess, do consequently affirm, " That 
the Wm'-°^^* is impossible for a man, even the best of men, to 
minster be frcc of siu iu this life, which, the^ say, no man 
iThMm.''*^*" 6ver was ; but, on the contrary, that none can, neither 
of himself, nor by any grace received in this life (O 
wicked saying against the power of God's grace!) keep 
the commandments of God perfectly ; but that every 
man doth break the commandments in thought, word, 
and deed :" whence they also affirm, as was a little 
Whether it before observed, "That the very best actions of the 
to keep Ve saiuts, their prayers, their worships, are impure and 
command- pollutcd." Wc ou the coutrary, though we freely 
G^'?*" acknowledge this of the natural fallen man, in his 
first state, whatever his profession or pretence may 
be, so long as he is unconverted and unregenerate, 
yet we do believe, that to those in whom Christ comes 
Part I. to be formed, and the new man brought forth, and 
born of the incorruptible seed (as tliat birth, and man 


in union therewith, naturally doth the will of God), 
it is possible so far to keep to it, as not to be found 
daily transgressors of the law of God. And for the 
more clear stating of the controversy^ let it be con- Controver- 
sidered: ^ '^'^'''^• 

§. II. First, That we place not this possibility in i. 
man's own will and capacity, as he is a man, the son Motional 
of fallen Adam, or as he is in his natural state, how- 
ever wise or knowing, or however much endued with 
a notional and literal knowledge of Christ, thereby 
endeavouring a conformity to the letter of the law, as 
it is outward. 

Secondly, That we attribute it wholly to man, as ii. 
he is born again, renewed in his mind, raised byj'.h«°«^ 
Christ, knowing Christ alive, reigning and ruling in 
him, and guiding and leading him by his Spirit, and 
revealing in him the law of the Spirit of life ; which 
not only manifests and reproves sin, but also gives 
power to come out of it. 

Thirdly, That by this we understand not such a iir. 
perfection as may not daily admit of a growth, and Growth in 

J^ ^ •' 'J •% pertection. 

consequently mean not as it we were to be as pure, 
holy, and perfect as God in his divine attributes of 
vv^isdom, knowledge, and purity ; but only a perfec- 
tion proportionable and answerable to man's mea- 
sure, whereby we are kept from transgressing the laio 
of God, and enabled to answer what he requires of He that im- 
us ; even as he that improved his two talents so as to f'^^f*! *"* 

1 /> p 1 ' p 11' 1 *^^° talents 

make four of them, pertected his work, and was so was notiung 
accepted of his Lord as to be called a good and faith- Jable^ihar 
ful servant, nothing less than he that made Mi^five he with the 
ten. Even as a little gold is perfect gold in its kind, ^^'^' 
as well as a great mass, and a child hath a perfect 
body as well as a man, though it daily grow more 
and more. Thus Christ is said, Luke, ii. 52, to have 
increased in wisdom and stature, arid in favour with 
God and man ; though before that time he had never 
sin)ied, and was no doubt perfect, in a true and pro- 
per sense. 


IV. Fourtbly, Though a man may witness this for a 

season, and therefore all ought to press after it ; yet 

we do not affirm but those that have attained it in a 

wiie« of the measure may, by the wiles and temptations of the 

enemj. enemy, fall into iniquity, and lose it sometimes, if 

they be not watchful, and do not diligently attend to 

that of God in the heart. And we doubt not but 

Erery sin many good and holy, men, who have arrived to ever- 

mln in"his l^stiug life, have had divers ebbings and tlowings of 

spiritual this kind : for though every sin weakens a man in 

butdo'ih"' bis spiritual condition, yet it doth not so as to des- 

not destroy \^Qy {jj^i altogether, or render him uncapable of rising 

t'lier. ^^ again. 

v. Lastly, Though I affirm, that after a man hath arrived 

Righteous- j^|. such a State, in which he may be able not to sin, vet 

ness be- . ' . ' i • 1 1 rr ^ 

come natu- he may sm : nevertheless, 1 will not ainrm that a state 
^^' is not attainable in this life, in which to do righteous- 

7iess may be so natural to the regenerate soul, that in 
the stability of that condition he cannot sin. Others 
may speak more certainly of this state, if they have 
arrived at it. With respect to myself, I speak mo- 
destly, because I ingenuously confess that I have not 
yet attained it ; bat I cannot deny that there is such 
a state, as it seems to be so clearly asserted by the 
apostle, 1 John, iii.'9. He that is born of God s'mnetk 
7iot, neither can he, became the seed of God ronaineth 
in him. 
Part II. The Controversy being thus stated, which will serve 
Sect. 1. to obviate objections, I shall proceed. First, to show 
the absurdity of that doctrine that pleads for sin for 
term of life, even in the saints. 
Sect. 2. Secondly, To prove this doctrine of pafection from 

many pregnant testimonies of the holy scripture. 
stcT. 3. And, Lastly, To answer the arguments and objec- 
tions of our opposers. 
Sect. I. §. IIL First then, This doctrine, viz. That the 

Proof I. saints nor can nor ever will be free of sinning in this 
Jrine^of' ^ifs*^ ^^ iuconsistcnt with the wisdom of God, and witfi 
i.i.-ading for his glorious power and majesty, who is of purer ei/es 


than to behold iniquity^ ; who having purposed in sin for term 
himself to gather to him, that should worship him, °^Jj^® ***' 
and be witnesses for him on earth, a chosen people, *Hab.i.i3. 
doth also no doubt sanctify and purify them. For 
God hath no delight in iniquity, but abhors trans- 
gression; and though he regard man in transgres- 
sion so far as to pity him, and afford him means to 
come out of it ; yet he loves him not, neither delights 
in I'im, as he is joined thereunto. Wherefore if man 
musi be always joined to sin, then God would always 
vbe at a distance with him; as it is written, Isaiah, 
lix. 2. Your iniquities have separated betiveen you and 
your God, and your sins have hid his face from you ; 
whereas on the contrary, the saints are said to par- 
take, even while here, of the divine nature, 1 Pet. i. 4, 
and to be one spirit with the Lord, 1 Cor^ vi. 17. ^ 
Now no unclean thing can be so. It is expressly 
written, That there is no communion betwixt light and 
darkness, 2 Cor. vi. 14. But God is light, and every 
sin is darkness in a measure : What greater stain 
then can there be than this upon God's wisdom, as ifHathGod'» 
he had been wanting to prepare a means whereby his beenTant- 
children might perfectly serve and worship him, oringiopre- 
liad not provided a way whereby they might serve Jfeiis to 
him in any thing, but that they must withal still »e"e«nd 
serve the devil no less, yea more than himself? For peTfecUy?"" 
he that sinneth is the servant of sin, Rom. vi. 16, and 
every sin is an act of service and obedience to the 
devil. So then if the saints sin daily in thought, 
ivord, and deed, yea if the very service they offer to 
God be sin, surely they serve the devil more than 
they do God : for besides that they give the devil 
many intire services, without mixture of the least 
grain to God, they givfe God not the least service in 
which the devil hath not a large share : and if their 
prayers and all their spiritual performances be sinful, 
the devil is as much served by them in these as God, 
and in most of them much more, since they confess 
that many of them are performed without the lead- 


ings and influence of God's Spirit. Now who would j 
not account him a foolish master among men, who '> 
being able to do it, and also desirous it might be so, ; 
yet would not provide a way whereby his children ; 
and servants might serve him more entirely than his I 
avowed enemy; or would not guard against their | 
serving of him, but be so imprudent and unadvised i 
in his contrivance, that whatever way his servants 
and children served him, they should no less, yea i 
often much more, serve his enemy ? What may we ; 
then think of that doctrine that would infer this folly i 
upon the Omnipotent and Only Wise God? \ 

Proof II. §. IV. Secondly, It is inconsistent with the justice of 
Ls'tMcj" ^^* ^^^ since he requires purity from his children, \ 
with the jas- and commands them to abstain from every iniquity, -j 
ticeofGod. g^ frequently and precisely as shall hereafter appear, 
and since his wrath is revealed against all u7igodUness ; 
ajid unrighteousness of men^ it must needs follow, \ 
that he hath capacitated man to answer his will, or ■ 
else that he requires more than he has given power ; 
to perform ; which is to declare him openly unjust^ ' 
and, with the slothful servant, to be a hard master, \ 
We have elsewhere spoken of the injustice these men j 
ascribe to God, in maJcing him to damji the wicked, to \ 
whom they allege he never afforded any means of '\ 
being good; but this is yet an aggravation more irra- j 
tional and inconsistent, to say, that God will 7iot < 
afford to those, whom he hath chosen to he his own i 
(whom they confess he loveth), the means to please him. \ 
What can follow then from so strange a doctrine? | 
This imperfection in the saints either proceeds \ 
from God, or from themselves : If it proceeds from j 
them, it must be because they are short in improving \ 
or making use of the power given them, whereby \ 
they are capable to obey; and so it is a thing possi- \ 
ble to them, as indeed it is by the help of that power : \ 
but this our adversaries deny : they are then not to be j 
blamed for their imperfection and continuing in sin, 
since it is not possible for them to do otherwise. If 


it be not of themselves, it must be of God, who hath 
not seen meet to allow them grace in that degree to 
produce that effect : and what is this but to attribute 
to God the height of injustice, to make him require 
his children to forsake sin, and yet not to afford them 
sufficient means for so doing ? Surely this makes God 
snore unrighteous than wicked men, who if (as Christ 
saith) their children require bread of them, will not who wiii 
give them a stone ; or instead of a Jish, a serpent, chndlen*a 
But these men confess we ought to seek of God power stone in- 
to redeem us from sin, and yet believe they are never breldf 
to receive such a power; such prayers then cannot 
be in faith, but are all vain. Is not this to make 
God as unjust to his children as Pharaoh was to the 
Israelites, in requiring brick, and not giving them 
straw ? But blessed be God, he deals not so with those 
that truly trust in him, and wait upon him, as these 
men vainly imagine ; for such faithful ones find of a 
truth that his grace is sufficient for them, and know 
how by his power and Spirit to overcome the evil 

§. V. Thirdly, This evil doctrine is highly inju- p«. iir. 
rious to Jesus Christ, and greatly derogates from the andpnnd- 
power and virtue of his sacrifice, and renders his pai f nd of 
coming and ministry, as to the great end of it, inef- com?ng\nd 
fectual. For Christ, as for other ends, so principally appearance 
he appeared for the removing of sin, for the gather- Temoving of 
ing a righteous generation, that might serve the ""' *°^ *° 
Lord in purity of mind, and walk before him in fear, from aii ini- 
and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and that 'i'"*^' 
evangelical perfection which the law could not do. 
Hence he is said. Tit. ii. 14, to have given himself 
for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and 
purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good 
works. This is certainly spoken of the saints while 
upon earth ; but, contrary thereunto, these men affirm, 
that we are never r^edeemed from all iniquity, and so 
make Christ's giving of himself for us void and inef- 
fectual, and give the apostle Paul the lie plainly, by 


denying that Christ puri/ieth to himself a peculiar \ 
people^ zealous of good works. How are tliey zealous of 

good works, who are ever committing evil ones ? How * 

are they a purified people, that are still in impurity, as • 

they are that daily sin, unless sin be accounted no i 

impurity ? Moreover it is said expressly, 1 John, iii. ! 

5, 8, That/or this puipose the Son of Ood was matii- y 

fested, that he might destroy the works of the devil; : 

and ye know that he was manifested to take away our \ 

sins. But these men make this purpose of none < 

eflGset; for they will not have the Son of God to . 

destroy the works of the devil in his children in this . 

world, neither will they at all believe that he was - 
manifest to take away our sins, seeing they plead a 

necessity of always living in them. And lest any ' 

should wrest this place of the apostle, as if it were ^ 

spoken only of taking away the guilt of sin, as if it ; 

related not to this life, the apostle, as if of purpose • 

to obviate such an objection, adds in the following \ 
verses. Whosoever abideth in him, sinneth ?iot, &c. I 
hope then they sin not daily in thought, word, and 

deed. Let ?2o man deceive you; he that doth rightc- \ 
ousness, is righteous, even as he is righteous ; he that 
committeth sin, is of the devil; but he that sinneth 
daily in thought, word, and deed, committeth sin; 
how comes such a one then to be the child of God? 
And if Christ was manifest to take away sin, how 
strangely do they overturn the doctrine of Christ that 

deny that it is ever taken away here! And how i 

injurious are they to the efficacy and power of Christ's \ 

appearance ! Came not Christ to gather a people ^ 
out of sin into righteousness ; from the kingdom of 

Satan into the kingdom of the dear Son of God? And i 

are not they that are thus gathered by him his ser- ; 

vants, his children, his brethren, his friends? who ; 

as he tvas, so are they to be in this worUI, holy, pure, j 

and undejiled. And doth not Christ still watch over ^ 

them, stand by them, pray for thera, and preserve \ 

them by his power and Spirit, walk in them, and Ij 



dwell among them ; even as the devil on the other The devii 
hand doth amono^ the reprobate ones? How comes *^"'^"%. 

o 1 _ II' among the 

it then that the servants of Christ are less his servants reprobates. 
than the devil's are his ? Or is Christ unwilling to 
have his servants thoroughly pure? Which were 
gross blasphemy to assert, contrary to many scrip- 
tures. Or is he not able by his power to preserve 
and enable his children to serve him ? Which were 
no less blasphemous to affirm of him, concerning 
whom the scriptures declare. That he has overcojne 
sin, death, hell, and the grave, and triumphed over 
them openly, and that all power in heaven and earth is 
given to hi?n. But certainly if the saints sin daily in 
thought, word, and deed, as these men assert, they 
serve the devil daily, and are subject to his power ; 
and so he prevails more than Christ doth, and holds 
the servants of Christ in bondage, whether Christ 
will or not. But how greatly then doth it contradict 
the end of Christ's coming ? as it is expressed by the 
apostle, Eph. v. 25, 26, 27 : Even as Christ also 
loved the church, and gave himself for it, that he 
might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of 
water by the word: that he might present it to himself 
a glorious church, not having spot or wrinkle, or any 
such thing, but that it should be holy, and ivithout 
blemish. Now if Christ hath really thus answered 
the thing he came for, then the members of this 
church are not always sinning in thought, word, and 
deed, or there is no difference betwixt being sancti- 
fied and unsanctified, clean and unclean, holy and 
unholy, being daily blemished with sin, and being 
without blemish. 

§. VI. Fourthly, This doctrine renders the work of fr.w. 
the ministry, the preaching' of the word, the writing 
of the sci^ipture, and the prayers of holy men altoge- 
ther useless and ineffectual . As to the first, Eph. iv. 
11, Pastors and teachers are said to be given for Pas\orn, 
the perfection of the saints, &c. until we all come ?^? anT scrf'>- 
the unity of the faith, and of the knoioledge of the Son tures are 
of God, mito a perfect man, unto a measure of the ^^"^'^^''^ 


perfecting statujx of the fulncss of Christ. Now if there be a 
ofibesainu. ^ecessity of sinning daily, and in all things, then 
there can be no perfection ; for such as do so cannot 
be esteemed perfect. And if for effectuating this 
perfection in the saints the ministry be appointed 
and disposed of God, do not such as deny the possi- 
bility hereof render the ministry useless, and of no 
profit ? Seeing there can be no other true use assign- 
ed, but to lead people out of sin into righteousness. 
If so be these ministers assure us that we need never 
expect to be delivered from it, do not they render 
their own work needless? What needs preaching 
against sin, for the reproving of which all preaching 
is, if it can never be forsaken ? Our adversaries are 
exalters of the scriptures in words, much crying up 
their usefulness and perfection : now the apostle tells 
us, 2 Tim. iii. 17, That the scriptures are for making 
the man of God perfect ; and if this be denied to be 
attainable in this life, then the scriptures are of no 
profit ; for in the other life we shall not have use for 
them. It renders the prayers of the saints altogether 
useless, seeing themselves do confess they ought to 
pray daily that God would deliver them from evil, 
and free them from sin, by the help of his Spirit and 
grace, while in this world. But though we might 
suppose this absurdity to follow, that their prayers 
are without faith, yet were not that so much, if it 
did not infer the like upon the holy apostles, who 
prayed earnestly for this end, and therefore no doubt 
believed it attainable. Col. iv. 12. Labouring fer- 
vently for you in prayers, that ye may stand perfect, 
&c. iThess. iii. 13, and v. 23, &c. 
PR. V. §. VII. But Fifthly, This doctrine is contrary to 

^'d r°*h* common reason and sense. For the two opposite 
t\Ti%nAx\^\x' principles, whereof the one rules in the children of 
teoasneM durkness, the other in the children of light, are sin 
together, and righteou.vicss ; and as they are respectively lea- 
vened and actuated by them, so they are accounted 
Pro? . xTu. either as reprobated or justified, seeing it is abomina- 
"• tion in the sight of God, either to justify the wicked, 


or condemn the just. Now to say that men cannot 
be so leavened by the one, as to be delivered from the 
other, is in plain words to affirm, that sin and righte- 
ousness are consistent ; and that a man may be truly 
termed righteous, though he be daily sinning in every 
thing he doth; and then what difference betwixt 
good and evil ? Is not this to fall into that great abo- 
mination of putting light for darkness, and calling 
good evil, and evil good? Since they say the very best 
actions of God's children are defiled and polluted, and 
that those that sin daily in thought, word, and deed 
are good men and women, the saints and holy servants 
of the holy pure God. Can there be any thing more 
repugnant than this to common reason? Since the 
subject is still denominated from that accident that 
doth most influence it ; as a wall is called white when 
there is much whiteness, and black when there is 
much blackness, and such like; but when there is 
more unrighteousness in a man than righteousness, 
that man ought rather to be denominated unrighte- 
ous than righteous. Then surely if every man sinifaiiddij 
daily in thought, word, and deed, and that in his ^^"'hrrTgb- 
sins there is no righteousness at all, and that all his teous man 
righteous actions are polluted and mixed with sin, of®^ '^orip " 
then there is in every man more unrighteousness than ta«"e? 
righteousness ; and so no man ought to be called 
righteous, no man can be said to be sanctified or 
washed. Where are then the children ofGodl Where 
are the purified ones ? Where are they who were some- 
times unholy, but now holy: that sometimes were dark- 
ness, but now are light in the Lordl There can none 
such be found then at this rate, except that unrighte- 
ousness be esteemed so : and is not this to fall into 
that abomination abovementioned o^ justifying the 
ungodly ? This certainly lands in that horrid bias- The blas- 
phemy of the Ranters, that affirm theie is no differ- {'^e'Ranfe^ 
ence betwixt good and evil, and that all is one in the ox Liber- 
sight of God. I could show many more gross iabsur- *'°^*' 
dities, evil consequences, and manifest contradictions 


implied in this sinful doctrine ; but this may suffice 

at present, by which also in a good measure the proof 

of the truth we affirm is advanced. Yet nevertheless, 

for the further evidencing of it, I shall proceed to the 

second thing proposed by me, to wit, to prove this 

from several testimonies of the holy scriptures. 

Sect. II. §. VIII. And First, I prove it from the peremptory 

Proof 1. positive command of Christ and his apostles, seeing 

this is a maxim engraven in every man's heart natu- 

/ rally, that no man is bound to do that which is impos- 

Be ye per- siblc .' siucc then Christ and his apostles have com- 

fect, &c. manded us to keep all the cojnmandments, and to be 

K.eep DiT *■ 

command- pcrfcct iu this rcspcct, it is possible for us so to do. 
menu. ^Qyf that this is tlius commaudcd without any com- 
mentary or consequence, is evidently apparent from 
these plain testimonies, Matt. v. 48; and vii. 21; 
John, xiii. 17; 1 Cor. vii. 19; 2 Cor. xiii. 11; 1 John, 
ii. 3, 4, 5, 6; and iii. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. These 
scriptures intimate a positive command for it ; they 
declare the absolute necessity of it ; and therefore, as 
^ if they had purposely been written to answer the ob- 
jections of our opposers^ they show the folly of those 
that will esteem themselves children or friends of 
Gody while they do otherwise. 
PRtfoF 2. Secondly, It is possible, because we receive the gos- 
buff ^of'h P^^ ^^^ ^^^ thereof for that effect ; and it is expressly 
promised to us, as we are under grace, as appears by 
these scriptures, Rom. iv. 14. Sin shall not have domi- 
nion over you; for ye are not under the law, but under 
grace: and Rom. viii. 3. For what the law could not 
do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending 
his own Son, &c. that the righteousness of the law 
The differ- might bc fulfilled in us, &c. For if this were not a 
*J*^*J^**J^^ condition both requisite, necessary, and attainable 
pel. under the gospel, there were no difference betwixt the 

bringifig in of a better hope, and the law which made 
nothing perfect ; neither betwixt those which are under 
the gospel, or who under the law enjoyed and walked 
in the life of the gospel, and mere legalists. Whereas 


the apostle, throughout the whole sixth to the Romans, j 
argues not only the possibility, but the necessity of I 
being free from sin, from their being under the gospel, 
and under grace, and not under the law ; and there- 
fore states himself and those to whom he wrote in that ■ 
condition in these verses, 2 — 7, and therefore in the J 
11 — 13, 16 — 18 verses he argues both the possibility \ 
and necessity of this freedom from sin almost in the i 
same manner we did a little before ; and in the 22d ' 
he declares them in measure to have attained this con- J 
dition in these words. But now being made free from 'i 
sin, and become servants to God, ye have your fruit ] 
unto holiness, and the end everlasting life. And as Perfection j 
this perfection or freedom from sin is attained and f^ ^l^^' 'i 
made possible where the gospel and mward law of the sin attained l 
Spirit is received and known, so the ignorance hereof ^'^'^^^,1^®^ 
has been and is an occasion of opposing this truth, tiie gospel. ] 
For man not minding the light or lazv within his heart, i 
which not only discovers sin, but leads out of it, and ' 
so being a stranger to the new life and birth that is | 
born of God, which naturally does his will, and cannot j 
of its own nature transgress the commandments of 
God, doth, I say, in his natural state look at the com- \ 
mandments as they are without him in the letter; and The letter ] 
finding himself reproved and convicted, is by the let- ij,*",^*; "** ] 
ter killed, but not made alive. So man, finding him- aiive. ! 
self wounded, and not applying himself inwardly to 
that which can heal, labours in his own will after a i 
conformity to the law as it is without him, which he 1 
can never obtain, but finds the more he wrestles, the 1 
more he falleth short. So this is the Jew still in eflfect, ' 
with his carnal commandment, with the laiv without, 
in the first covenant state, which makes not the comers i 
thereunto perfect, as pertai?iing to the conscience, Heb. 
ix. 9, though they may have here a notion of Chris- j 
tianity, and an external faith in Christ. This hath i 
made them strain and wrest the scriptures for an im- \ 
putative righteousness wholly without them, to cover 
their impurities ; and this hath made them imagine ] 


an acceptance with God possible, though they sup- 
pose it impossible ever to obey Christ's commands. 
But alas ! O deceived souls ! that will not avail in 
tlie day wherein God will judge every man accoPduig 
to his worky whether good or bad. It will not save 
thee to say, it was necessary for thee to sin daily in 
thought, word, and deed ; for such as do so have cer- 
tainly obeyed unrighteousness : and what is provided 
for such, but tribulation and anguish, indignation and 
wrath ; even as glory, honour , and peace, invnortality 
and eternal life to such as have done good, and pa- 
tiently continued in well doing. So then, if thou d^ 
sirest to know this perfection and freedom from sin 
possible for thee, turn thy mind to the liglit {tnd spi- 
jHtual law of Christ if I the heart, and suffer the reproofk 
thereof; bear the judgment and indignation of God 
upon the unrighteous part in thee as therein is re- 
vealed, which Christ hath made tolerable for thee, 
and so suffer judgment in thee to be brought forth 
How we into victoyy, and thus come to partake of the fellow- 
chrbt's suf- ^^^P ^^ Christ" s sufferings, and be made conformable 
ferings and unto Ms dcuth, that thou mayest feel thyself crucified 
conform-^ ^/7A hiM to the world by the power of his cross in 
able unto thcc ,* SO that that life that sometimes was alive in 
'• *** ' thee to this world, and the love and lusts thereof, may 
die, and a new life be raised, by which thou mayest 
live henceforward to God, and not to or for thyself; 
and with the apostle thou mayest say. Gal. ii. 20, It 
is 710 more I, but Christ alive in me; and then thou 
wilt be a Christian indeed, and not in name only, as 
too many are ; then thou wilt know what it is to haVe 
put off the old jnan with his deeds, who indeed sins 
daily in thought, word, and deed ; and to have put 
on the new man, that is j^enewed in holiness, after the 
image of him that hath created him, Eph. iv. 24, and 
thou wilt witness thyself to be God^s worhnanship, 
created in Christ Jesus unto good works, and so not 
Matt.xi.3o. to sin always. And to this new man Christ s yoke is 
I Jobo T.3. ^^^ ^^^^1 ^^ burden is light; though it be heavy to 


the old Adam; yea, the commandments o/Godsire not 
unto this man grievous; for it is his meat and drink to 
be found fulfilling the will of God. 

Lastly, This perfection or freedom from sin is pos- proof 3. 
sible, because many have attained it, according to ^J^^JI^^'j""® 
the express testimony of the scripture ; some before perfection. 
the law, and some under the law, through witnessing 
and partaking of the benefit and effect of th^ gospel, 
and much more many under the g:ospel. As first, It 
is written of Enoch, Gen. v. 22, 24, that he walked ^noch 
with God. which no man while sinning can : nor doth ^P',''^,*! ^ 

"L • 1 PI r»i-T witli trod, 

the scripture record any failmg of his. It is said of and was 
Noah, Gen. vi. 9, and of Job i. 8, and of Zacharias ^"'''''• 
and Elizabeth, Luke, i. 6, that they were 'perfect ; but 
under the gospel, besides that of the Romans above 
mentioned, see what the apostle saith of many saints 
in general, Eph. ii. 4, 5, Q: But God, who is rich in 
mercy, for his great love wfierewith he hath loved us, 
even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us 
together with Christ ; by grace ye are saved; and 
hath raised us up together, and made us sit together 
in heavenly places in Christ Jesus, &c. I judge while 
they were sitting hi these heavenly places, they could 
not be daily sinning in thought, word, and deed ; 
neither were all their works which they did there as 

filthy rags, or as a menstruous garment. See what 
is farther said to the Hebrews, xii. 22, 23 : Spirits of 

just men made perfect. And to conclude, let that of 
the Revelations, xiv. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, be considered, 
where though their being found without fault be 
spoken in the present time, yet it is not without 
respect to their innocency while upon earth ; and 
their being redeemed from among men, and no guile 

found in their mouth, is expressly mentioned in the time 
past. But I shall proceed now, in the third place, to sec. lu. 
answer the objections, which indeed are the arguments 
of our opposers. 

§ IX. I shall begin with their chief and great object. 1. 
argument, which is the words of the apostle, 1 John, 



i. 8 : If we say that tee have no sin, rve deceive our- ^ 
selves, and the truth is not in us. This they think ; 
answ. 1. But is it not strange to see men so blinded with par- 
tiality ? How many scriptures tenfold more plain do ; 
they reject, and yet stick so tenaciously to this, that \ 
If we sty can receive so many answers? As first, [If we say we \ 
we have no j^^^^ ^^^ ^^ -| ^^'jj ^^^ imoort the apostle himself ! 

iin, &c. ob- 1 . 1 T 1 -• IP, . S • 11- 

jected. to be mcluded. bometimes the scripture useth this 
manner of expression when the person speaking can- \ 
not be included ; which manner of speech the gi^am- \ 
marians call nietaschematis7)ius. Thus James, iii. 9, ; 
10, speaking of the tongue, saith, Theretvith bless we • 
God, and thcreivith curse we men; adding, Ihese i 
things ought not so to be. Who from this will con- 
clude that the apostle was one of those cursers ? But 
Answ. 2. Secondly, This objection hitteth not the matter; he i 
saith not, We sin daily in thought, word, and deed ; \ 
far less that the very good works which God works in ] 
us by his Spirit are sin : yea, the very next verse ' 
clearly shows, that upon confession and repentance \ 
we are not only forgiven, but also cleansed; He is • 
faithful to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse upfront j 
all unrighteousness. Here is both a forgiveness and ; 
removing of the guilt, and a cleansing or removing ' 
of the filth ; for to make forgiveness and cleansing to I 
belong both to the removing of the guilt, as there is ; 
no reason for it from the text, so it were a most violent j 
forcing of the words, and would imply a needless* 
tautology. The apostle having shown how that not; 
the guilt only, but even the filth also of sin is removed, : 
subsumes his words in the time past in the 10th verse, j 
If we say wc have not sinned, we inakc him a liar, | 
ANsw.s. Thirdly, As Augustine well observed, in his Exposi-j 
tion upon the Epistle to the Galatians, // 'is one thing] not to sin, and another thing not to have sin. Thej 
Ihl^Jn^anl- apostlcs words are not, if we say we sin not, or commit\ 
iberihinK not siu duUy ; but, ifive say ive have no sin : and be-; 
twixt these two there is a manifest difference ; for m\ 

But to have 


respect all have sinned^ as we freely acknowledge, all \ 

may be said in a sense to have sin. Again, sin may \ 

be taken for the seed of sin, which may be in those ' J 

that are redeemed from actual sinning ; but as to the \ 

temptations and provocations proceeding from it being : 
resisted by the servants of God, and not yielded to, 

they are the devil's sin that tempteth, not the man's ■ 

that is preserved. Fourthly, This being considered, Answ. 4. \ 

as also how positive and plain once and again the \ 

same apostle is in that very epistle, as in divers places | 

above cited, is it equal or rational to strain this one \ 

place, presently after so qualified and subsumed in ; 
the time past, to contradict not only other positive 

expressions of his, but the whole tendency of his \ 

epistle, and of the rest of the holy commands and | 

precepts of the scripture ? ; 

Secondly, their second objection is from two places ohjlct. 2. 

of scripture, much of one signification : the one is, | 

1 Kings, viii. 46 : For there is no man that sinneth \ 

not. The other is, Eccles. vii. 20 : For there is not \ 

a just man upon earth, that doth good, and sinneth not. \ 

I answer. First, These affirm nothing of a daily answ. 

and continual sinning, so as never to be redeemed j 

from it ; but only that all have sitined, or that there - 

is none that doth not sifi, though not always, so as < 

never to cease to sin ; and in this lies the question. j 

Yea, in that place of the Kings he speaks within two \ 

verses of the returning of such with all their souls and \ 

hearts ; which implies a possibility of leaving off sin. ; 
Secondly, There is a respect to be had to the seasons Diversity of 

seasons and 


and dispensations ; for if it should be granted that in Jt 
Solomon's time there was none that sinned not, it will tions re- 
not follow that there are none such now, or that it is ^p^^^^*^- 
a thing not now attainable by the grace of God under 
the gospel : For A non esse ad non posse non valet 
sequela. And Lastly, This whole objection hangs 
upon a false interpretation ; " for the Hebrew word 
Nion» may be read in the potential mood, thus. There 
is no man who may not sin, as well as in the indica^ 


tive : so both the old Latin, Junius and Tremellius, 
and Vatablus have it ; and the same word is so used 
Psalm cxix. 11:/ have hid thy word m my hearty \ 
:-f7 ^*lO^^* ^b ]VOb that is to say, That I may not sin \ 
against thee, in the potential mood, and not in the j 
indicative ; which being more answerable to the uni- I 
versal scope of the scriptures, the testimony of the 
truth, and the sense almost of all interpreters, doubt- | 
less ought to be so understood, and the other inter- \ 
p^etation rejected as spurious. 
Object. 8. Thirdly, They object some expressions of the apos- \ 
tie Paul, Rom. vii. 19 : For the good that I would, I ] 
do not ; but the evil ichich I would 7iot, that I do. And 
verse 24 : O wretched man that I am ! who shall de- 
liver me from the body of this death ? < 
Ahsw. I answer. This place infers nothing, unless it were 
apparent that the apostle here were speaking of his j 
own condition, and not rather in the person of others, ; 
or what he himself had sometimes borne ; which is ■ 
frequent in scripture, as in the case of cursing, in ! 
James before mentioned. But there is nothing in the , 
text that doth clearly signify the apostle to be speak- 
ing of himself, or of a condition he was then under, i 
or was always to be under ; yea, on the contrary, in < 
the former chapter, as afore is at large shown, he de- ^ 
clares, they were dead to sin ; demanding how such ; 
Paul per.o- should yct Uvc uvy longer therein ? Secondly, It ap- j 
wVeTcbed P^sirs that the apostle personated one not yet come to 
man to a Spiritual condition, in that he saith, verse 14, But 
the Re-*" ^ ^^ carnal, sold under sin. Now is it to be ima- 
deemer. gined that the apostle Paul, as to his own proper \ 
condition, when he wrote that epistle, was a carnal ] 
man, who in chap. i. testifies of himself, That he was \ 
separated to be an apostle, capable to impart to the [ 
Rojnans spiritual gifts ; and chap. viii. ver. 2 : That ^ 
the law of the Spirit of Life in Christ Jesus had 7nade I 
him free frmn the law of sin and death .^ So then he | 
was not carnal. And seeing there are spiritual men \ 
ID this life, as our adversaries will not deny, and is \ 


intimated through the whole viiith chapter to the i 
Romans, it will not be denied but the apostle was one \ 
of them : so then as his calling himself carnal in ] 
chap. vii. cannot be understood of his own proper j 
state, neither can the rest of what he speaks there of ' 
that kind be so understood : yea after, verse 24, where I 
he makes that exclamation, he adds in the next verse, 1 
I thank God, through Jesus Christ our Lord ; signi- ] 
fying that by him he witnessed deliverance ; and so ] 
goeth on, showing how he had obtained it in the next i 
chapter, viz, viii. verse 35 : Who shall separate us I 
from the love of Christ? And verse 37 : But in all \ 
these things we are more than conquerors : and in the i 
last verse, Nothing shall be able to separate us, Sec. 1 
But wherever there is a continuing in sin, there is a i 
separation in some degree, seeing every sin is con- 
trary/ to God, and avofjLia, i. e. a transgression of the j 
law, 1 John, iii. 4, and whoever committeth the least l 
sin is overcome of it, and so in that respect is not a Whom sin 
conqueror, but conquered. This condition then, which qutrTd" he ^ 
the apostle plainly testified he with some others had »s no con- 
obtained, could not consist with continual remaining **"^''°''- 1 
and abiding in sin. 1 

Fourthly, They object the faults and sins of several object. 4. I 
eminent saints, as Noah, David, &c. 

I answer, That doth not at all prove the case : for answ. \ 

the question is not whether good meti may not fall into \ 

sin, which is not denied ; but whether it be not possible ^ 

for them not to sin? It will not follow because these j 
men sinned, that therefore they were never free of sin, can thej 
but always si?ined : for at this rate of arguing, it might J^*'^^ 
be urged, according to this rule (Contrainorurn par from siai 

ratio, i. e. The reason of contraries is alike) that if, ' 

because a good man hath sinned once or twice, he \ 

can never be free from sin, but must always be daily \ 

and continually a sinner all his life long ; then by the i 

rule of contraries, if a wicked man liave done good \ 

once or twice, he can never be free from righteous- .; 
ness, but must always be a righteous man all his life- 


time : which as it is most absurd in itself, so it is 
contrary to the plain testimony of the scripture, Ezek. 
xxxiii. 12 to 18. 
Object. Lastly, They object. That if perfection oi^ freedom 
from sin be attainable, this will render mortification of 
sin useless, and make the blood of Christ of no service 
to us, neither need we any more pray for forgiveness 
, of sins. 
AN8W. I answer, I had almost omitted this objection, be- 

cause of the manifest absurdity of it : for can mortifi- 
cation of sin be useless, where the end of it is ob- 
tained? seeing there is no attaining of this perfection 
Who fights but by mortification. Doth the hope and belief of 
ho^^erto" overcoming render the fight unnecessary? Let rational 
overcome men judgc whicli hath most sense in it, to say, as our 
**** fo" • adversaries do. It is necessary that we fight and wrestle, 
but we must never think of overcoming, we must re- 
solve still to be overcome; or to say, Let us fight, be- 
cause we may overcome^. Whether do such as believe 
they may be cleansed by it, or those that believe they 
can never be cleansed by it, render the blood of Christ 
most effectual ? If two men were both grievously 
diseased, and applied themselves to a physician for 
remedy, which of those do most commend the physi- 
cian and his cure, he that belie veth he may be cured 
by him, and as he feels himself cured, confesseth that 
he is so, and so can say. This is a skilful physician, this 
is a good medicine, behold I am made whole by it; or 
he that never is cured, nor ever believes that he can 
Prating for SO loug as lic Hvcs ? As for praying for forgiveness, 

oTSii?"*" ^^ ^^"y ^^ ^^* ' ^"^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ sinned, and therefore 
all need to pray that their sins past may be blotted 
out, and that they may be daily preserved from sin- 
ning. And if hoping or believing to be madey/Te 
from sin hinders praying for forgiveness of sin, it 
would follow by the same inference that men ought 
not to forsake murder, adultery, or any of these gross 
evils, seeing the more men are sinful, the more plenti- 
ful occasion there would be of asking forgiveness of 


sin, and the more work for mortification. But the 
apostle had sufficiently refuted such sin-pleasing cavils 
in these words, Rom. vi. 1,2: Shall we continue in 
sin that grace may aboundl God forbid. 

But lastly, It may be easily answered, by a retor- 
tion to those that press this from the words of the 
Lord's prayer, forgive us our debts^ that this militates 
no less against perfect justification than against per- 
fect sanctification : for if all the saints, the least as 
well as the greatest, be perfectly justified in that very 
hour wherein they are converted, as our adversaries 
will have it, then they have remission of sins long be- 
fore they die. May it not then be said to them. What 
need have ye to pray for remission of sin, who are 
already justified, whose sins are long ago forgiven, 
both past and to come ? 

§ X. But this may suffice: concerning this possi- Testimo. 
bility Jerom speaks clearly enough, lib. 3, adver. Pe- J?,',*','^"^ 'j;,*„. 
lagium, " This we also say, that a man may not sin, cerningper- 
if he will, for a time and place, according to his bodily Jjeidom**'^ 
weakness, so long as his mind is intent, so long as the f'""* »»"• 
cords of the Cithara relax not by any vice ;" and again 
in the same book, " Which is that that I said, that it Jerom. 
is put in our power (to wit, being helped by the grace 
of God) either to sin or not to sin." For this was the 
error of Pelagius, which we indeed reject and abhor, 
and which the Fathers deservedly withstood, " That 
man by his natural strength, without the help of 
God's grace, could attain to that state so as not to sin." 
And Augustine himself, a great opposer of the Pela- AagosUoe. 
gian heresy, did not deny this possibility as attainable 
by the help of God's grace, as in his book De Spiritu 
et Litura, cap. 2, and his book De Natura et Gratia 
against Pelagius, cap. 42, 50, 60, and 63, De Gestis 
Concilii Palsestina, cap. 7, and 2, and De Peccato 
Originali, lib. 2, cap. 2. Gelasius also, in his dispu- GeUsins. 
tation against Pelagius saith, " But if any affirm that 
this may be given to some saints in this life, not by the 
power of man's strength, but by the grace of God, he 


doth well to think so confidently, and hope it faith- 
Th»t by the fully ,* foF by this gift of God all things are possible." 
*i['h^^°** That this was the common opinion of the Fathers 
•re posii- appears from the words of the Aszansic Council, canon 
'*'''• the last, " We believe also this according to the Ca- 

tholic faith, that all who are baptized through grace 
by baptism received, and Christ helping them, and 
coworking, may and ought to do whatsoever belongs 
to salvation, if they will faithfully labour." 
Conclusion. § XI. Blcsscd thcu are they that believe in him, 
who is both able and willing to deliver as many as 
come to him through true repentance from all sin, and 
do not resolve, as these men do, to be the devil's sei^ 
vants all their lifetime, but daily go on forsaking un- 
righteousness, and forgetting those things that are 
Phii.iii.i4. behind, fress forward toward the mark, for the prize 
war" to7he ^f '^'^ ^^^^ Calling of God in Christ Jesiis ; such shall 
mark, for not find their faith and confidence to be in vain, but 
Ind o"er- ^^ ^^^^ ^imc shall be made conquerors through him in 
coming. whom they have believed ; and so overcoming, shall 
be established as pillars in the house of God, so as they 
shall go no more out, Rev. iii. 12. 




Although this gift and inward grace of God be sufficient to work 
out salvation, yet in those in whom it is resisted, it both may 
and doth become their condemnation. Moreover, they in 
whose hearts it hath wrought in part to purify and sanctify 
them in order to their further perfection, may, by disobedi- 
ence, fall from it, turn it to wanionnesSy .Tude 4, 7nake ship- 
wreck of faith, 1 Tim. i. 19, and after having tasted the hea- 
venly gift, and been made partakers of the Holy Ghost, again 
fall away, Heb. vi. 4 — 6; yet such an increase and stability 
in the truth may in this life be attained, from which thfere can 
be no total apostacy. 

§. 1. The first sentence of this proposition hath al- 
ready been treated of in the Fifth and Sixth Proposi- 
tions, where it hath been shown that that light which 
is given for life and salvation becomes the condemna- 
tion of those that refuse it, and therefore is already 
proved in those places, where I did demonstrate the 
possibility of man's resisting the grace and Spirit of 
God ; and indeed it is so apparent in the scriptures, 
that it cannot be denied by such as will but seriously 
consider these testimonies, Prov. i. 24 — 26; John, 
iii. 18, 19; 2 Thess. ii. 11, 12; Acts, vii. 51 ; and 
xiii. 46; Rom. i. 18. As for the other part of it, 
that thei/ i?i whom this grace may have wrought in a 
good measure in order to purify and sanctify them, 
tending to their fyrther perfection, may afterwards, 
through disobedience, fall away, See. the testimonies of 
the scripture included in the proposition itself are 
sufficient to prove it to men of unbiased judgment ; 
but because as to this part our cause is common with 
many other Protestants, I shall be the more brief in 
it ; for it is not my design to do that which is done 
already, neither do I covet to appear knoiving by writ- 
ing much ; but sin) ply purpose to present to the world 


a faithful account of our principles, and briefly to let 

I. them understand what we have to say for ourselves. 

A raiiiDg §. II. From these scriptures then included in the 

b^diSJT proposition, not to mention many more which might 

dieooe be urged, I argue thus : 

At^^i. JJ ^neu may turn the grace of God into wantonntsSy 

then they must once have had it : 

But the first is true, therefore also the second. 

Arg. 2. If men may make shipwreck of faith, they must once 

have had it; neither could they ever have had true 
faith without the grace of God: 

But the first is true, therefore also the last. 

Arg. 3. If 7)icn may have tasted of the heavenly gift, and 

been made }mr takers of the Holy Spirit, and afterwards 
fall away, they must needs have known in measure the 
operation of God's saving grace and Spirit, without 
which 710 man could taste the heavenly gift, nor yet 
partake of the Holy Spirit: 

But the first is true, therefore also the last. 

II. Secondly, Seeing the contrary doctrine is built 
The doc- upon this false hypothesis. That grace is not given 
cVeTiion and/^^^* salvution to uuy, but to a certain elect number, 
reprobation whick cunnot losc it, and that all the rest of mankind, 
iistenrwith by an absolute decree, are debarred from grace and 
Md*dalr^ Jfl/^;flr^^o;^ ; that being destroyed, this falls to the 
exhorta- gTound. Now as that doctrine of theirs is wholly 
^°^' inconsistent with the daily practice of those that 

preach it, in that they exhort people to believe and be 
saved, while in the mean time, if they belong to the 
decree of reprobation, it is simply impossible for them 
so to do ; and if to the decree of election, it is need- 
less, seeing it is as impossible to them to miss of it, as 
hath been^before demonstrated ; so also in this matter 
of perseverance, their practice and principle are no 
less inconsistent and contradictory. For while they 
daily exhort people to he faithful to the end; showing 
them if they continue not, they shall be cut off, and 
fall short of the j^eward; which is very true, but no 
less inconsistent with that doctrine that aflSrms there 


is no hazard^ because no possibilitij of departing from j 

the least measure of true grace ; which if true, it is to j 

no purpose to beseech them to stand, to whom God I 

hath made it impossible to fall. I shall not longer \ 

insist upon the probation of this, seeing what is said \ 

may suffice to answer my design : and that the thing 

is also abundantly proved by many of the same judg- \ 

ment. That this was the doctrine of the primitive »' 

Protestants thence appears, that the Augustine Con- \ 

fession condemns it as an error of the Anabaptists to 

say, That they who once are justified, cannot lose the \ 

Holy Spirit. Many such like sayings are to be found \ 

in the common places of Philip Melancthon. Vos- 

sius, in his Pelagian History, lib. 6, testifies, that this The opinion ; 

was the common opinion of the Fathers. In the con- the?s^on- ; 

firmation of the Twelfth Thesis, page 587, he hath cerning 

these words : '•' That this which we have said was the ^"'J^^ ^''"" ! 

common sentiment of antiquity, those at present can j 

only deny, who otherways perhaps are men not un- \ 

learned, but nevertheless in antiquity altogether 

strangers, &c." These things thus observed, I come : 

to the objections of our opposers. ^ 

§. III. First, They allege, That those places men- object, i. \ 
tioned of making shipwreck of faith, ai^e only to be un- 
derstood of seeming faith , and not of a real true faith . \ 

This objection is very weak, and apparently con- answ. j 
trary to the text, 1 Tim. i. 19; where the apostle add- 
eth io faith a good conscience, by way of complaint ; a ^ood and ' j 
whereas if their faith had been only seeming and gcieil^ \ 
hypocritical, the men had been better without it than 
with it ; neither had they been worthy of blame for \ 
losing that which in itself was evil. But the apostle ] 
expressly adds [and of a good conscience,'] which shows 
it was real ; neither can it be supposed that men I 
could truly attain a good conscience without the ope- \ 
ration of God's saving grace ; far less that a good con- ' 
science doth consist with a seeming false and hypocri- 
tical faith. Again, these places of the apostle being \ 
spoken by way of regret, clearly import that these 


attainments they have fallen from were good and real, 
not false and deceitful, else he would not have re- 
gretted their falling from them ; and so he saith posi- 
tively, They tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made 
partakers of the Holy Ghost, &c. not that they seemed 
to be so, which showeth this objection is very frivolous. 
Object. 2. Secondly, They allege, Phil. i. 6. Being confident 
of this twry thing, that he which hath begun a good 
work in you will perform it until the day of Jesus 
Christ, &c. ; and 1 Pet. i. 5. Who are kept by the 
power of God thj^ough faith unto salvation. 
answ. These scriptures, as they do not aflBrm any thing 

positively contrary to us, so they cannot be understood 
otherwise than as the condition is performed upon our 
Salvation is part, sccing salvatian is no otherways proposed tliere 
Ton^cer- ^^* upou Certain necessary conditions to be performed 
tain condi- by US, as hath been above proved, and as our adver* 
tlTbeX"' ^^^^^^ ^^so acknowledge, as Rom. viii. 13. For if ye 
formed. Uvc uftcr thcfiesh, ye shall die ; but if ye through the 
Spirit do mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live. 
And Heb. iii. 14. We are made partakers of Christ, 
if we hold the beginning of our confidence steadfast 
ufito the end. For if these places of the scripture 
upon which they build their objections were to be 
admitted without these conditions, it would mani- 
festly overturn the whole tenor of their exhortations 
throughout all their writings. Some other object io?is 
there are of the same nature, which are solved by the 
same answers, which also, because largely treated of 
by others, I omit, to come to that testimony of the 
truth which is more especially ours in this matter, 
and is contained in the latter part of the proposition 
in these words : Vet such an increase and stability in 
the t)iith may in this life be attained, fiwn which there 
cannot be a total apostacy. 

§. IV. As in the explanation of the Fifth and Sixth 
Proposition I observed, that some that had denied the 
errors of others concerning reprobation, and affirmed 
the universality of Chrisfs death, did notwithstand- 


ing fall short in sufficiently holding forth the truth, 
and so gave the contrary party occasion by their de- 
fects to be strengthened in their errors, so it may be 
said in this case. As upon the one hand they err The two 
who affirm that the least des!:ree of true and savim ^^*'"®'°®* 

11 1 some ran 

grace cannot oejaUenjrom, so do they err, upon the intobj as- 
other hand that deny any such stability to be attained fi"Ji'"ffin„ 
fi'om which there cannot he a total and final apostacy. or not faii- 
And betwixt these two extremes lieth the truth appa- grl/e*im. 
rent in the scriptures, which God hath revealed unto possible, 
us by the testimony of his Spirit, and which also we 
are made sensible of by our own experience. And 
even as in the former controversy was observed, so 
also in this, the defence of truth will readily appear 
to such as seriously weigh the matter ; for the argu- 
ments upon both hands, rightly applied, will as to 
this hold good ; and the objections, which are strong 
as they are respectively urged against the two oppo- 
site /^/^e opinions^ are here easily solved, by the estab- 
lishing of this truth. For all the arguments which 
these allege that affirm there can be no falling awayy 
may well be received upon the one part, as of those 
who have attained to this stability and establishment, 
and their objections solved by this confession ; so upon 
the other hand, the arguments alleged from scripture 
testimonies by those that affirm the possibility of fall- 
ing away may well be received of such as are not come 
to this establishment, though having attained a mea- 
sure of true grace. Thus then the contrary batterings 
of our adversaries, who miss the truth, do concur the 
more strongly to establish it, while they are destroy- 
ing each other. But lest this may not seem to suf- 
fice to satisfy such as judge it always possible for the 
best of men before they die to fall aivay, I shall add, 
for the proof of it, some brief considerations from 
some few testimonies of the scripture. 

§. V. And First, I freely acknowledge that it is i. 
good for all to be humble, and in this respect not over Watch^i- 
confident, so as to lean to this, to foster themselves in diligence is 


of indispen- iniquity, or lie down in security, as if they had attained \ 
!u'''*tran* *^^*^ condition, seeing %catchfulness and diligoice is of 
hidispemahle necessity to all mortal men, so long as 
they breathe in this world ; for God will have this to 
be the constant practice of a Christian, that hereby he \ 
may be the more fit to serve him, and better armed \ 
against all the temptations of the enemy. For since i 
the wages of sin is death, there is no man, while he I 
sinneth, and is subject thereunto, but may lawfully 
suppose himself capable of perishing. Hence the j 
apostle Paul himself saith, 1 Cor. ix. 27 : But I keep 
under my body, and bri?ig it into subjection, lest that i 
by any means, when I have preached to others, I my- \ 
self should be a castaway. Here the apostle supposes \ 
it possible for him to be a castaway, and yet it may 
be judged he was far more advanced in the inward j 
work of regeneration when he wrote that epistle than 
many who nowadays too presumptuously suppose they ! 
cannot/?/// away, because they feel themselves to have I 
attained some small degree of true grace. But the : 
apostle makes use of this supposition or possibility of i 
his being a castaway, as I before obser\'ed, as an in- 
ducement to them to be watchful ; / keep under 7?iy i 
body, lest, &c. Nevertheless the same apostle, at 
another time, in the sense and feeling of God's holy \ 
power, and in the dominion thereof, finding himself a 
conqueror there through over sin and his soul's ene- i 
mies, maketh no difficulty to affirm, Rom. viii. 38. ^ 
For I am persuaded that neither death nor life, &c. ' 
which clearly showeth that he had attained a condi- i 
tion from which he knew he could not fall away. \ 
iL But Secondly, It appears such a condition is attain- ; 

A condition ^blc, bccausc wc are exhorted to it ; and, as hath been J 

attainable i i p i • i 

in this life, proved before, the scripture never proposeth to us 
tbeTels no ^^^^^^ impossiblc. Such an exhortation we have 
falling from the apostle, 2 Pet. i. 10. Wherefore the rather^ \ 
brethren, give diligence to make your calling and elec- \ 
tion sure. And though there be a condition here ! 
proposed, yet since we have already proved that it is ' 



possible to fulfil tins condition, then also the promise 
annexed thereunto may be attained. And since, 
where assurance is wanting, there is still a place left 
for doubtings and despairs, if we should affirm it 
never attainable, then should there never be a place 
known by the saints in this world, wherein they might 
be free of doubting and despair; which as it is 
most absurd in itself, so it is contrary to the manifest 
experience of thousands. 

Thirdly, God hath given to many of his saints and iii. 
children, and is ready to give unto all, ^full and cer- ^ <'«•"♦«'" 
tain assurxince that they are his, and that no power and esta- 
shall be able to pluck them out of his hand. But this ''|'/^*'„'"^"' 
assurance would be no assurance, if those who are so God to 
assured were not established and cofT/irmed beyond all ™Jn[,°nd'* 
doubt and hesitation : if so, then surely there is no children, 
possibility for such to miss of that which God hath 
assured them of. And that there is such assurance 
attainable in this life, the scripture abundantly de- 
clareth, both in general and as to particular persons. 
As first, Rev. iii. 12, Him that overco??ieth will I 
make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall 
go no more out, &c. which containeth a general pro- 
mise unto all. Hence the apostle speaks of some that 
are sealed, 2 Cor. i. 22, Who hath also sealed us, and 
given the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts : where- 
fore the Spirit so sealing is called the earnest or pledge 
of our inheritance, Eph. i. 13, In whom ye were sealed 
by the Holy Spirit of promise. And therefore the 
apostle Paul, not only in that of the Romans above 
noted, declareth himself to have attained that condi- 
tion, but 2 Tim. iv. 7, he affirmeth in these words, / 
have fought a good fight, &c. which also many good 
men have and do witness. And therefore, as there 
can be nothing more evident than that which the 
manifest experience of this time showeth, and therein 
is found agreeable to the experience of former times, 
so we see there have been both of old and of late that 
have turned the grace of God into wantonness, and 



\i2iwe fallen from their faith and integrity ; thence we 
may safely conclude such a falling awai/ possible. 
We also see that some of old and of late have attained 
a certain assurance, sonie,time before they departed, 
that they should inherit eternal life, and have accord- 
ingly died in^that good hope, of and concerning whom 
the ^irit of God testified that they are saved. Where- 
fore \^e all see such a state is attainable in this life, 
from which there is not a falling away : for seeing 
the Spirit of God did so testify, it was not possible 
that tRey should perish, concerning whom He who 
cannot lie thus bare witness. 



As by the light or gift of God all true knowledge in things spiri- 
tual is received and revealed, so by the same, as it is mani- 
fested and received in the heart, by the strength and power 
thereof, every true minister of the gospel is ordained, prepared, 
and supplied in the work of the ministry; and by the leading, 
moving, and drawing hereof ought every evangelist and Chris- 
tian pastor to be led and ordered in his labour and work of 
the gospel, both as to the place where, as to the persons to 
whom, and as to the time wherein he is to minister. More- 
over, they who have this authority may and ought to preach 
the gospel, though without Auman commission or literatrtre; 
as on the other hand, they who want the authority of this 
divine gift, hoy. ever learned, or authorized by the commission 
of men and churches, are to be esteemed but as deceivers, and 
not trve ministers of the gospel. Also they who have received 
The gospel this holy and imspotted gift, as they have freely received it, so 
*o *»« are they freely to give it, without hire or bargaining, far less 

fred*'''*'** *** "^® *^ *^ * ^""^^^ ^^ S^* money by ; yet if God hath called 

Maiu'x. 8. ^"y ^"® ^""^"^ ^^*^*r employment or trades, by which they 
acquire their livelihood, it may be lawful for such, according to 
the liberty which they feel given them in the Lord, to receive 
such temporals (to wit, what may be needful for thoiu for meat 
and clothing) as are given them freely and cordially by those 
to whom they have communicated spirituals. 

§. 1. Hitherto I have treated of those things which 
relate to the Christian faithy and Christiutis, as they 
stand each in his private and particular condition, 



and how and by what means every man may be a 
Christian indeed, and so abide. Now I come in order 
to speak of those things that relate to Christians, as 
they are stated in a joint fellowship and communion, 
and come under a visible and outward society, which 
society is called the church of God, and in scripture The cbarch 
compared to a body, and therefore named the bodtj sfll^^^J^l^^^ 
Christ, As then in the natural body there be divers ^od^v of 
members, all concurring to the common end of pre- ^''"'*** 
serving and confirming the whole body, so in this 
spiritual and mystical body there are also divers mem- 
bers, according to the different measures of grace and 
of the Spirit diversly administered unto each member; 
and from this diversity ariseth that distinction of per- 
sons in the visible society of Christians, as of apostles, 
pastors, evangelists, ministers, &c. That which in 
this proposition is proposed is. What makes or consti- 
tutes any minister of the church, what his qualifica- 
tions ought to be, and how he ought to behave himself^ 
But because it may seem somewhat preposterous to 
speak of the disfmct offices of the church, until some- 
thing be said of the church in general, though nothing 
positively be said of it in the proposition ; yet, as here 
implied, I shall briefly premise something thereof, and 
then proceed to the particular members of it. 

§. II. It is not in the least my design to meddle 
with those tedious and many controversies wherewith 
the Papists and Protestants do tear one another con- 
cerning this thing ; but only according to the truth 
manifested to me, and revealed in me by the testi- 
mony of the Spirit, according to that proportion of 
wisdom given me, briefly to hold forth as a necessary 
introduction both to this mutter of the ministry and 
of worship, which folio weth those things which I, 
together with my brethren, do believe concerning the 

The church then, according: to the orrammatical r. 
signification of the word, as it is used in the holy 
scripture, signifies an assembly or gathering of many 

\ 2 

logjr of tb« 

the ciiurch, 
•od sif^nifi- 
catioo of it. 

No salva- 
tion without 
the church. 

What the 
church i$. 

Turks and 
Jews may 
of this 


hito one place; for the substantive UKXeaia comes 
from the word UKaXiu) I call out of, and originally ' 
from Ka\i(jj I call; and indeed, as this is the gram- \ 
matical sense of the word, so also it is the real and 
proper signification of the thing, the church being no \ 
other thing but the society, gathering, or compam/ of 
such as God hath called out of the world, and worldly \ 
spirit, to ivalk in his light and life. The church then ' 
so defined is to be considered, as it comprehends all 
that are thus called and gathered truly by God, both , 
such as are yet in this inferior world, and such as i 
having already laid down the earthly tabernacle, are . 
passed into their heavenly mansions, whioh together 
do make up the one Catholic church, concerning 
which there is so much controversy. Out of which * 
church we freely acknowledge there can be no salva- \ 
tion ; because under this church and its denomination 
are comprehended all, and as many, of whatsoever ; 
nation, kindred, tongue, or people they be, though out- ] 
wardly strangers, and remote from those who profess \ 
Christ and Christianity in words, and have the bene- ' 
fit of the scriptures, as become obedient to the holy , 
light and testimony of God in their hearts, so as to ; 
become sanctified by it, and cleansed from the evils i 
of their ways. For this is the universal or Catholic '\ 
spirit, by which many are called from all the four 
corners of the earth, and shall sit down with Abraham, , 
Isaac, and Jacob: by this the secret life and virtue of 
Jesus is conveyed into many that are afar off, even as j 
by the blood that runs into the veins and arteries of j 
the natural body the life is conveyed from the head i 
and heart unto the extreme parts. There may be mem- \ 
bers therefore of this Catholic church both among - 
heathens, Turks, Jews, and all the several sorts of { 
Christians, men and women of integrity and simpli- | 
city of heart, who though blinded in some things in ■ 
their understanding, and perhaps burdened with the ' 
superstitions and formality of the several sects in j 
whicli they are ingro.sscd, yet being upright in thgir i 



hearts before the Lord, chiefly aiming and labouring 
to be delivered from iniquity, and loving to follow 
righteousness, are by the secret touches of this holi^ 
light in their souls enlivened and quickened, thereby 
secretly united to God, and therethrough become true 
members of this Catholic church. Now the church 
in this respect hath been in being in all generations ; 
for God never wanted some such witnesses for him, 
though many times slighted, and not much observed 
by this world ; and therefore this church, though still 
in being, hath been oftentimes as it were invisible, in 
that it hath not come under the observations of men 
of this world, being, as saith the scripture, Jer. iii. 
14, one of a city, and two of a family. And yet 
though the church thus considered may be as it were 
hid from wicked men, as not then gathered into a 
visible fellowship, yea, and not observed even by some 
that are members of it, yet may there notwithstand- 
ing many belong to it, as when Elias complained he 
was left alone, 1 Kings, xix. 18, God answered unto 
him, / have 7'eserved to myself seven thousand men, 
who have not bowed their knees to the image of Baal; 
whence the apostle argues, Rom. xi. the being of a 
7xmnant in his day. 

§. III. Secondly, The church is to be considered n. 
as it signifies a certain number of persons gathered j^^ ^^^!^^- 
by God's Spirit, and by the testimony of some of his church of 
servants raised up for that end, unto the belief of the JjerecTinfo 
true principles and doctrines of the Christian faith, a visible 
who through their hearts being united by the same ^^"'*''*'"i'- 
love, and their understandings informed in the same 
truths, gather, meet, and assemble together to wait 
upon God, to worship him, and to bear a joint testi- 
mony for the truth against error, suffering for the 
same, and so becoming through this fellowship as one 
family and household in certain respects, do feach of 
them watch over, teach, instruct, and care for one 
another, according to their several measures and at- 
tainments : such were the churches of the primitive 


times gathered by the apostles; wliereof we have 
divers mentioned in the holy scriptures. And as to 
the visibility of the church in this respect, there hath 
been a great interruption since the apostles' days, by 
reason of the apostacy, as will hereafter appear. 
How to be- §. |V. To be a member then of the Catholic church, 
n?e"mber of thcrc is Hced of the inward calling of God by his light 
that church, in the heart, and a being leavened into the nature 
and spirit of it, so as to forsake unrighteousness and 
be turned to righteousness, and in the inwardness of 
the mind to be cut out of the wild olive tree of our 
own first fallen nature, and ingrafted into Christ by 
his Word and Spirit in the heart. And this may be 
done in those who are sti-angers to the history (God 
not having pleased to make them partakers thereof), 
as in the Fifth and Sixth Propositions hath already 
been proved. 
The oat- To be a member of a particular church of Christ, 
^"? J"'°f as this inward work is indispensably necessary, so is 
the mem- also the outward profession of, and belief in, Jesus 
t«echu?ch.^hi'ist, and those holy truths delivered by his Spirit 
in the scriptures ; seeing the testimony of the Spirit 
recorded in the scriptures, doth answer the testimony 
of the same Spirit in the heart, even as face answer- 
eth face in a glass. Hence it follows, that the inward 
work of holiness, and forsaking iniquity, is necessary 
in every respect to the being a member in the church 
of Christ ; and that the outward profession is neces- 
sary to be a member of a particular gathered church, 
but not to the being a member of the Catholic church ; 
yet it is absolutely necessary, where God affords th^ 
opportunity of knowing it : and the outward testi- 
mony is to be believed, where it is presented and re-' 
vealed ; the sum whereof hath upon other occasions 
been already proved. 
The mera- ^. V. But Contrary hereunto, the devil, that work- 
A*nUc*iiris.'' cth and hath wiought in the mystery of inujuity, hath 
ilTtiifa"'!!- ^^"?^*^ ^^^'^ followers to affirm. That no man, hmvetJcr 
ttoj their' holy, is a member oftlve church of Christ without the 


outward prof ession ; and unless he be initiated there- empiy pto- 
into by some outward ceremonies. And again, That ^^'''"**"* 
men who have this outward prof ession, though inwardly 
unholy, may be members of the true church of Christ, 
yea, and ought to be so esteemed. This is plainly to 
put light for darkness, and darkness for light ; as if 
God had a greater regard to words than actions, and 
were more pleased with vain professions than with 
real holiness : but these things I have sufficiently 
refuted heretofore. Only from hence let it be ob- 
served, that upon this false and rotten foundation 
Antichrist hath built his Babylonish structure, and 
the Antichristian church in the apostacy hath hereby 
reared herself up to that height and grandeur she hath 
attained ; so as to exalt herself above all that is called 
God, and sit in the temple of God as God. 

For the particular churches of Christ, gathered in The decaj 
the apostles' days, soon after beginning to decay as to ^^^J^^^ 
the inward life, came to be overgrown with several 
errors, and the hearts of the professors of Christianity 
to be leavened with the old spirit and conversation of 
the world. Yet it pleased God for some centuries to 
preserve that life in many, whom he emboldened with 
zeal to stand and suffer for his name through the ten 
persecutions: but these being over, the meekness, 
gentleness, love, longsuffering, goodness, and temper- 
ance of Christianity began to be lost. For after that When men 
the princes of the earth came to take upon them that cwLs 
profession, and that it ceased to be a reproach to be a by birth, 
Christian, but rather became a means to preferment ; coaverlion, 
men became such by birth and education, and not Christianity 
by conversion and renovation of spirit : then there Io*sr 
was none so vile, none so wicked, none so profane, 
who became not a member of the church. And the 
teachers and pastors thereof becoming the companions 
of princes, and so being enriched by their benevo- 
lence, and getting vast treasures and estates, became 
puffed up, and as it were drunken with the vain pomp 
and glory of diis world : and so marshaled themselves 



in manifold orders and degrees ; not without innu- 
merable contests and altercations who should have 
the precedency*. So the virtue, life, substance, and 
kernel of the Christian religion came to be lost, and 
nothing remained but a shadow and image ; which 
dead image, or carcass of Christianity (to make it 
take the better with the superstitious multitude of 
heathens that were engrossed in it, not by any inward 
conversion of their hearts, or by becoming less wicked 
or superstitious, but by a little change in the object 
of their superstition), not having the inward ornament 
and life of the Spirit, became decked with many out- 
ward and visible orders, and beautified with the gold, 
silver, precious stones, and the other splendid orna- 
ments of this perishing world : so that tlus was no 
more to be accounted the Christian religion, and 
Christian church, notwithstanding the outward pro- 
fession, than the dead body of a man is to be accounted 
a living man ; which, however cunningly embalmed, 
and adorned with ever so much gold and silver, or 
most precious stones, or sweet ointments, is but a 
In the dead body still, without sense, life, or motion. For 
RomVare ^^^^ apostatc church of Rome has introduced no fewer 
no less 80- ccremouics and superstitions into the Christian ''pro- 
Md'ceremo- ^ssiou, than wcrc either among Jews or heathens ; 
Die« intro. aud that there is and hath been as much, yea, and 

daced, than . , , , i f • 

were either morc pridc, covetousucss, uncleanness, luxury, forni- 
^"°^|''®'*'' cation, profaneness, and atheism among her teachers 
ihens. and chief bishops, than ever was among any sort of 

people, none need doubt, that have read their own 

authors, to wit, Platina and others. 
Whether, Now, though Protcstauts have reformed from her 
diffcTe'n'Je ^^ somc of the most gross points and absurd doctrines 
there !• be- relating to the church and ministry, yet (which is to 
pTolL^Mts ^^ regretted) they have only lopped the branches, but 
and Papists retain and plead earnestly for the same root, from 
Uolif*"^' which these abuses have sprung. So that even among 

• As were betwixt the Bishop of Rome and thc^ Bishop of 


them, though all that mass of superstition, ceremo- 
nies, and orders be not again established, yet the same 
pride, covetousness, and sensuality is found to have 
overspread and leavened their churches and ministry, 
, and the life, power, and virtue of tj^ue religion is lost 
among them : and the very same death, barrenness, 
dryness, and emptiness, is found in their ministry. 
So that in effect they differ from Papists but in form 
and some ceremonies ; being with them apostatized 
from the life and power the true primitive church and 
her pastors were in : so that of both it may be said 
truly (without breach of charity) that having only. a 
form of godliness (and many of them not so much as 
that) they are deniers of, yea, enemies to \\\q power of 
it. And this proceeds not simply from their not 
walking answerably to their own principles, and so 
degenerating that way, which also is true; but, which 
is worse, their laying down to themselves, and adher- 
ing to certain principles, which, naturally, as a cursed 
root, bring forth these bitter fruits : these therefore 
shall afterwards be examined and refuted, as the con- 
trary positions of truth in the proposition are explained 
and proved. 

For as to the nature and constitution of a church* • i. e. na- 
(abstract from their disputes concerning its constant Tiirprotes- 
visibility, infallibility, and the primacy of the church tant church 
of Rome), the Protestants, as in practice, so in prin- ^ZomV 
ciples, differ not from Papists ; for they engross within members 
the compass of their church whole nations, making 
their infants members of it, by sprinkling a little 
water upon them ; so that there is none so wicked or 
profane who is not a fellow member ; no evidence of 
holiness being required to constitute a member of the 
church. Nay, look through the Protestant nations, 
and there will no difference appear in the lives of 
the generality of the one, more than of the other; he, 
who ruleth in the children of disobedience, reigning in 
both ; so that the reformation, through this defect, is cbrisiianiij 
only in holding some less gross errors in the notioDj s^^'hitEe" 


renewbg of but Dot ill having the heart reformed and renewed, in^ \ 

the heart, ^j^j^jj mainly the life of Christianity consisteth. 

A popish §. VI. But the popish errors concerning the minis- 

^""**liii" ^^» which they have retained, are most of all to be , 

evij* follow, regretted, by which chiefly the life and power of j 

Christianity is barred out among them, and they kept ; 

in death, barrenness, and dryness : there being no- '1 

thing more hurtful than an error in this respect. For i 

where a false and corrupt ministry entereth, all man- i 

ner of other evils follow upon it, according to that | 

Litopeo- scripture adage, Like people, like priest: for by their \ 

mies'u " influence, instead of ministering life and righteous- | 

Uoseaiv.9. ness, they minister death and iniquity. The whole 

backslidings of the Jewish congregation of old are I 

hereto ascribed : The leaders of mif people have \ 

caused theni to err. The whole writings of the pro- ; 

phets are full of such complaints ; and for this cause, 

under the New Testament, we are so often warned \ 

and g-uarded to beware of false prophets, and false j 

teachers, &c. What may be thought then, where all, i 

as to this, is out of order ; where both the founda- > 

tion, call, qualifications, maintenance, and whole dis- j 

cipline are diflierent from and opposite to the ministry i 

of the primitive church ; yea, and necessarily tend to ' 

the shutting out of a spiritual ministry, and the bring- 1 

ing in and establishing of a carnal ? This shall ap- ! 

pear by parts. \ 

QuEs. I. ^. VII. That then which comes first to be ques- I 

tioned in this matter, is concerning the call of a mi- 

nister: to wit, What viakcth, or how conieth a man ' 

to be a mimstcr, pastor, or teacher in the church of \ 

Christ 1 \ 

ANsvr. We answer : By the imoard potver and virtue of \ 

the Spirit of God. For, as saith our proposition, w 

The call of Iluving Tcccived the true knowledge of things spiritual \ 

Hudtherl- h ^he Spirit of God, without which they cannot be 

initcoDhiM- known, and being by the same in measure purified and j 

*'**'• sanctified, he comes thereby to be called and nun^cd to I 

minister to others; being able to speak, from a living/]* 


experience, of what he himself is a witness; and 
thei'cfore knowing the terror qf the Lord, he is Jit to 
persuade men, &c. 2 C^r. v. 1 1 ; and his words and 
ministry, proceeding from the inward power and vir- 
tue, reach to the heart of his hearers, and make them 
approve of him, and be subject unto him. Our ad- object. 
versaries are forced to confess, that this were indeed 
desirable and best ; but this they will not have to be 
absolutely necessary. I shall first prove the necessity 
of it, and then show how much they err in that which 
they make more necessary than this divine and hea- 
venly call. 

First, That which is necessary to make a man a arg. 
Christian, so as without it he cannot be truly one, J^s^ji® "?«„ 
must be much more necessary to make a man a minis- inward caii 
ter of Christianity ; seeing the one is a degree above n"a'narlris- 
the other, and has it incjuded in it: nothing less than tian. 
he that supposeth a master, supposeth him first to 
have attained the knowledge and capacity of a scholar. 
They that are not Christians cannot be teachers and 
ministers among Christians. 

But this inward call, power, and virtue of the Spirit 
of God is necessary to make a man a Christian : as 
we have abundantly proved before in the Second Pro- 
position, according to these scriptures, He that hath 
not the Spirit of Christ, is none of his. As many as 
are led by the Spirit of God, are the sons of God : 

Therefore this call, moving, and drawing of the 
Spirit, must be much more necessary to make a mi- 

Secondly, All ministers of the New Testament 2. The mi- 
ought to be ministers of the Spirit, and not of the let- JJ'^^^^t re-*"^ 
ter, according to that of 2 Cor. iii. 6 ; and as the old quires the 
Latin hath it. Not by the letter, but by the Spirit. ""^^Cix^^Zno- 
But how can a man be a minister of the Spirit, who ny of the 
is not inwardly called by it, and who looks not upon ^"" " 
the operation and testimony of the Spirit as essential 
to his call ? As he could not be a minister of the letter 
who had thence no ground for his call, yea, who was 

and iniois 


altogether a stranger to, and unacquainted with it, so 
neither can he be a minister of Uie Spirit who is a 
. stranger to it, and unacquainted with the motions 
thereof, and knows it not to draw, act, and move him, 
and go before him in the work of the ministry. 1 
would willingly know, how those that take upon them 
to be ministers (as they suppose) of the gospel, merely 
from an outward vocation, without so much as being 
any ways sensible of the work of the Spirit, or any 
inward call therefrom, can either satisfy themselves or 
others that they are ministers of the Spirit, or wherein 
they differ from the miuisters of the letter? For, 
3. Under Thirdly, If this inward call or testimony of the 
""o'lir^*** Spirit were not essential and necessary to a minister, 
needed not tlicu the ministry of the New Testament would not 
wbo°shouid ^"^y ^^ ^^ ways preferable to, but in divers respects 
be priests far worsc than that of the law. For under the law 
there was a certain tribe allotted for the ministry, and 
of that tribe certain families set apart for the priest- 
hood and other offices, by the immediate command 
of God to Moses ; so that the people needed not be 
in any doubt who should be priests and ministers of 
the holy things : yea, and besides this, God called 
forth, by the immediate testimony of his Spirit, seve- 
ral at divers times to teach, instruct, and reprove his 
people, as Samuel, Nathan, Elias, Elisha, Jeremiah, 
Amos, and many more of the prophets : but now 
under the new covenant, where the ministry ought to 
be more spiritual, the way more ce?iain, and the access 
more easi/ unto the Lord, our adversaries, by denying 
the necessity of this inward and spiritual vocation, 
make it quite otherwise. For there being now no 
certain family or tribe to which the ministry is limited, 
we are left in uncertainty, to choose and have pastors 
at a venture, without any certain assent of the will of 
God ; having neither an outward rule nor certainty 
in this affair to walk by: for that the scripture caimot 
give any certain rule in this matter, hath in the Third 
Proi>osition concerning it been already shown. 


Fourthly, Christ proclaims them all thieves and i. Christ 
robbers, that enter 7wt by him the door into the sheep- ^^"^ ^*''"^' 
fold, but climb up some other way ; whom the sheep JoUn x. i. 
ought not to hear : but such as come in without the 
call, movings, and leadings of the Spirit of Christ, 
wherewith he leads his children into all truth, come 
in certainly not by Christ, who is the door, but some 
other way, and therefore are not true shepherds. 

§. VIII. To all this they object the succession of the Succession 
church: alleo^ino^, That since Christ mve a call to^}''''f^,^^^ 
his apostles and disciples, they have conveyed that call cimrcii nom 
to their successors, having power to ordain pastors and his apLsiUs. 
teachers ; by which power the authority of ordaining 
and making ministers and pastors is successively con- 
veyed to us ; so that such, who are ordained and called 
by the pastors of the church, are therefore true and 
lawful ministers ; and others, who are not so called, 
are to be accounted but intruders. Hereunto also 
some Protestants add a necessity, though they make it 
not a thing essential; That besides this calling of the 
churxh, every one, being called, ought to have the 
imvard call of the Spirit, inclining him so chosen to 
his work : but this they say is subjective, and not ob- 
jective ; of which before. 

As to what is subjoined of the inward call of the answ. 
Spirit, in that they make it not essential to a true 
call, but a sepererogation as it were, it showeth how 
little they set by it : since those they admit to the 
ministry are not so much as questioned in their trials, 
whether they have this or not. Yet, in that it hath 
been often mentioned, especially by the primitive Pro- Thecaii of 
testants in their treatises on this subject, it showeth p^efg^^ed to 
how much they were secretly convinced in their minds, anj other 
that this inward call of the Spirit was most excellent, prot"lu?ii7. 
and preferable to any other; and therefore in the 
most noble and heroic acts of the reformation, they 
laid claim unto it; so that many of the primitive Pro- 
testants did not scruple both to despise and disown 
this outward'^' call, when urged by the Papists against ♦ succes- 


Modern thciTi. But now Protestants, having gone from the 
dcDvlnl* the testimony of the Spirit, plead for the same succession; 
ciiof ihe and being pressed (by those whom God now raiseth 
^**'"'' up by his Spirit to reform those abuses that are among 
them) with the example of their forefathers' practice 
against Rome, they are not at all ashamed utterly to 
deny that their fathers were called to their work by 
the inward and immediate vocation of the Spirit; 
clothing themselves with that call, which they say 
their forefathers had, as pastors of the Roman church. 
For thus (not to go further) affirmeth Nicolaus Ar- 
noldus*, in a pamphlet written against the same pro- 
positions, called, A Theologick Exercitation, sect. 40, 
averring, Tliat they pretended not to an immediate act 
of the Holy Spirit ; but reformed by the virtue of the 
ordinary vocation which they had i?i the church, as it 
then was, to wit, that of Rome, &c. 

§. IX. Many absurdities do Protestants fall into 
by deriving their ministry thus through the church of 
Rome. As, first. They must acknowledge her to be 
Absurdities a true church of Christ, though only erroneous in 
f^irinto^T ^^"^^ things ; which contradicts their forefathers so 
deriving frequently, and yet truly, calling her Antichrist. Se- 
try' through condly. They must needs acknowledge, that the priests 
the church and bishops of the Romish church are true ministers 
of Rome. ^^^ pastors of the church of Christ, as to the essen- 
tial part ; else they could not be fit subjects for that 
power and authority to have resided in ; neither could 
they have been vessels capable to receive that power, 
and again transmit it to their successors. Thirdly, 
It would follow from this, that th^ priests and bishops 
of the Romish church are yet really true pastors and 
teachers : for if Protestant ministers have no authority 
but what they received from them, and since the 
church of Rome is the same she was at that time of 
the reformation in doctrine and manners, and she has 
the same power now she had then, and if the power 

• Who gives himself out Doctor and Professor of Sacroil 
Thc<>iogy at Franequer. 


lie in the succession, then these priests of the Romish 
church now, which derive their ordination from those 
bishops that ordained the first reformers, have the 
same authority which the successors of the reformed 
have, and consequently are no less ministers of the 
church than they are. But how will this agree with 
that opinion which the primitive Protestants had of 
the Romish priests and clergy, to whom Luther did 
not only deny any power or authority, but contrari- 
wise affirmed. That it was wickedlij done of them, to Luther af- 
assume to themselves only this authority to teach, and ^^Z^^^^^ 
he priests and ministerSy &c. For he himself affirmed, niigbt be a 
That every good Christian (not only men, but even i''^*^''*''- 
women also) is a preacher, 

§. X. But against this vain succession, as asserted The pre- 
either by the Papists or Protestants as a necessary lessfot ^7 
thing to the call of a minister, I answer ; That such Papists and 
as plead for it, as a sufficient or necessary thing to the fxpUbedl* 
call of a minister, do thereby sufficiently declare their 
ignorance of the nature of Christianity, and how much 
they are strangers to the life and power of a Chris- 
tian ministry, which is not entailed to succession, as 
an outward inheritance ; ^and herein, as Jiath been 
often before observed, they not only make the gospel 
not better than the law, but even far short of it. For 
Jesus Christ, as he regardeth not any distinct parti- 
cular family or nation in the gathering of his children ; 
but only such as are joined to and leavened with his 
own pure and righteous seed, so neither regards he a 
bare outward succession, where his pure, immaculate, 
and righteous life is wanting ; for that were all one. 
He took not the nations into the new covenant, that 
he might suifer them to fall into the old errors of the 
Jews, or to approve them in their errors, but that he 
might gather unto himself a pure people out of the 
earth. Now this was the great error of the Jews, to The Jews' 
think they were the church and people of God, be- Abrahaiu's 
cause they could derive their outward succession from outward 
Abraham, whereby they reckoned themselves the chil- '*""*'"^'°"- 


dren of God, as being the offspring of Abraham, who \ 

was the Father of the Faithful. But how severely ' 

doth the scripture rebuke this vain and frivolous pre- i 

tence? Telling them, That God is able of the stones : 

to raise children unto Abraham; and that not the j 

outward seed, but those that were found in \}^e, faith I 

of Abraham, are the true children of faithful Abra- j 

ham. Far less then can this pretence hold among ' 

Christians, seeing Christ rejects all outward affinity j 

Mat.xii.48, of that kind: These, saith he, are my mother, bre- 

Mark iii thren, and sisters, who do the will of my Father which \ 

33, &c. is in heaven : And again, He looked i^oiiml about him, \ 

and said. Who shall do the will of God, these, saith \ 

he, are my brethren. So then, such as do not the j 

commands of Christ, are not found clothed with his i 

righteousness, are not his disciples ; and that which I 

a man hath not, he cannot give to another : and it is .: 

. clear, that no man nor church, though truly called of ; 

God, and as such having the authority of a churcli \ 

and minister, can any longer retain that authority, \ 

than they retain the power, life, and righteousness of 

The form of Christianity ; for the form is entailed to the power ] 

l^lued'to* ^^^ substance, and not the substance to the form. So ; 

the power that whcu a man ceaseth inwardly in his heart to be ' 

rtatce.^and ^ Christian (where his Christianity must lie), by ' 

not the sab- tumiug to Satan, and becoming a reprobate, he is no \ 

tbe"form. Hiorc a Christian, though he retain the name and 

form, than a dead man is a man, though he hath the ; 

image and representation of one, or than the picture | 

or statue of a man is a man: and though a dead man \ 

may serve to a painter to retain some imperfect repre- \ 

sentation of the man, that once was alive, and so one i 

picture may serve to make another by, yet none of i 

those can serve to make a true living man again, nei- ; 

ther can they convey the life and spirit of the man ; \ 

it must be God, that made the man at first, that alone \ 

SooMKtion can revive him. As death then makes such interrup- j 

loterrapted. ^^^^ ^^ ^^ Qutward natural succession, that no art nor 1 

outward form can uphold, and as a dead man, after \ 


he is dead, can have no issue, neither can dead images 
of men make living men : so that it is the living that 
are only capable to succeed one another ; and such 
as die, so soon as they die cease to succeed, or to 
transmit succession. So it is in spiritual things ; it 
is the life of Christianity, taking place in the heart, 
that makes a Christian; and so it is a number of The living 
such, being alive, joined together in the life of Chris- ^aki'tiie 
tianity, that make a church of Christ; and it is all church: 
those that are thus alive and quickened, considered chojcris*^* 
together, that make the Catholic church of Christ : ceased, 
therefore when this life ceaseth in one, then that one 
ceaseth to be a Christian ; and all power, virtue, and 
authority, which he had as a Christian, ceaseth with 
it ; so that if he hath been a minister or teacher, he 
ceaseth to be so any more : and though he retain the 
form, and hold to the authority in words, yet that sig- 
nifies no more, nor is it of any more real virtue and 
authority, than the mere image of a dead man. And 
as this is most agreeable to reason, so it is to the 
scripture's testimony ; for it is said of Judas, Acts, i. judas feii 
25, That Judas f til from his mimstrij and apostlcship Jj^^^^J^'y by 
by transgression ; so his transgression caused him to tian«gres- 
cease to be an apostle any more : whereas, had the '"°"* 
apostleship been entailed to his person, so that trans- 
gression could not cause him to lose it, until he had 
been formally degraded by the church (which Judas 
never was so long as he lived) Judas had been as 
really an apostle, after he betrayed Christ, as before. 
And as it is of one, so of many, yea, of a whole church : 
for seeing nothing makes a man truly a Christian, 
but the life of Christianity inwardly ruling in his 
heart; so nothing makes a church but the gathering ^ 
of several true Christians into one body. Now where 
all these members lose this life, there the church ceas- 
eth to be, though they still uphold the form, and 
retain the name : for when that which made them a 
church, and for which they were a church, ceaseth, 
then they cease also to be a church : and therefore 





The loke- 
of the 
oh arch of 



The Protet 
tanCs plead 
for a sDo- 
o«»«ioa io- 

the Spirit, speaking to the church of Laodicea, be- 
cause of her lukewarmiiess, Rev. iii. IG, threateneth 
to spue her out of his mouth. Now, suppose the 
church of Laodicea had continued in that lukavarm- 
ness, and had come under that condemnation and 
judgment, though she had retained the name and form 
of a church, and had had her pastors and ministers, 
as no doubt she had at that time, yet surely she had 
been no true church of Christ, nor had the authority 
of her pastors and teachers been to be regarded, be- 
cause of an outward succession, though perhaps some 
of them had it immediately from the apostles. From 
all which I infer, That since the authority of the 
Christian church and her pastors is always united, 
and never separated from the inward power, virtue, 
and righteous life of Christianity ; where this ceaseth, 
that ceaseth also. But our adversaries acknowledge, 
TTiat manxj^ if not most of those, by and through whom 
they derive this authority, were altogether destitute of 
this life and virtue of Christianity : therefore they 
could neither receive, have, nor transmit any Chris- 
tian authority. 

But if it be objected. That though the generality of 
the bishops and pfiests of the church of Ro?ne, during 
the apostacy, were such wicked men ; yet Protestants 
affirm, and thou thyself seemest to acknowledge, that 
there was some good mot among them, whom the Lord 
regarded, and who were true members of the Catholic 
church of Christ; might not they then have trans- 
mitted this authority ? 

I answer; This saith nothing, in respect Protes- 
tants do not at all lay claim to their ministry as trans- 
mitted to them by a direct line of good men ; which 
they can never show, nor yet pretend to : but gene- 
rally place this succession as inherent in the whole 
pastors of the apostate church. Neither do they 
plead their call to be good and valid, because they 
can derive it through a line of good men, separate 
and observably distinguishable from the rest of the 


bishops and clergy of the Romish church ; but they 
derive it as an authority residing in the whole : for 
they think it heresy, to judge that the quality or con- 
dition of the administrator doth any ways invalidate 
or prejudice his work. 

This vain and pretended succession not only mili- 
tates against, and fights with the very manifest pur- 
pose and intent of Christ in the gathering and calling 
of his church, but makes him (so to speak) more blind 
and less prudent than natural men are in conveying 
and establishing their outward inheritances. For 
where an estate is entailed to a certain name and 
family, when that family weareth out, and there is no An estate 
lawful successor found of it, that can make a just title ^°J^^y ^^, 
appear, as being really of blood and affinity to the voives to 
family ; it is not lawful for any one of another race^TalL 
or blood, because he assumes the name or arms of»«.hat 
that family, to possess the estate, and claim the supe- reesTneet 
riorities and privileges of the family : but by the law ^o give it ; 
of nations the inheritance devolves into the prince, as ghip of life 
being: ultimus ha'res ; and so he giveth it a^ain im- '^ ^"J^r^^ 

iP 1 11 111 from Christ, 

mediately to whom he sees meet, and makes them tbe true 
bear the names and arms of the family, who then are ''®''■• 
entitled to the privileges and revenues thereof. So in 
like manner, the true name and title of a Christian, 
by which he hath right to the heavenly inheritance, 
and is a member of Jesus Christ, is inward righteous- 
ness and holiness, and the mind redeemed from the 
vanities, lusts, and iniquities of this world ; and a 
gathering or company, made up of such members, 
makes a church. Where this is lost, the title is lost ; 
and so the true seed, to which the promise is, and to 
which the inheritance is due, becomes extinguished 
in them, and they become dead as to it ; and so it 
retires, and devolves itself again into Christ, who is 
the righteous heir of life ; and he gives the title and . 
true right again immediately to whom it pleaseth him, 
even to as many as being turned to his pure light in 
their consciences, come again to walk in his righteous 


The house 
of God is 


and innocent life, and so become true members of his \ 
hodi), which is the church. So the authority, power, ' 
and heirship are not annexed to persons, as they bear i 
the mere names, or retain a form, holding the bare i 
shell or shadow of Christianity ; but the promise is | 
to Christ, and to the seed, in whom the authority is . 
inherent, and in as many as are one with him, and 
united unto him by purity and holiness, and by the i 
inward renovation and regeneration of their minds. 

Moreover, this pretended succession is contrary to ! 
scripture definitions, and the nature of the church of j 
I. Christ, and of the true members. For, first, The\ 
church is the House of God, the pillar ami ground of 
no poUated truth, 1 Tim. iii. 15. But according to this doctrine, 
rt"ei8t"nor ^^^ housc of God is a polluted nest of all sorts of' 
pretender wickcducss and abomiuatious, made up of the most \ 
there**' ^S^Jf defiled, dnd perverse stones that are in the 
earth ; where the devil rules in all manner of unrigh- 
teousness. For so our adversaries confess, and his— 
tory informs, the church of Rome to have been, as' 
some of their historians acknowledge ; and if that be ' 
truly the house of God, what may we call the house \ 
of Satan ? Or may we call it therefore the house of 
God, notwithstanding all this impiety, because they 
had a bare form, and that vitiated many ways also ; 
and because they pretended to the name of Christia- \ 
nity, though they were antichristian, devilish, and 
atheistical in their whole practice and spirit, and also \ 
in many of their principles ? Would not this infer yet : 
a greater absurdity, as if they had been something to \ 
be accounted of, because of their hypocrisy and deceit, | 
and false pretences? Whereas the scripture looks upon ' 
that as an aggravation of guilt, and calls it blasphemy, \ 
Rev. ii. 9. Of two wicked men, he is most to be ab- \ 
horred, who covereth his wickedness with a vain pre- j 
tence of God and righteousness: even so these ahomin-] 
able beasts, and fearful monsters, who looked upon i 
themselves to be bishops in the apostate church, were i 
never a whit the better, that they falsely pretended j 



to be the successors of the holy apostles ; unless to 
lie be commendable, and that hypocrisy be the way 
to heaven. Yea, were not this to fall into that evil 
condemned among the Jews, Jer. vii. 4 : Trust ye not 
in lying words ^ sayings The temple of the Lord, the 
temple of the Lord, the temple of the Lord are these ; 
throughly amend your ways, Sec. as if such outward 
names and things were the thing the Lord regarded, 
and not inward holiness? Or can that then be the 
pillar and ground of truth, which is the very sink and 
pit of wickedness, from which so much error, super- 
stition, idolatry, and all abomination spring? Can 
there be any thing more contrary both to scripture 
and reason ? 

Secondly, The church is defined to be the kingdom n. 
of the dea^ Son of God, into which the saints are ^^^ad'^liV^^ 
translated, being delivered from the power of darkness, bod/unde- 
It is called the body of Christ, which, from him by ^'^^* 
joints and bands having nourishment ministet^ed and 
knit together^ increaseth with the increase of God, 
Col. ii. 19. But can such members, such a gather- 
ing as we have demonstrated that church and mem- 
bers to be, among whom they allege their pretended 
authority to have been preserved, and through which 
they derive their call ; can such, I say, be the body 
of Christ, or members thereof? Or is Christ the head 
of such a corrupt, dead, dark, abominable, stinking 
carcass? If so, then might we not as well affirm 
against the apostle, 2 Cor. vi. 14. That righteousness whatfei- 
hath fellowship with unrighteousness, that light hath ["Jh cList 
communion with darkness, that Christ hath concord yix^i^w^a^ 
with Belial, that a believer hath part with an infidel, 
and that the temple of God hath agreement with idols? 
Moreover no man is called the temple of God, nor of 
the Holy Ghost, but as his vessel is purified, and so 
be fitted and prepared for God to dwell in ; and 
many thus fitted by Christ become his body, in and 
among whom he dwells and walks, according as it is 
written, / will dwell in them, and walk in them, and I 


will be their God, and they shall be my people. It is 
therefore that we may become the temple of Christ 
and people of God, that the apostle in the following 
s Cor. y'u vcFse cxhorts, saying out of the prophet, Wherefore 
17, 18. come out from among theyn, and be ye separate, saith 
the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing, and I will 
receive you ; aiul I will be a father unto you, and ye 
shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Al- 
mighty. But to what purpose is all this exhortation? 
And why should we separate from the unclean, if a 
mere outward profession and name be enough to 
make the true church ; and if the unclean and pol- 
luted were both the church and lawful successors of 
the apostles, inheriting their authority, and transmit- 
ting it to others ? Yea, how can the church be the 
kingdom of the Son of God, as contradistinguished 
from the kingdom and power of darkness ? And what 
need, yea, what possibility, of being translated out of 
the one into the other, if those that make up the king- 
dom and power of darkness be real members of the 
true church of Christ, and not simply members only, 
but the very pastors and teachers of it ? But how do 
they increase in the i?icrease of God, and receive spi- 
7^itual nourishment from Christ the head, that are 
enemies of him in their hearts by wicked works, and 
openly go into perdition ? Verily as no metaphysical 
Prieits' fri- and uicc distiuctious (as that though they were prac- 
Unc°Uon'*of ^ically as to their own private states enemies to God 
enemies lo and Christ, and so servants of Satan ; yet they were, 
pracui, by virtue of their office, members and ministers of the 
andtnem- church, aud SO able to transmit the succession); I 
chu'rd. by say, as such invented and frivolous distinctions will 
office. not please the Lord God, neither will he be deluded 
by such, nor make up the glorious body of his church 
with such mere outside hypocritical shows, nor be 
beholden to such painted sepulchres to be members 
of his body, which is sound, pure, and undefiled, and 
therefore he needs not such false and corrupt mem- 
bers to make up the defects of it; so neither will such 


distinctions satisfy truly tender an(f Christian consci- 1 

ences; especially considering the apostle is so far < 

from desiring us to regard this, that we are expressly ; 

commanded to turn away from such as have a form \ 

of godliness but deny the pmner of it. For we may j 

well object against these, as the poor man did against 1 

the proud prelate, that went about to cover his vain \ 

and unchristianlike sumptuousness, by distinguishing \ 

that it was not as bishop but as prince he had all that ] 
splendour; to which the poor rustic wisely is said to 

have answered. When the prince goeth to hell, what The answer ] 

shall become of the prelatel And indeed this were to ll^^f^^l^ ■ 

suppose the body of Christ to be defective, and that proud pre- j 
to fill up these defective places, he puts counterfeit *"**' 

and dead stuff instead of real living members ; like ] 

such as lose their eyes, arms, or legs, who make coun- \ 
terfeit ones of wood or glass instead of them. But 

we cannot think so of Christ, neither can we believe, \ 

for the reasons above adduced, that either we are to i 

account, or that Christ doth account, any man or : 

men a whit the more members of his body, because i 

though they be really wicked, they hypocritically and ] 

deceitfully clothe themselves with his name, and pre- ' 

tend to it ; for this is contrary to his own doctrine, ' 

where he saith expressly, John, xv. 1 — 6, &c. That he j 

is the vine, and his disciples are the branches; that e.v- ^ 

cept they abide in him, they cannot bear fruit ; and if j 

they be unfruitful, they shall be cast forth as a branch, | 

and withe/'. Now I suppose these cut and withered a withered ] 

branches are no more true branches nor members of Jj^^^*^^^*""" \ 

the vine ; they can^ no more draw sap nor nourish- noarish- i 
ment from it, after that they are cut off, and so have "alh*;,o°iife 

no more virtue, sap, nor life : What have they then nor virtue. i 

to boast or glory of any authority, seeing they want \ 

that life, virtue, and nourishment from which all au- j 

thority comes ? So such members of Christ as are \ 

become dead to him through unrighteousness, and so ; 
derive no more virtue nor life from him, are cut off , \ 

by their sins, apd wither, and have no longer any - 


true or real authority, and their boasting of any is 
but an aggravation of their iniquity by hypocrisy 
and deceit. But further, would not this make Christ's 
body a mere shadow and phantasm ? Yea, would it 
not make him the head of a lifeless, rotten, stinking 
carcass, having only some little outward false show, 
A liring while inwardly full of rottenness and dirt ? And what 
a^HfeielT ^ monster would these men make of Christ's body, 
bodj, what by assigning it a real, pure, living, quick head, full 
J^"o"S'fhat of virtue and life, and yet tied to such a dead lifeless 
^e • body as we have already described these members to 

be, which they allege to have been the church of 
Christ ? Again, the members of the church of Christ 
are specified by this definition, to wit, as being the 
sanctified in Christ Jesus, 1 Cor. i. 2. But this no- 
tion of succession supposeth not only some unsancti- 
fied members to be of the church of Christ, but even 
the whole to consist of unsanctified members ; yea, 
that such as were professed necromancers and open 
servants of Satan were the true successors of the apos- 
tles, and in whom the apostolic authority resided, these 
being the vessels through whom this succession is 
transmitted ; though many of them, as all Protestants 
and also some Papists confess, attained these offices 
in the (so called) church not only by such means as 
Simon Magus sought it, but by much worse, even by 
witchcraft, traditions, money, treachery, and murder, 
which Platina himself confesseth* of divers bishops 
of Rome. 

§. XI. But such as object not this succession of the 
church, whigh yet most Protestants begin now to do, 
distinguish in this matter, affirming, that in a great 
apostacy, such as was that of the church of Rome, 
God may raise up some singularly by his Spirit, who 
from the testimony of the scriptures perceiving the 
errors into which such as bear the name of Christians 

* In the Life of Benedict 4 ; of John 16 ; of Sylvester 3 ; of 
Boniface 8; of Steph. 6; of John 8. Also Onuphiius's Anno- 
tations upon this Papess (or Popess) towards the end. 


are fallen, may mstruct and teach them, and then he- j 

come authorized by the people s joining with and accept- \ 

ing of their ministry only. Most of them also will i 

affirm, That the Spirit herein is subjective, arid not ■ 

But they say, That where a church is reformed object. i 

(such as they pretend the Protestant churches are) j 

the?x an ordinary orderly call is necessary ; and that | 

of the Spirit, as extraordinary, is not to be sought \ 

after: alleging, that Res aider se habet in eccksid i 

constituenda, quam in cedes id cotistitutd ; that is, ; 

There is a difference in the constituting of a church, \ 

and after it is constituted. \ 

I answer. This objection as to us saith nothing, Answ. 

seeing we accuse, and are ready from the scriptures i 
to prove, the Protestants guilty of gross errors, and a difference 

needing reformation, as well as they did and do the ^wi'e'llcon-^ \ 

Papists; and therefore we may justly lay claim, ifstituUnga < 

we would, to the same extraordinary call, having the l^^l^ ^. \ 

same reason for it, and as good evidence to prove ours stituted. ^ 

as they had for theirs. As for that maxim, viz. That } 
the case is different in constituting a church, and a 

church constituted, I do not deny it; and therefore \ 

there may be a greater measure of power required to ; 

the one than to the other, and God in his wisdom dis- , \ 
tributes the same as he sees meet ; but that the same 

immediate assistance of the Spirit is not necessary for 1 

ministers in a gathered church as well as in gathering i 

one, I see no solid reason alleged for it : for sure j 

Christ's promise was to be with his children to the \ 

end of the world, and they need him no less to pre- \ 

serve and guide his church and children than to \ 
gather and beget them. Nature taught the Gentiles • 1 
this maxim, 

Non minor est virtus, quam quarere, parta tueri. ; 

To defend what we attain requires no less strength than what is ; 

necessary to acquire it. i 


For it is by this inward and immediate operation of ] 

the Spirit, which Christ hath promised to lead his \ 


children with ifito all truth, and to teach them all \ 
things, that Christians are to be led in all steps, as \ 
well last as first, which relate to God's glory and their \ 
own salvation, as we have heretofore sufficiently 
It is a de- proved, and therefore need not now repeat it. And 
urfo/men ^^Y ^^^ dcvicc of Satan, whereby he has got people 
to pat the to put the immediate guidings and leadings of God's | 
feadilgs far ^piHt as au extraordinary thing afar off, which their \ 
off to for. forefathers had, but which they now are neither to \ 
mer time«. ^^^^ £^j. ^^^ expcct, is a great cause of the growing 
apostacy upon the many gathered churches ; and is ; 
one great reason why a dry, dead, barren, lifeless, : 
spiritless ministry, which leavens the people into the 
same death, doth so much abound, and is so much : 
overspreading even the Protestant nations, that their \ 
preaching and worships as well as their whole con- 
versation, is not to be discerned from popish by any ; 
fresh living zeal, or lively power of the Spirit accom- i 
panying it, but merely by the diiference of some j 
notions and opinions. ! 

Object. §. XII. Some unwise and unwary Protestants do 
sometimes object to us. That if ive have such an im- i 
mediate call as we lay claim to, we ought to confirm it i 
by miracles. 
answ. But this being an objection once and again urged | 

against the primitive Protestants by the Papists, we 
need but in short return the answer to it that they did ! 
wheiber to the Papists, to wit, That we need ?iot miracles, be- 1 
"iw nece^* cflM^e wc prcttch uo ncw gospel, but that which is 
Bfirj to coa- already conjirmed by all the miracles of Christ and 
goTpd? ^'^ apostles; and that we offer 7iothing but that which ' 
we are ready and able to confirm by the testimony of\ 
the scriptures, which both ahrady acknowledge to be \ 
John Bap. true : and that John the Baptist and divers of the ! 
lert"ro^' prophets did none that we hear of, and yet were both \ 
pbeta did immediately and extraordinarily sent. This is the j 
common Protestant answer, therefore may suffice in * 
this place ; though, if need were, I could say more to 1 
this purpose, but that I study brevity. 

§. XIII. There is also another sort of Protestants, 


to wit, the English Independents, who differing from The consti- ; 

the Calvinistical Presbyterians, and denying the ne- Jhe7„depen. 
cessity of this succession, or the authority of any na- dent church. i 

tional church, take another way, affirming, That such \ 

as have the benejit of the scriptures, any company of \ 

people agreeing in the principles of truth as they find \ 

them there declared, 7nay constitute among themselves 
a church, without the authority of any other, and may 
choose to themselves a pastor, who by the church thus 1 

constituted and consenting, is authorized, requiring i 

only the assistance and concurrence of the pastors of i 

the neighbouring churches, if any such there be ; not ; 

so much as absolutely necessary to authorize, as decent : 

for order's sake. Also they go so far as to affirm, j 

That in a church so constituted, any gifted brother, as Gifted bre- j 

they call them, if he find himself qualified thereto, *^'"®°* ; 

may instruct, e.vhort, and preach in the church; , 

though, as not having the pastoral office, he cajinot -y 

administer those which they call their sacraments. 

To this I answer. That this was a good step out of i 

the Babylonish darkness, and no doubt did proceed 
from a real discovery of the truth, and from the sense 
of a great abuse of the promiscuous national gather- > 

ings. Also this preaching of the gifted brethren, as \ 

they called them, did proceed at first from certain \ 

lively touches and movings of the Spirit of God upon i 

many; but alas! because they went not forward, Their ios« 
that is much decayed among them ; and the j/iotions *"*^ ^**^^* ; 

of God's Spirit begin to be denied and rejected among i 

them now, as much as by others. 

But as to their pretended call from the scripture, I The scrip- 
answer. The scripture gives a mere declaration oV^^^^^^^l^ \ 
true things, but no call to particular persons ; so that persons in- 
though I believe the things there written to be true, ^^' ° * . 
and deny the errors which I find there testified against, | 
yet as to those things which may be my particular \ 
duty, I am still to seek ; and therefore I can never I 
be resolved in the scripture whether I (such a one by ] 
name) ought to be a minister ? And for the resolving \ 


this doubt I must needs recur to the inward and im- 
mediate testimony of the Spirit, as in the proposition 
concerning the scriptures is shown more at large. 

§. XIV. From all this then we do firmly conclude, 

that not only in a general apostacy it is needful men 

be extraordinarily called, and raised up by the Spirit 

of God, but that even when several assemblies or 

churches are gathered by the power of God, not only 

into the belief of the principles of truth, so as to deny 

errors and heresies, but also into the life, spirit, and 

power of Christianity, so as to be the body and house 

of Christ indeed, and a fit spouse for him, that he 

who gathers them doth also, for the preserving them 

Trqe minw- iu a Hvcly, frcsh, and powerful condition, raise up 

JjYtioJ"*'*'^" and move among them, by the inward immediate 

call, and opcratiou of his own Spirit, ministers and teachers, to 

*'^'** instruct and teach, and watch over them, who being 

thus called, are manifest in the hearts of their brethren, 

and their call is thus verified in them, who by the 

feeling of that life and power that passeth through 

them, being inwardly builded up by them daily in the 

most holy faith, become the seals of their apostleship. 

And this is answerable to another saying of the same 

apostle Paul, 2 Cor. xiii. 3. Since ye seek a proof of 

Christ" s speaking in me, which to you-wards is not 

Their lay- wcak, but is 7nighty in you. So this is that which 

iiandTa"^ givcs a triic substantial call and title to a minister, 

mock to whereby he is a real successor of the virtue, life, and 

man '11* powcr that was in the apostles, and not of the bare 

keeping the name : and to such ministers we think the outward 

wbiirrt'iie ceremony of ordination or laying on of hands not ne- 

sobstance is ccssary, neither can we see the use of it, seeing our 

wanting, ^dvcrsarics who use it acknowledfi^e that the virtue 

and power of communicating the Holy Ghost by it is 

ceased among them. And is it not then foolish and 

ridiculous for them, by an apish imitation, to keep up 

the shadow, where the substance is wanting? And 

may not they by the same rule, where they see blind 

and lame men, in imitation of Christ and his apostles, 


bid them see and walk ? Yea, is it not in them a mock- 
ing of God and men, to put on their hands, and bid 
men receive the Holy Ghost, while they believe the 
thing impossible, and confess that that ceremony hath 
no real effect? Having thus far spoken of the call, I 
shall proceed next to treat of the qualifications and 
work of a true minister. 

§. XV. As I have placed the true call of a minister Ques. 2. 
in the motion of this Holy Spirit, so is the poiver, life, Ja^llon^of f 
and virtue thereof, and the pure grace of God that minister, 
comes therefrom, the chief 3.nd most necessary quali- 
fication, without which he can no ways perform his 
duty, neither acceptably to God nor beneficially to 
men. Our adversaries in this case affirm, that three 
things go to the making up of a minister, viz. 1 . Na- 
tural 'parts, that he be not a fool. 2. Acquired parts, 
that he be learned in the languages, in philosophy 
and school divinity. 3. The grace of God. 

The two first they reckon necessary to the being of Phiiosophj 
a minister, so as a man cannot be one without them ; 5i'vinu'*°°^ 
the third they say goeth to the well being of one, but win never 
not to the being ; so that a man may truly be a law- pe^'^mini^-' 
ful minister without it, and ought to be heard and ter. 
received as such. But we, supposing a natural capa- 
city, that one be not an idiot, judge the gi^ace of God 
indispensably necessary to the very being of a minis- 
ter, as that without which any can neither be a true, 
nor lawful, nor good minister. As for letter learyiing, 
we judge it not so much necessary to the well being 
of one, though accidentally sometimes in certain re- 
spects it may concur, but more frequently it is hurtful 
than helpful, as appeared in the example of Tauleru^, Apooriaick 
who being a learned man, and who could make an JJe^iearned 
eloquent preaching, needed nevertheless to be in-Tauieras. 
structed in the way of the Lord by a poor laick. I 
§hall first speak of the tiecessity of grace, and then ^ 
proceed to say something of that literature which they 
judge so needful. 

First then, as we said in the call, so may we much proof i. 


more here, if the grace of God be a necessary qiutU- 
Jication to make one a true Christian, it must be a 
qualification much more necessary to constitute a true 
minister of Christianity. That grace is necessary to 
make one a true Christian I think will not be ques- 
tioned, since it is by grace we are saved, Eph. ii. 8. 
Ood't grace It is the gracc of God that teaches us to deny ungodli- 

conTiUaie a ^'^'^*» ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^f ^^^^ worUI, aud to Hvc godiily 
tnieand and rightcously, Tit. ii. 11. Yea Christ saith ex- 
teacblr. prcssly, l^iat without him we can do ?iothing, John, 
XV. 5. and the way whereby Christ helpeth, assistetli, 
and worketh with us is by his grace : hence he saith 
to Paul, ?ny grace is sufficient for thee. A Christian 
without grace is indeed no Christian, but a hypocrite, 
and a false pretender. Then I say, If grace be 7ie- 
cessary to a private Christian, far more to a teacher 
among Christians, who must be as a father and in- 
structor of others, seeing this dignity is bestowed upon 
such as have attained a greater measure than their 
brethren. Even nature itself may teach us that there 
is more required in a teacher than in those that are 
taught, arul that the master must be above and before 
the scholar in that art or science which he teaches 
others. Si?ice then Christianity cannot be truly en- 
joyed, neither a?iy man denominated a Christian, with- 
out the true grace of God, therefore neither can any 
man be a true and lawful teacher of Christianity with- 
out it. 
Proof II. Secondly, No man can be a minister of the church 
mo first o^ Christ, which is his body, unless he be a member 
must be a of the body, and receive of the virtue and life of the 

member of i ^^ i . 

the body, head: 

and then But he that hath not true grace can neither be a 
ce^v'e'drand member of the body, neither receive of that life and 
t'^r^""* nourishment which comes from the head: 

Therefore far less can he be a minister to edify the 

That he cannot be a minister who is not a mem- 
ber is evident ; because he who is not a member is 


shut out and cut off, and hath no place in the bodi/ ; i 

whereas the ministers are counted among the most ^ 

eminent members of the body. But no man can be i 

a member unless he receive of the virtue, life, and | 

nourishment of the head; for the members that re- | 

ceive not this life and nourishment decay and wither, i 

and then are cut off. And that every true member 
doth thus receive nourishment and life from the head, \ 

the apostle expressly affirmeth, Eph. iv. 16. From i 

whom the whole body being fitly joined together, and \ \ 

compacted by that which every joint suppUeth, accord- ] 

ing to the effectual working in the measure of every ■ 

part, makes increase of the body unto the edifying of . : 

itself in love. Now this that thus is communicated, 
and which thus uniteth the whole, is no other than 
the grace of God ; and therefore the apostle in the ' 

same chapter, verse 7, saith, But unto every one of us \ 

is given grace according to the measure of the gift of | 

Christ; and verse 11, he showeth how that by this a 

grace and gift both apostles, prophets, evangelists, pas- 
tors, and teachers are given for the work of the minis- ^ 
try, and edifying of the body of Christ. And cer- 
tainly then no man destitute of grace is fit for this { 
work, seeing that all that Christ gives are so qualified; ] 
and these that are not so qual'fied, are not given nor \ 
sent of Christ, are not to be heard, nor received, nor I 
acknowledged as ministers of the gospel, because his The sheep | 
sheep neither ought nor will hear the voice of a nehheT' ^ 
stranger. This is also clear from ICor. xii. throughout; ousht nor 
for the apostle in that chapter, treating of the diversity sVrange"! * ^ 
of gifts and members of the body, showeth how by the ^"»ce* : 
workings of the same Spirit in different manifestations \ 
or measures in the several members of the body the \ 
whole body is edified, saying, verse 13, That we are ^ 
all baptized by the one Spirit into one body; and then, 
verse 28, he numbers up the several dispensations 
thereof, which by God are set in the church through ] 
the various workings of his Spirit for the edification i 
of the whole. Then if there be no true member of \ 


the body which is not thus baptized by the Spirit, 
neither any thing that worketh to the edifying of it, 
but according to a measure of grace received from the 
Spirit, surely without grace none ought to be admitted 
to work or labour in the body, because their labour 
and work, without this grace and Spirit, would be 
but ineffectual. 

§. XVI. Thirdly, That this grace and gift is a 
necessary qualification to a minister, is clear from that 
of the apostle Peter, 1 Pet. iv. 10, 11. As every man 
hath received the gift^ even so minister the same one 
to another, as good stewards of the manifold grace of 
God^ If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of 
God : if any man nwiister, let him do it as of the abi- 
lity which God giveth ; that God in all things may be 
glorified through Jesus Christ ; to whom be praise and 
dominion for ever, Amen. From which it appears, 
The minis- that thosc that minister must minister according to the 
be"b Thf S^fi ^^^ grace received ; but they that have not such 
gift and a gift, cannot minister according thereunto. Secondly, 
I2ylir "^^ S^^^ stewards of the manifold grace of God: but 
how can a man be a good steward of that which he 
hath not? Can ungodly men, that are not gracious 
Good stew- themselves, be good stewards of the manifold grace of 
wS^of Cr(^^^^ And therefore in the following verses he makes 
God's an exclusive limitation of such that are not thus fur- 
gr^ce, '"*^ nished, saying. If any man speak, let him speak as the 
wi.ich is the oracles of God ; and if any man minister, let him do 
ste»i/rd?hip it as of the ability that God giveth: which is as much 
received, ^g jf j^g ^j^d Said, tlicy that cannot thus speak, and 
thus minister, ought not to do it: for this [i/*] denotes 
a necessary condition. Now what this ability is, is 
manifest by the former words, to wit, the gift received, 
and the grace whereof they are stewards, as by the 
immediate context and dependency of the words doth 
appear. Neither can it be understood of a mere na- 
tural ability, because man in this condition is said not 
to knotv the things of God, and so he caimot minister 
them to others. And the following words show this 


also, in that he immediately subjoineth, that God in 
all things may be glorified ; but surely God is not 
glorified, but greatly dishonoured, when natural men, 
from their mere natural ability, meddle in spiritual 
things, which they neither know nor understand. 

Fourthly, That grace is a most necessary qualifica- Pr. iv. 
tion for a minister, appears by those qualifications 
which the apostle expressly requires, 1 Tim. iii. 2 ; 
Tit. i. &c. where he saith, A bishop must be blameless, 
vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, apt to teach, patient, 
a lover of good men, just, holy, temperate, as the stew- 
ard of God, holding fast the faithful word as he hath 
been taught. Upon the other hand. He must 7ieither 
be given to wine, nor a striker, nor covetous, nor proud, 
nor self-willed, nor soon angry. Now I ask if it be How can « 
not impossible that a man can have all these above l^ese'lir-'^* 
named virtues, and be free of all these evils, without taes without 
the grace of Godl If then these virtues, for the pro- go/?'''*'^ *" 
ducing of which in a man grace is absolutely neces- 
sary, be necessary to make a true minister of the 
church of Christ according to the apostle's judgment, 
surely grace must be necessary also. 

Concerning this thing a learned man, and well 
skilled in antiquity, about the time of the Reforma- 
tion, writeth thus : " Whatsoever is done in the 
church, either for ornament or edification of religion, 
whether in choosing magistrates or instituting minis- 
ters of the church, except it be done by the ministry of whatso- 
God's Spirit, which is as it were the soul of the church, fj^he'' **°''* 
it is vain and wicked. For whoever hath not been church 
called by the Spirit of God to the great office of God n/jnislr^. o'* 
and dignity of apostleship, as Aaron was, and hath pod's spirit 
not entered in by the door, which is Christ, but hath JJieked. ' 
other ways risen in the church by the window, by the 
favours of men, &c; truly such a one is not the vicar 
of Christ and his apostles, but a thief and robber, and 
the vicar of Judas Iscariot and Simon the Samaritan. Who is ju- 
Hence it was so strictly appointed concerning the j," ^1^^'/? 
election of prelates, which holy Dionysius calls the 


sacrament of nomination, that the bishops and apostles 
who sliould oversee the service of the church should 
be men of most intire manners and life, powerful 
in sound doctrine, to give a reason for all thinirs." 
So also another*, about the same time, writeth thus : 
" Therefore it can never be, that by the tongues or 
learning any can give a sound judgment concerning 
the holy scriptures, and the truth of God. Lastly," 
saith he, " the sheep of Christ seeks nothing but the 
voice of Christ, which he knoweth by the Holy Spirit, 
wherewith he is filled : he regards not learning, 
tongues, or any outward thing, so as therefore to 
believe this or that to be the voice of Christ, his true 
shepherd ; he knoweth that there is need of no otlier 
thing but the testimo7iy of the Spirit of God. 

Object. 1. §. XVII. Against this absolute necessity ot grace 
they object, That if all jninisters had the saving grace 
of God, thefi all miiusters should be saved, seeing none 
can fall away from or lose savi??g grace. 

answ. But this objection is built upon a false hypothesis, 

purely denied by us ; and we have in the former pro- 
position concerning perseverance already refuted it. 

Object. 2. Secondly, It may be objected to us, That since we 
affirm that every man hath a measure of true and 
saving grace, there needs no singular qualification 
either to a Christian or minister ; for seeing evety 
man hath this grace, then no man needs forbear to be 
a minister for want of grace, 

Answ. I answer. We have above shown that there is neces- 

sary to the making a minister a special and particular 
call from the Spirit of God, which is something be- 
sides the universal dispensation of grace to all, ac- 

Heb. V. 4. cording to that of the apostle. No man taketh this 
honour unto hiinself but he that is called of God, as 

All b»Te was Aaron. Moreover we understand by grace as a 

^h\ch^Jui\» ^^^^ifi(^^i^on to a minister, not the mere measure of 

* Franciscus Lambertus Avenionensis, in his book concern- 
ing Prophecy, Learning, Tongues, and the Spirit of Prophecy. 
Argent, excuse anno 1510, de prov. cap. 24. 


light, as it is given to reprove and call him to righte- to righte- 
ousness ; but we understand grace as it hath converted aiTare'not"* 
the soul, and operateth powerfully in it, as hereafter, so leavened 
concerning the wo7^k of ministers, will further appear, lore as tT 
St) we understand not men simply having grace in bring forth 
them as a seed, which we indeed affirm all have in a blameless 
measure ; but vre understand men that are gracious, ^^^^ ^'f®- 
leavened by it into the nature thereof, so as thereby 
to bring forth those good fruits of a blameless con- 
versation, and of justice, holiness, patience, and tem- 
perance, which the apostle requires as necessary in a 
true Christian bishop and minister. 

Thirdly, They* object the example of the false pro- object, s. 
phets, of the Pharisees, and of Judas, 

But First, As to \hQ false prophets, there can nothing answ. 
be more foolish and ridiculous ; as if because there 
vf ere false prophets, redWy false, without the grace of 
God, therefore grace is not necessary to a true Chris- 
tian minister. Indeed if they had proved that true 
prophets wanted this grace, they had said something; 
but what hdive false prophets common with ti^ue minis- The faUe 
ters, but that they pretend falsely that which they pj'pl.'e'tr* 
have not ? And because false prophets want true want ti>e 
grace, will it therefore follow, that true prophets |X" 
ought not to have it, that they may be true and not 
false 1 The example of the Pharisees and priests under 
the law will not answer to the gospel times, because 
God set apart a particular tribe for that service, and 
particular families, to whom it belonged by a lineal 
succession ; and also their service and work was not The service 
purely spiritual, but only the performance of some "J"^^ ^^^/ 
outward and carnal observations and ceremonies, not pureij 
which were but a shadow of the substance that was but^figara- 
to come : and therefore their work made not the comers ♦'"«' <"«•• *''« 

, ' - . . , . perform- 

thereunto perfect, as appertaining to the conscience, ance of 
seeing they were appointed only according to the laio ^^^'^''\^^ 
of a carnal commandment, and not according to the hoved to be 
poiccr of an endless life. Notwithstanding as in the '^^^^^\l^-^^ 
* So Nic. Arnoldus, Sect. 32, upon Thesis 4. outward 



poHotions, figure they were to be without blemish as to their out- 

teM ofTbe*" ward man, and in the performance of their work they 

go«p«i must were to be washed and purified from their outward 

wlthoiitbilK pollutions, so now, under the gospel times, the minis- 

■wh. ters in the antitype must be inwardly without blemish 

in theii' souls and spirits, being, as the apostle requires, 

blameless, and in their work and service must be pure 

and undejiled from their inward pollutions, and so 

clean and holy, that they may offer up spiritual sacri- 

Jices acceptable to God by Jesus Christ, 1 Pet. ii. 5. 

The minis- As to Judas, the scason of his ministry was not wholly 

d^8o?pu/of evangelical, as being before the work yv^s finished^ 

Christ be. and while Christ himself and his disciples were yet 

work'was subject to the Jewish observances and constitutions, 

nnisbedwas and therefore his commission, as well as that which 

than*t!an- the rcst rcccivcd with him at that time, was only to 

geiicai. the house of Israel, Matt. x. 5, 6, which made that 

by virtue of that commission the rest of the apostles 

were not impowered to go forth and preach after the 

resurrection until they had waited at Jerusalem for 

the pouring forth of the Spirit: so that it appears 

Judas's ministry was more legal than evangelical. 

Secondly, JudEis's case, as all will acknowledge, was 

Judas was siugular and extraordinary, he being immediately 

ij raned^of ^^^^d by Christ himself, and accordingly furnished 

Christ, and aud impowcrcd by him to preach, and do miracles ; 

Vrlt\y^^ which immediate commission our adversaries do not 

whicii oar so much as pretend to, and so fall short of Judas, who 

tviu^'^tTo'; trusted in Christ's words, and therefore went forth 

aitboagh and preached, without gold or silver, or scrip for 

blm iTpat* his journey ; giving freely as he haAJfreely received; 

^*a°cdels*" which our adversaries will not do, as hereafter 

ministry, shall bc obscrvcd : also that Judas at that time had 

badnot'tbe ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ mcasurc of God's grace, I have not 

least mea- as yct heard proved. But is it not sad, tliat even 

GlJd°Krace P^otcstants should lay aside the eleven good and faith- 

AtibatUme. ful apostlcs, and ^the rest of the holy disciples and 

ministers of ChriS|rand betake them to that one, of 

whom it was testified that he was a devil, for a pattern 



and example to their ministry ? Alas ! it is to be re- \ 

gretted, that too many of them resemble this pattern ^ 

overmuch. \ 

Another objectmi is usually made against the ne- object. ] 

cessity of grace, * That in case it were necessary, then * ibid. nic. \ 

such as wanted it could not truly administer the sacra- A^oidus. ^ 

ments ; and consequently the people would he left in i 

doubts and infinite scruples, as not knowing certainly j 

whether they had truly received them, because not \ 
knowing infallibly whether the administrators were 

truly gracious men. \ 

But this objection hitteth not us at all, because the answ. 1 
nature of that spiritual and Christian worship, which ' ! 

we according to the truth plead for, is such as is not { 

necessarily attended with these carnal and outward "\ 

institutions, from the administering of which the ob- ' 

jection ariseth ; and so hath not any such absurdity , 

following upon it, as will afterwards more clearly • 

appear. \ 

\ XVIII. Though then we make not human learn- what trae ; 

ing necessary, yet we are far from excluding true '®*"*°^ '** \ 

learning ; to wit, that learning which proceedeth from - 

the inward teachings and instructions of the Spirit, i 
whereby the soul learneth the secret ways of the Lord, 
becomes acquainted with many inward travails and 

exercises of the mind ; and learneth by a living ex- \ 

peHence how to overcome evil, and the temptations i 

o/it, hy following the Lord, and walking in his light, \ 

and waiting daily for wisdom and knowledge immedi- : 

ately from the revelation thereof; and so layeth up \ 
. these heavenly and divine lessons in the good treasure 
of the heart, as honest Mary did the sayings which 
she heard, and things which she observed : and also 

out of this treasure of the soul, as the good scribe, ] 

brings forth things new and old, according as the same \ 

Spirit moves, and gives true liberty, and as the glory 1 
of God requires, for whose glory the soul, which is 

the temple of God, learneth to do atU things. This is ^ 

that good learning which we think necessary to a true '*: 

a trae mi- 


Th« good minister ; by and through which learning a man can 
which'?« ^^^^ instruct, teach, and admonish in due season, and 
necessary to testify for God from a certain experience : as did 
David, Solomon, and the holy prophets of old, and 
the blessed apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ, who 
testified of what they had seen, heard, felt, and handled 
of the wo7'd of life, 1 John, i. 1, Ministering the gift 
according as they had received the same, as good stew- 
ards of the manifold grace of God; and preached not 
the uncertain rumours of men by hearsay, which they 
had gathered m-^rely in the comprehension, -while 
they were strangers to the thing in their own experi- 
ence in themselves : as to teach people how to believe, 
while themselves were unbelieving ; or how to over- 
come sin, while themselves are slaves to it, as all 
ungracious men are ; or to believe and hope for an 
eternal reward, which themselves have not as yet 
arrived at, &c. 
Literature §. XIX. But Ict US cxamiue this literature, which 
is first the ^ijgy make so necessary to the bein^ of a minister ; 

knowledge - ^ n i ii iiri 

of Latin, as, m the first place, the knowledge ot the tongues, at 
HXew?"^ least of the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. The reason 
of this is. That they may read the scripture, which is 
their only rule, in the original languages, and thereby 
be the more capable to comment upon it, and inter- 
pret it, &c. That also which made this knowledge 
be the more prized by the primitive Protestants, was 
indeed the dark barbarity that was over the world in 
the centuries immediately preceding the Reformation ; 
the knowledge of the tongues being about that time 
(until it was even then restored by Erasmus and some 
Before Uie othcrs) almost lost and extinct. And this barbarity 
Reform*- ^g^ g^ ^^uch the morc abominable, that the whole 

*«on tl»e , . « , I'll* 

prayer* of worship and prayers of the people were m the Lat\n 
wernn^ibe tonguc ; and among that vast number of priests, 
L«iin monks, and friars, scarce one of a thousand under- 
longoc. gtood his breviary, or that mass which he daily read 
and repeated : the scripture being, not only to ib^ 
people, but to the greater part of the clergy, ercll 


as to the literal knowledge of it, as a sealed book. I The zeai 
shall not at all discommend the zeal that the first Jourronte 
reformers had against this Babylonish darkness, nor first re- 
their pious endeavours to translate the holy scriptures : commend- 
I do truly believe, according to their knowledge, that ed. 
they did it candidly : and therefore to answer the The know- 
just desires of those that desire to read them, and for {angaages 
other very good reasons, as maintaining a commerce commenda- 
and understanding among divers nations by these schooh^ne- 
common languages, and others of that kind, we judge cessary. 
it necessary and commendable that there be public 
schools for the teaching and instructing such youth, 
as are inclinable thereunto, in the languages. And 
although that papal ignorance deserved justly to be 
abhorred and abominated, we see nevertheless, that 
the true reformation consists not in that knowledge ; 
because although since that time the Papists, stirred Therapists' 
up through emulsion of the Protestants, have more ^n^'kuow- 
applied themselves in literature, and it now more ledge, espe- 
flourisheth in their universities and cloisters, than Jg*"- J|*® 
before (especially in the Ignation or Jesuitic sect), 
they are as far now as ever from a true reformation, 
and more hardened in their pernicious doctrines. 
But all this will not make it a necessary qualification 
to a minister, far less a more necessary qualification 
than the grace of God and his Spirit ; because the 
Spirit and grace of God can make up this want in 
the most rustic and ignorant; but this knowledge 
can no ways make up the want of the Spirit in the 
most learned and eloquent. For all that which man The Spirit 
by his own industry, learning, and knowledge in the Jntl^rpJeJe'^ 
languages, can interpret of the scriptures, or find out, of the scrip- 
is nothing without the Spirit ; he cannot be certain, Iherfrrm^ 
but may still miss of the sense of it : whereas a poor the original 
man, that knoweth not a letter, when he heareth the oTwISt 
scriptures read, by the same Spirit, he can say. This t''*^"'- 
is true ; and by the same Spirit he can understand, 
open, and interpret it, if need be : yea, finding his 
^ condition to answer the condition and experience of 


the saints of old, he knoweth and possesseth the truths 
there delivered, because they are sealed and witnessed 
in his own heart by the same Spirit. And this we 
have plentiful experience of in many of those illite- 
rate men, whom God hath raised up to be ministers 
in his church in this day ; so that some such, by his 
Spirit, have corrected some of the errors of the trans- 
lators, as in the Third Proposition concerning the 
A poor Scriptures I before observed. Yea, I know myself a 
fhrrrod" P^^^ shoemaker, that cannot read a word, who being 
not read, assaultcd with a false citation of scripture, from a 
profl?8or of public profcssor of divinity, before the magistrate of 
diirinitj's a city, when he had been taken up for preaching to 
t?oni from some few who came to hear him ; I say, I know such 
•criptaro. a ouc, and he is yet alive, who though the professor, 
who also is esteemed a learned man, constantly as- 
serted his saying to be a scripture sentence, yet 
affirmed,^ not through any certain letter-knowledge he 
had of it, but from the most certain evidence of the 
Spirit in himself, that the professor was mistaken; 
and that the Spirit of God never said any such thing 
as the other affirmed : and the Bible being brought, 
it was found as the poor shoemaker had said. 
2. Logic §. XX. The second part of their literature is logic 

phj noi'°*^ and philosophy, an art so little needful to a true mi- 
needfui to a nistcr, that if one that comes to be a true minister 
preacher. ^^^^ \^^^ \^^ j|. jg safcst for him to forgct and lose it ; 
for it is the root and ground of all contention and de- 
bate, and the way to make a thing a great deal darker 
than clearer. For under the pretence of regulating 
man's reason into a certain order and rules, that he 
may find out (as they pretend) the truth, it leads into 
such a labyrinth of contention, as is far more fit to 
make a sceptic than a Christian, far less a minister 
of Christ : yea, it often hinders man from a clear un- 
derstanding of things that his own reason would give 
him; and therefore, through its manifold rules and 
divers Inventions, it often gives occasion for a man, 
that hath little reason, foolishly to speak much to no 


purpose; seeing a man, that is not very wise, may 
notwithstanding be a perfect logician. And then, if 
ye would make a man a fool to purpose that is not 
very wise, do but teach him logic and philosophy ; 
and whereas before he might have been fit for some- 
thing, he shall then be good for nothing, but to speak 
nonsense ; for these notions will so swim in his head, 
that they will make him extremely busy about nothing. 
The use that wise and solid men make of it, is, to see The use of 
the emptiness thereof; therefore saith one. It is «w'°^'V**** 

r . -' . •' see its emp- 

art of co?2te?itio?i and darkness, by which all other tiness. 
sciences are rendered more obscure, and harder to be 

If it be urged. That thereby the truth may be main- 
tained arid confirmed, and heretics confuted; 

I answer. The truth, in men truly rational, needeth answ. 
not the help thereof; and such as are obstinate, this 
will not convince ; for by this they may learn twenty 
tricks and distinctions, how to shut out the truth : and 
the truth proceeding from an honest heart, and spoken 
forth from the virtue and Spirit of God, will have 
more influence, and take sooner and more effectually, 
than by a thousand demonstrations of logic ; as that a heathen 
heathen philosopher* acknowledged, who, disputing jl'^p^^^^J*^" 
with the Christian bishops in the council of Nice, w»ih the 
was so subtile, that he could not be overcome by the cTanc"n 
them; but yet by a few words spoken by a simple "^'^'^e, was 
old rustic, was presently convinced by him, and con- to theChris- 
verted to the Christian faith ; and being inquired how ^•*'! ^*'*^ ^y 
he came to yield to that ignorant old man, and not to oid'maT" 
the bishops, he said. That they contended with him in ^^^^^H 
his own way, and he could still give words for words ; 
but there came from the old man that virtue, which 
he was not able to resist. This secret virtue and 
power ought to be the logic and philosophy wherewith 
a true Christian minister should be furnished ; and * 
for which they need not be beholden to Aristotle. As Natural lo- 
to natural logic, by which rational men, without that ^"*^ "'^^° * 

* Lucae Osiandri Epit. Hist. Eccles. lib. ii. cap. v. cent. 4. 


art and rules, or sophistical learning, deduce a certain \ 

conclusion out of true propositions, which scarce any I 

man of reason wants, we deny not tlie use of it ; and i 

I have sometimes used it in this treatise ; which also | 

8. Ethics, may serve without that dialectic art. As for the other ■ 

**er-rair8*to P^'^ ^^ philosophy, which is called moral, or ethics. 

Christians it is uot SO ucccssary to Christians, who have the j 

«oi needful. j^|^ ^f ^j^^ j^^j^ scripturcs, and the gift of the Holy > 

Spirit, by which they can be much better instructed. 
4. Ph)sic8, The physical and metaphysical part may be reduced 1 
uli^Lr *^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ medicine and the mathematics, which i 
make no ' havc uothiug to do with the essence of a Christian \ 
Snle u"h. niinister. And therefore the apostle Paul, who well \ 
understood what was good for Christian ministers, \ 
and what hurtful, thus exhorted the Colossians, Col. j 
ii. 8 : Beware lest any maji spoil you thr.ough philo- | 
sophy and vain deceit. And to his beloved disciple 
Timothy he writes also thus, 1 Tim. vi. 20 : O Timo- \ 
thy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding '] 
profane and vain babblings, and opposition of science, \ 
falsely so called. 
III. The §. XXI. The third and main part of their litera- j 
^^j^jj ture is school divinity, a monster, made up of some \ 
vinitj ob- scriptural notions of truth, and the heathenish terms \ 
moll\tx\ a ^^^ maxims; being, as it were, the heathenish phi- \ 
letter knU- losophy chnstiauized, or rather, the literal external ; 
thlJnLed* knowledge of Christ heathenized. It is man in his ; 
first, fallen, natural state, with his devilish wisdom, j 
pleasing himself with some notions of truth, and \ 
adorning them with his own sensual and carnal wis- 
dom, because he thinks the simplicity of the truth too \ 
low and mean a thing for him ; and so despiseth that • 
simplicity, wheresoever it is found, that he may set \ 
up and exalt himself, puffed up with this his mon- j 
strous birth. It is the devil, darkening, obscuring, j 
and veiling the knowledge of God, with his serpen- i 
tine and worldly wisdom ; that so he may the more \ 
securely deceive the hearts of* the simple, and make \ 
the truth, as it is in itself, despicable and hard to be ^ 



known and understood, by multiplying a thousand 

difficult and needless questions, and endless conten- | 

tions and debates. All which, he who perfectly I 

knoweth, is not a whit less the servant of sin than he ] 

was ; but ten times more so, in that he is exalted, and - J 

proud of iniquity, and so much the farther from ■ 

receiving, understanding, or learning the truth, as it 

is in its own naked simplicity; because he is full, 

learned, rich, and wise in his own conceit : and so i 

those that are most skilled in it, wear out their day, i 

and spend their precious time about the infinite and j 

innumerable questions they have feigned and inventec? / 

concerning it. A certain learned man called it, ^Ks needless i 

twofold discipline, like the race of the Centaurs, partfy ^"J'enaLs ^ 

proceeding from divine sayings, partly from philoso- jangiings. 

phical reasons. A thousand of their questions they 

confess themselves to be no ways necessary to salva- • 

tion ; and yet many more of them they could never j 

agree upon, but are, and still will be, in endless jang- \ 

lings about them. The volumes that have been writ- \ 

ten about it, a man in his whole age can scarce read, \ 

though he lived to be very old ; and when he has 1 

read them all, he has but wrought himself a great ; 

deal more vexation and trouble of spirit than he had j 

before. These certainly are the words multiplied with- \ 

out knowledge ; by which comisel hath been darkened, 

Job, xxxviii. 2. They make the scripture the text of 

all this mass ; and it is concerning the sense of it ■ \ 

that their voluminous debates arise. But a man of a \ 

good upright heart may learn more in half an hour \ 

and be more certain of it, by waiting upon God, and 

his Spirit in the heart, than by reading a thousand ' 

of their volumes ; which, by filling his head with 

many needless imaginations, may well stagger his 

faith, but never confirm it: and indeed those that 'j 

give themselves most to it are most capably to fall j 

into error, as appeareth by the example of Origen, ; 

who, by his learning, was one of the first, that failing j 

into this way of interpreting the scriptures, wrote so j 



many volumes, and in them so many errors, as very ! 

Whereby mucli' troubled the church. Also Arius, led by this I 

itto"err"r curioslty and human scrutiny, despising the simplicity ] 

mud schism, of the gospcl, fell iuto his error, which was the cause ; 

of that horrible heresy which so much troubled the i 

church. Methinks the simplicity, plainness, and bre- i 

vity of the scriptures themselves, should be a suffi- ' 
cient reproof for such a science; and the apostles, 
being honest, plain, illiterate men, may be better 
understood by such kind of men now, than with all 
that mass of scholastic stuff, which neither Peter, nor 

^y^aul, nor John, ever thought of. \ 

Theaposta- §. XXII. But this invention of Satan, wherewith i 
diligerliM ^^ began the apostacy, hath been of dangerous con- 
coose- sequence ; for thereby he at first spoiled the simpli- 

quences. ^^^^^ ^^ trutli, by kccpiug up the heathenish learning, \ 

which occasioned such uncertainty, even among those j 

Many of the called Fathcrs, and such debate, that there are few \ 

J^^' ^^ of them to be found, who, by reason of this mixture, \ 
eontradict do uot ouly frequently contradict one another, but 

bufih^e m-"^' themselves also. And therefore, when the apostacy i 

selves also, grcw greater, he, as it were, buried the truth with ! 
and why. ^j^-g ^^^j ^^ darkucss, wholly shutting out people from > 

true knowledge, and making the learned (so accounted) , 
busy themselves with idle and needless questions; 
while the weighty truths of God were neglected, and 
went, as it were, into disuse. 

Now, though the grossest of these abuses be swept I 

away by Protestants, yet the evil root still remains, ' 

and is nourished and upheld ; and the science kept : 

up, as being deemed necessary for a minister : for, j 

while the pure learning of the Spirit of truth is de- j 
spised and neglected, and made ineffectual, mans 

fallen earthly wisdom is upheld ; and so in that he i 

labours and works with the scriptures, being out of ; 

the Life and Spirit which those that wrote them were ^ 

in, by which only they are rightly understood, and j 
made use of: And so he that is to be a minister 
Merchan- must Icam this art or trade of merchandizing with 


the scriptures, and be that which the apostle would dizing with 
not be, to wit, a trader with them, 2 Cor. ii. 17. That J|;',''Xt 
he may acquire a kna<;k from a verse of Scripture, by it is. 
adding his own barren notions and conceptions to it, 2^Peu7i. 3. 
and his uncertain conjectures, and what he had stolen 
out of books ; for which end he must have of neces- 
sity a good many by him, and may each Sabbath day, 
as they call it, or oftener, make a discourse for an 
hour long ; and this is called the preaching of the And ibis 
word : whereas the gift, grace, and Spirit of God, to ^^J ''*" 
teach, open, and instruct, and to preach a word in ing of the 
season, is neglected ; and so man's arts and parts, and ^°''^' 
knowledge and wisdom, which is from below, are set Thus Anti- 
up and established in the temple of God, yea, and ^^^^f^VeV^ 
above the little seed ; which in effect is Antichrist, above the 
working in the mystery. And so the devil may be kingdom!*^ 
as good and able a minister as the best of them ; for ^^^ ^^^ 
he has better skill in languages, and more logic, phi- devil maj 
losophy, and school divinity, than any of them ; and J'eVonbr 
knows the truth in the notion better than they all, priests' gos- 
and can talk more elegantly than all those preachers. *'^'* 
But what availeth all this ? Is it not all but as death, 
as a painted sepulchre, and dead carcass, without the 
power, life, and spirit of Christianity, which is the 
marrow and substance of a Christian ministry ? And 
he that hath this, and can speak from it, though he 
be a poor shepherd, or a fisherman, and ignorant of 
all that learning, and of all those questions and no- 
tions ; yet speaking from the Spirit, his ministry will 
have more influence towards the converting of a sinner 
unto God, than all of them who are learned after the 
flesh ; as in that example of the old man at the council 
of Nice did appear. 

§. XXIII. And if in any age, since the apostle's The power 
days, God hath purposed to show his power by weak ""^.^^^^^J 
instruments, for the battering down of that carnal and struments 
heathenish wisdom, and restoring again the (indent \^^''^'^K 
simplicity of truth, this is it. For in our day, God cii^roftrnth. 
hath raised up witnesses for himself, as he did fisher- 


men of old ; many, yea, m6st of whom ?-re^ labouring 
and mechanic men, who, altogether without that learn- 
ing, have, by the power and Spirit of God, struck at 
the very root and ground of Babylon; and in the 
strength and might of this power, have gathered 
thousands, by reaching their consciences, into the 
same power and life, who, as to the outward part, 
have been far more knowing than they, yet not able 
to resist the virtue that proceeded from them. Of 
which I myself am a true witness ; and can declare 
from certain experience, because my heart hath been 
The power- oftcu greatly broken and tendered by that virtuous 
oniTiterat? ^^^^ ^^^^ procccdcd from the powerful ministry of those 
men. illiterate men : so that by their very countenance, as 
well as words, I have felt the evil in me often chained 
down, and the good reached to and raised. What 
shall I then say to you, who are lovers of learning, 
and admirers of knowledge ? Was not I also a lover 
and admirer of it, who also sought after it, according 
to my age and capacity ? But it pleased God, in his 
unutterable love, early to withstand my vain endea- 
The time of vours, whilc I was yct but eighteen years of age ; and 
GMt^con"*^^ made me seriously to consider (which I wish also may 
vincement. bcfall othcrs). That without holiness and regeriey^ation 
Job xxviii. no man can see God ; and that the fear of the Lord 
is the beginning of wisdom, and to depart from ini- 
quity, a good imderstanding ; and how much knau)- 
ledge puffeth up, and leadeth away from that inward 
quietness, stilhiess, and humilitif of 7nind, where the 
Lord appears, and his heavenly wisdom is revealed. 
If ye consider these things, then will ye say with me, 
that all this learning, wisdom, and knowledge, ga- 
thered in this fallen nature, is but as d?\>ss and dung, 
in comparison of the cross of Chist; especially being 
destitute of that power, life, and virtue, which I per- 
ceived these excellent (though despised, because illi- 
terate) witnesses of God to be filled with : and there- 
fore seeing, that in and among them, I, with many 
others, have found the heavenly food that gives con- 



JLentment, let my soul seek after this learning, and wait 
for it for ever. 

§. XXIV. Having thus spoken of the call and qua- Qhes. 3. 
lifications of a gospel minister, that which comes next 
to be considered is, What his proper work is, how, The work of 
unci by what rule he is to be ordered! Our adversaries * "'"'s*®"^- 
do ail along go upon externals, and therefore have 
certain prescribed rules and methods, contrived ac- 
cording to their human and earthly wisdom : we, on 
the contrary, walk still upon the same foundation, and 
lean always upon the immediate assistance and influ- 
ence of that Holy Spirit, which God hath given his The Holy 
children, to teach them all things, and lead them in splIU'o* 
all things : which Spirit, being the Spii^it of order, orJ^r, and 
and not of confusion, leads us, and as many as follow ]ll\lo!''^' 
it, into such a comely and decent order as becometh 
the church of God. But our adversaries, having shut 
themselves out from this immediate counsel and influ- 
ence of the Spirit, have run themselves into many 
confusions and disorders, seeking to establish an order 
in this manner. For some will have first a chief Popish or- 
bishop, or pope, to rule and be a prince over all ; and 0^*^^^"^^ 
under him, by degrees, cardinals, patriarchs, archbi- 
shops, priests, deacons, subdeacons ; and besides these, 
acoluthi, tonsorati, ostiarii, &c. And in their theo- 
logy (as they call it), professors, bachelors, doctors, 
&c. And others would have every nation indepen- 
dent of another, having its own metropolitan or patri- 
arch ; and the rest in order subject to him, as before. 
Others again are against all precedency among pas- 
tors, and constitute their subordination not of persons, 
but of powers : as first, the consistory, or session ; 
then the class, or presbytery ; then the provincial ; 
and then the national synod or assembly. Thus they 
tear one another, and contend among themselves con- 
cerning the ordering, distinguishing, and making 
their several orders and offices ; concerning which 
there hath been no less contest, not only by way of 
verbal dispute, but even by fighting, tumults, wars, Wars and 


bloodshed devastations, and bloodshed, than about the conquer- 
•bout • j^g, overturning, and establishing of kingdoms. And 

cliurcb go- - O- . . P\ . /» 11 P 1 

TeriHDeDt. the histOFies ot late times are as lull of the various 
tragedies, acted on account of this spiritual and eccle- 
siastical monarchy and commonwealth, as the histories 
of old times are of the vv^ars and contests that fell out 
both in the Assyrian, Persian, Greek, and Roman 
empires : these last upon this account, though among 
those that are called Christians, have been no less 
bloody and cruel than the former among heathens, 
concerning their outward empires and governments. 
The groaiid Now all this, both among Papists and Protestants, 
rherMf'* proceedeth, in that they seek in imitation to uphold a 
form and shadow of things, though they want the 
power, virtue, and substance ; while for many of their 
orders and forms they have not so much as the name 
in the scripture. But in opposition to all this mass 
of formality, and heap of orders, rules, and govern- 
ments, we say, the substance is chiefly to be sought 
aftei\ and the 'power ^ virtue, and spirit, is to be kriown 
and waited for, which is one in all the different names 
and offices the scripture makes use of; as appears by 
1 Cor. xii. 4 (often before mentioned) : There are 
diversities of gifts, but the same Spiint. And after 
the apostle, throughout the whole chapter, hath shown 
how one and the selfsame Spirit worketh in and 
quickeneth each member ; then in verse 28, he show- 
eth how thereby God hath set in the church, first, 
apostles, secondly, prophets, teachers, &c. And like- 
wise to the same purpose, Eph. iv. 11, he showeth, 
how by these gifts he hath given some apostles, some 
prophets, some evangelists, some pastors, smne teachers^ 
&c. Now it never was Christ's purpose, nor the apos- 
tles', that Christians should, without this Spirit and 
heavenly gift, set up a shadow and form of these 
orders, and so make several ranks and degreeSa^to 
establish a carnal ministry of men's making, without 
The work of the Hfc, powcr, and Spirit of Christ : this is that work 
^utmy^L ^^ Antichrist, and mystery of iniquity, that hath got 


up in the dark night of apostacy. But in a truerjofini- 
church of Christ, gathered together by God, not only '*°**^' 
into the belief of the principles of truth, but also into 
the power, life, and Spirit of Christ, the Spirit of God 
is the orderer, ruler, and governor ; as in each parti- 
cular, so in the general. And when they assemble 
together to wait upon God, and to worship and adore 
him; then such as the Spirit sets apart for the minis- Such as the 
try, by its divine power and influence opening their ^P^"**^®*4e 
mouths, and giving them to exhort, reprove, and in- ministry, 
struct with virtue and power, these are thus ordained [^^"^ Hl^ 
of God and admitted into the ministry, and their bre- tbem. 
thren cannot but hear them, receive them, and also 
honour them for their woi^lc^s sake. And so this is 
not monopolized by a certain kind of men, as theThedergy 
clergy (who are to that purpose educated and brought *"^ •«"*='''• 
up as other carnal artists), and the rest to be despised 
as laicks ; but it is left to the free gift of God to 
choose any whom he seeth meet thereunto, whether 
rich or poor, servant or master, young or old, yea, 
male or female. And such as have this call, verify Women 
the gospel, hy preaching not in speech only, but ^//^o "*^ p"^*''^' 
in power, and in the Holy Ghost, and in much fulness, 
1 Thess. i. 5 ; and cannot but be received and heard 
by the sheep of Christ. 

§. XXV. But if it be objected here, That I seem object. 
hereby to make no distinction at all betwixt ministers 
and others ; which is contrary to the apostle's saying, 
1 Cor. xii. 29, Are all apostles'? Are all prophets! 
Are all teachers'? Sec. From thence they insinuate, 
That I also contradict his comparison in that chapter, 
of the church of Christ with a human body; as where 
he saith, verse \1 ^ If the whole body were an eye, 
where were the hearing ? If the whole were hearing, 
where loere the smclUtig 1 Sec, ■ Also the apostle not 
only distinguishcth the ministers of the church in ge- 
neral from the rrst of the menibers, but also from- 
themselves ; as naming them distinctly and separately, 
apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors, teachers, &c. 



answ. 1. As to the last part of this objection, to which I 

S'LlSt? s^^^^^ ^^^* answer ; it is apparent, that this diversity 

makes no of nanies is not to distinguish separate offices, but to 

oificM ! but denote the different and various operations of the 

which raaj Spirit ; a manner of speech frequent with the apostle 

beTogetheV Paul, whcrciu he sometimes expatiates to the illus- 

in ooe per- tratiiig of the glory and praise of God's grace ; as in 

particular, Rom. xii. G : Having then gifts differing 

according to the grace that is given us, whether pro- 

phecy, let us prophesy, according to the proportion of 

faith; or ininistry, let us wait on our minister ing ; or 

he that teacheth, on teaching ; or he that exhorteth, 

on exhortation. Now none will say from all this, 

that these are distinct offices, or do not or may not 

coincide in one person, as may all those other things 

mentioned by him in the subsequent verses, viz. Of 

loving, being kindly affectioned, fervency of sjnrit, 

hospitality, diligence, blessing, rejoicing, &c. which he 

yet numbers forth as different gifts of the Spirit, and 

according to this objection might be placed as distinct 

and separate offices, which were most absurd. 

Secondly, In these very places mentioned it is clear 
that it is no real distinction of separate offices ; be- 
cause all acknowledge, that pastors and teachers, 
(which the apostle there no less separateth and dis- 
tinguisheth, than pastors and prophets, or apostles), 
are one and the same, and coincide in the same office 
and person ; and therefore may be said so of the rest. 
Prophecy For [p?vph€cy], zs it siguifics the foretelling of things 
sj^ng!"?]"* '^ come, is indeed a distinct gift, but no distinct office ; 
twofold sig. and therefore our adversaries do not place it among 
Dification. ^i^g-j. ggygrj^i orders : neither will they deny, but that 
it both may be and hath been given of God to some, 
that not only have been pastors and teachers, and that 
there it hath coincided in one person with these other 
offices, but also to some of the laicks : and so it hath 
been found, according to their own confession, with- 
To propiie- out the Hmits of their clergy. Prophecy in the other 
i7go*of"** sense, to wit, as it signifies a speaJctng from the Spirit 


of truth, is not only peculiar to pastors and teachers, teachers, 

and of all 
the saints. 

who ought so to prophesy ; but even a common pri- """^^ *'^ ^^^ 

vilege to the saints. For though to instruct, teach, 
and exhort, be proper to such as are more particularly 
called to the work of the ministry ; yet it is not so 
proper to them, as not to be (when the saints are met 
together, as any of them are moved by the Spirit), 
common to others : for some acts belong to all in 
such a relation; but not only to those within that 
relation ; competunt omfii, sed non soli. Tlius to see 
and hear are proper acts of a man; seeing it may 
be properly predicated of him, that he heareth and 
seeth : yet are they common to other creatures also. 
So to prophesy, in this sense, is indeed proper to 
ministers and teachers ; yet not so, but that it is com- 
mon and lawful to other saints, when moved there- 
unto, though it be not proper to them by way of 
relation ; because, notwithstanding that motion, they 
are not particularly called to the work of the ministry, 
as appears by 1 Cor. xiv. where the apostle at large 
declaring the order and ordinary method of the church, 
saith, verse 30, 31 : But ?/ any thing be revealed to 
another that sitteth by, let the first hold his peace; for 
ye may all prophesy one by one, that all may learn, 
and all be comforted: which showeth that none is 
here excluded. But yet that there is a subordination, 
according to the various measures of the gift received, 
the next verse showeth : And the spirits of the pro- 
phets are subject to the prophets : for God is not the 
author of confusion, but of peace. Now that prophe- 
sying, in this sense, may be common to all saints, 
appears by verse 39 of the same chapter, where, speak- 
ing to [aW] in general, he saith. Wherefore, brethren, 
covet to prophesy ; and verse 1, he exhorts them, say- 
ing. Desire spiritual gifts, but rather that ye may 

Secondly, As to evangelists the same may be said ; wbo are 
for whoever preacheth the gospel is really an evan- and'whe-*^' 
gelist, and so consequently every true minister of the ther any 



may term gospcl is onc ; clsc wliat propcr office can they assign 
li*r***'^** to it unless they should be so foolish as to affirm that 
dajs. none were evangelists but Matthew, Mark, Luke, and 
Jolm, who wrote the account of Christ's life and suf- 
ferings ? and then it were neither a particular office, 
seeing John and Matthew were apostles, Mark and 
Luke pastors and teachers, so that there they coin- 
cided in one. And indeed it is absurd to think, that 
upon that particular account the apostle used the 
word [evangelist]. Calvin acknowledgeth, that such 
as pveach the gospel In purity, after some time of apos- 
tacy, may be truly called evangelists, and therefore 
saith, that there were apostles in his time ; and hence 
the Protestants, at their first coming forth, termed 
themselves evangeUci, or evangelicks. 
Who is an Lastly, An apostle, if we look to the etymology of 
•postie. ^^ word, signifies one that is sent; and in respect 
evei^y true inmister is sent of God, in so far he is an 
apostle ; though the twelve, because of their being 
specially sent of Christ, were tlierefore called apostles 
Kar k^oyrqvj or pcr emiuentiam, i. e. by way of excel- 
They were Icucy. And yet that there was no limitation to such 
to UTI*'' ^ number, as some foolishly imagine, appears, becaqse 
number, after that number was filled up, the apostle Paul was 
afterwards so called ; therefore we judge that these 
are no distinct separate offices, but only names used 
upon occasion to express the more eminent arising 
and shining forth of God's grace. And if any minis- 
ter of Christ should now proselyte and turn a whole 
nation to the Christian faith, though he had no dis- 
Whether tiuct officc, yct I doubt not but both Papists and Pro- 
JaUedVn''* tcstauts would judgc it tolerable to call such a one 
apostle at an apostlc, or an evangelist ; for on this account the 
'^* Jesuits call some of their sect apostles of India and of 
Japan ; and Calvin testifies that there were apostles 
and evangelists in his time, in respect to the Reforma- 
UpoD what tion ; upon which account also we have known John 
Joho'icnox ^^^^ often called the apostle of Scotland. So that 
waaodied wc couclude that ministers, pastors, or teachers do 


comprehend «//, and that the office is but one, and the apnstie 
therefore in that respect we judge there ought to be *>f ^«o*'*°d. 
no precedency among them : to prove which I sh^ll 
not here insist, seeing it is shown largely, and treated 
of by such as have denied the Diocesan Episcopacy, 
as they call it. 

§. XXVI. As to the first part of the objection, viz. answ. 2. 
That I seem to make no distinction betwixt the minis- 
ttr and people, I answer. If it be understood of a 
liberty to speak or prophesy by the Spirit, I say all Liberty to 
may do that, when moved thereunto, as above is f'^P^^y *" 
shown ; but we do believe and attirm that some are spirit, 
more particularly called to the work of the ministry, 
and therefore are fitted of the Lord for that purpose ; 
whose work is more constantly and particularly to 
instruct, exhort, admonish, oversee, and watch over 
their brethren ; and that as there is something more 
incumbent upon them in that respect than upon every 
common believer, so also, as in that relation, there 
is due to them from the flock such obedience and 
subjection as is mentioned in these testimonies of the 
scripture, Heb. xiii. 17; I Thess. v. 12, 13; 1 Tim. 
V. 17; 1 Pet. V. 5. Also besides these who are 
thus particularly called to the ministry, and constant 
labopr in the word and doctrine, there are also the 
elders, who though they be not moved to a frequent The eider* 
testimony by way of declaration in words, yet as [''|^*iu*'*!^i 
such are grown up in the experience of the blessed dows, tbe 
work of truth in their hearts, they watch over and f.XView. 
privately admonish the young, take care for the wi- 
dows, the poor, and fatherless, and look that nothing 
be wanting ; but that peace, love, unity, concord, and 
soundness be preserved in the church of Christ : and 
this answers to the deacons mentioned Acts, vi. 

That which we oppose, is the distinction of laiti/ The du- 
and clers^y, which in the scripture is not to be found, ^'"c*'"" <''" 
whereby none are admitted unto the work of the n^inis- laitj not to 
try, but such as are educated at schools on purpose, t^Jp^^T^J" 
and instructed in logic and philosophy, &c. and so 
are at their apprenticeship to learn the art and trade 


of preaching, even as a man learns any other art, 
whereby all other honest mechanic men, who have 
not got this heathenish art, are excluded from having 
this privilege. And so he that is a scholar thus bred 
up must not have any honest trade whereby to get 
him a livelihood, if he once intend for the ministry, 
but he must see to get him a place, and then he hath 
Their garb, his sct hire for a livelihood to him. He must also be 
distinguished from the rest by the colour of his clothes, 
for he must only wear black ; and must be a master 
of arts: but more of this hereafter. 

§. XXVII. As this manner of separating men for 
the ministry is nothing like the church in the apos- 
tles' days, so great evils have and do follow upon it. 
For first, parents seeing both the honour and profit 
that attend the clergy, do allot their children some- 
times from their infancy to it, and so breed them up 
on purpose. And others come to age, upon the same 
account betake them to the same trade, and having 
these natural and acquired parts that are judged the 
necessary qualifications of a minister, are thereby ad- 
mitted, and so are bred up in idleness and pleasure, 
thinking it a disgrace for them to work with their 
The cier- hauds ; and so just study a little out of their books, to 
futV/"*'^ mri^e a discourse once or twice a week during the 
books, the running of an hourglass; whereas the gift, grace, and 
ifgu2t Spirit of God, to call and qualify for the ministry, is 
neglected and overlooked. And many covetous, cor- 
rupt, earthly, carnal men, having a mere show and 
form, but strangers to, and utterly ignorant of, the 
inward work of grace vrpon their hearts, are brought 
in and intrude themselves, and so through them death, 
barrenness, and darkness, and by consequence super- 
stition, error, and idolatry have entered and leavened 
the church. And they that will narrowly observe, 
shall find that it was thus the apostacy came to take 
place ; of the truth of which I could give many ex- 
amples, which for brevity's sake 1 omit. Thus the 
office, reverence, and respect due to it were annexed 
to the mere name, so that wlien once a man was or- 



dained a bishop or a priest, he was heard and believed, : 

though he had nothing of the Spirit, power, and life j 

that the true apostles and ministers were in. And I 

thus in a short time tlic succession came to be of the I 

name and title, and the offica was thereto annexed ; \ 

and not of the nature, virtue, and life ; which in eflfect \ 
made them to cease to be the ministry and ministers 
of Christ, but only a shadow and vain image of it ; 

which also decaying, was in some ages so metamor- ^ 

phosed, that not only the substance was lost, but the ^ 

very form wholly vitiated, altered, and marred ; so Tiie marred i 

that it may be far better said of the pretended Chris- compared to ^ 

tian church, as was disputed of Theseus's boat (which Tiieseuss \ 

by the piecing of many new pieces of timber was ^^^^'^ ^'^^' , 

wholly altered), whether ijidecd it were the same or \ 

another? But in case that the first had been of oak, J 

and the pieces last put in but of rotten fir, and that \ 

also the form had been so far changed as to be no- 1 

thing like the first, I think it would have suffered no ' M 

dispute, but might have easily been concluded to be \ 

quite another, retaining nothing but the name, and '[ 

that also unjustly. Secondly, From this distinction The abuse ; 

of laity and clergy this abuse also follows, that good, [he°distmc ^ 

honest, mechanic men, and others who have not <»"" oi uwj , 
learned the art and trade of preaching, and so are not ""^ ^ ^^^^' 

licentiated according to these rules they prescribe liiito \ 

themselves ; such, I say, being possessed with a false ; 
opinion that it is not lawful for them to meddle with 

the ministry, nor that they are any ways fit for it, be- \ 

cause of the defect of that literature, do thereby neg- j 

lect the gift in themselves, and quench many times ' \ 

the pure hixathings of the Spirit of God in their hearlS ; j 

which, if given way to, might prove much more for \ 

the edification of the church than many of the conned [ 

sermons of the learned. And so by this means the ■ 

apostle's command and advice is slighted, who ex- s 

horteth, 1 Thess. v. 19, 20, not to quench the Spirit, ^ 

nor despise prophesijings. And all this is done by j 

men pretending to be Christians, who glory that the { 



first preachers and propagators of their religion were 
Both Pro- such kind of plain mechanic men, and illiterate. And 
pl^ll ex*^ 6y^^ Protestants do no less than Papists exclude such 
ci^ide me- ^kiud of men from being ministers among them, and 

ch«ic men ^^^^ jj^j^ ^j^^ gp.^-^ ^^^^ ^-^^ ^^ q^^ . ^l^^^^^gj^ ^hcir 

preachinjt. Fathers, in opposition to Papists, asserted the con- 
"^ootnZTJ trary ; and also their own histories declare how that 
the Re- ]^ind of illiterate men did, without leaminer, by the 
Spirit of God, greatly contribute in divers places to 
the Reformation. 

By this it may appear, that as in calling and qualify- 
ing, so in preaching and praying, and the other par- 
ticular steps of the ministry, every true minister is to 
know the Spirit of God by its virtue and life to ac- 
company and assist him ; but because this relates to 
worship, I shall speak of it more largely in the next 
proposition, which is concerning Worship. 

The last thing to be considered and inquired into 

is, concerning the maintenance of a gospel m'whter ; 

but before I proceed, I judge it fit to speak something 

in short concerning the preaching ofwomtn^ and to 

' declare what we hold in that matter. 

Women's Seeing male and female are one in Christ Jesus, 

public ^^^ ^1^^^ l^g grives his Spirit no less to one than to the 

preaching . f^ t i • r« • • • 

and praying othcr, whcu God movcth by his Spirit in a woman^ 
•>«erted. ^^ judgc it uo ways unlawful for her to preach in the 
assemblies of God's people. Neither think we that of 
Paul, 1 Cor. xiv. 34, to reprove the inconsiderate and 
talkative women among the Corinthians, who trou- 
bled the church of Christ with their unprofitable 
questiotis, or that, 1 Tim. ii. 11, 12, that women ought 
to learn in silence, not usmying authority over the 
man, anyways repugnant to this doctrine ; because it 
is clear that women have prophesied and preached in 
the church, else had that saying of Joel been ill aj> 
plied by Peter, Acts, ii. 17. And seeing Paul him- 
self, in the same epistle to the Corinthians, giveth 
rules how women should behave themselves in tlieir 
public preaching and praying, it would be a mani- 


fest contradiction if that other place were taken in a 
larger sense. And the same Paul speaks of a woman 
that laboured with him in the work of the gospel: and 
it is written that Philip had four daughters that pro- Acts, xxi. 
phesied. And Lastly, It hath been observed, that^* 
God hath effectually in this day converted many souls 
by the ministry of women ; and by them also fre- 
quently comforted the souls of his children ; which 
manifest experience puts the thing beyond all con- ques. 4. 
troversy. But now I shall proceed to speak of the ^'akte-"' 
maintenance of ministers. nance. 

§. XXVIII. We freely acknowledge, as the propo- Tiie minis. 
sition holds forth, that there is an obligation upon */„" tJ[°°^ 
such to whom God sends, or among whom he raiseth mainte- 
up a minister, that, if need be, they minister to his "*"^^ 
necessities. Secondly, That it is lawful fgr him to 
receive what is necessary and convenient. To prove 
this- 1 need fiot insist, for our adversaries will readily 
grant it to us ; for the thing we affirm is, that this is 
all that these scripture testimonies relating to this 
thing do grant. Gal. vi. 6; 1 Cor. ix. II — 14; I Tim. 
V. 16. That which we then oppose in this matter 
is. First, That it should be constrained and limited. 
Secondly, That it should be superfluous, chargeable, 
and sumptuous. And Thirdly, The manifest abuse 
thereof, of which I shall also briefly treat. 

As to the First, our adversaries are forced to recur i. 
to the example of the law : a refuo^e they use in de- ^ga""* 

« T P 1 • 1 • • 1-1 constrained 

lending most oi their errors and superstitions, which mainte- 
are contrary to the nature and purity of the gospel. °*"*'®* 

They say, God appointed the Levites the tithes, object. 
therefore they belong also to such as minister in holy 
things under the gospel. 

I answer, All that can be gathered from this is, answ. 
that as the priests had a maintenance allowed them 
under the law, so also the ministers and preachers Tithes were 
under the gospel, which is not denied ; but the com- Jo^r^he^Lt- 
parison will not hold that they should have the ve7'y ^ites, not 
same ; since, First, There is no express gospel com- p7efchTs. 


mand for it, neither by Christ nor his apostles. Se- 
condly, The parity doth noways hold betwixt the 
Levites under the law, and the preachers under the 
gospel ; because the Levites were one of the tribes of 
Israel, and so had a right to a part of the inheritance 
of the land as well as the rest of their brethren ; and 
having none, had this allotted to them in lieu of it. 
Next, The tenth of the tithes was only allowed to the 
priests that served at the altar, the rest being for the 
Levites, and also to be put up in storehouses, for 
entertaining of widows and strangers. But these 
preachers, notwithstanding they inherit what they 
have by their parents, as well as other men, yet claim 
the whole tithes, allowing nothing either to widow or 
stranger. But as to the tithes I shall not insist, be- 
cause divers others have clearly and learnedly treated 
of them apart, and also divers Protestants do confess 
them not to he jure divino ; and the parity as to the 
quota doth not hold, but only in general as to tlie 
obligation of a maintenance; which maintenance, 
reas. 1. though the hearers be obliged to give, and fail of 
freeij°tTbe their duty if they do not, yet that it ought neither to 
preached bc stiutcd, nor yet forced, I prove; because Christ, 
mach°a ^° wheu he sent forth his apostles, said, Freelif ye have 
year. rcceived, freely give, Matt. x. 8 ; and yet they had 
liberty to receive meat and drink from such as offered 
them, to supply their need. Which shows that they 
were not to seek or require any thing by force, or to 
stint, or make a bargain beforehand, as the preachers 
as well among Papists as Protestants do in these days, 
who will not preach to any until they be first sure of 
so much a year ; but on the contrary, these were to 
do their duty, and freely to communicate, as the Lord 
should order them, what they had received, without 
seeking or expecting a reward. 
Nic. Arnoi. The answcr given to this by Nicolaus Arnold us, 
«iw to ' Ex^rcit. Theolog. sect. 42, 43, is not to be forgotten, 
Freeijrje but indeed to be kept upon record for a perpetual 
remembrance of iiim and his bretlircn ; for he frankly 

ed, &ic. 



answers after this manner, We have not freely received, 
and therefore are not bound to give freely. The an- 
swer I confess is ingenuous and good ; for if those ; 
that receive freely are to give freely, it would seem \ 
to follow by the rule of contraries, that those that \ 
receive not freely ought not to give freely, and I shall ■ 
grant it ; only they must grant me, that they preach i 
not by and according to the gift and grace of God 
received, nor can they be good stewards of the mani- 
fold grace of God, as every true minister ought to be ; \ 
or else they have gotten this gift or grace by money, \ 
as Simon Magus would have been compassing it, simon Ma- 
since they think themselves not bound to give it with- s«»- 
out money again. But to be plain, I believe he in- \ 
tended not that it was from the gift or grace of God | 
they were to preach, but from their acquired arts and ■ 
studi^, which have cost them much labour, and also 1 
some money at the university ; and therefore, as he ^ 
that puts his stock into the public bank expects inter- \ 
est again, so these scholars, having spent some money 
in learning the art of preaching, think they may \ 
boldly say they have it not freely ; for it hath cost j 
them both money and pains, and therefore they ex- \ 
pect both money and ease again. And therefore, as ^ 
Arnoldus gets money for teaching his young students \ 
the ^rt and trade of preaching, so he intends they I 
should be repaid before they give it again to others. ] 
It was of old said, Oinnia vcnalia Romce, i. e. All k\\\Vw^% \ 
thins^s are set to sale at Rome ; but now the same "7 '*♦ ^^ ' 

1 1 T T-1 All * 

proverb may be applied to Franequer. And there- Rome, lo i 

fore Arnoldus's students, when they go about to ^S^*^ \ 

preach, may safely seek and require hereby, telling \ 

their hearers their master's maxim, Nos gratis non \ 

accepimus, ergo neque gratis dare tenemnr. But then ■ 

they may answer again. That they find them and their i 

master to be none of his ministers, who, when he sent ' 

forth his disciples, gave them this command, Freely : 

ye have received, freely give ; and therefore we will ' 
have none of your teaching, because we perceive you 

Isaulri. 11 

RSAS. 2. 

Mere vo- 
deeds oo 
man c«d 
stiot tbem. 



Panri la- 
bour was 
that the 
might be 


to be of the number of those that look for their gain 
from their quarter. 

§. XXIX. Secondly, The scripture testimonies that 
urge this are in the same nature of those that press 
charity and liberaliti/ towards the poor, and command 
hospitality/, &c. ; but these are not nor can be stinted 
to a certain quantity, because they are deeds merely 
voluntary, where the obedience to the command lieth 
in the good will of the giver,* and not in the matter 
of the thing given, as Christ showeth in the example 
of the widow's inite. So that though there be an ob- 
ligation upon Christians to minister of outward things 
to their ministers, yet there can be no definition of the 
quantity but by the giver's own consent, and a little 
from one may more truly fulfil the obligation than a 
great deal from another. And therefore as acts of 
charity and hospitality can neither be limited nor 
forced, so neither can this. 

If it be objected. That ministers may and ought to 
exhort, persuade, yea, and earnestly press Christians, 
if they find them defective therein, to acts of charity 
and hospitality, and so may they do also to the giving 
of maintenance ; 

I answer, All this saith nothing for a stinted and 
forced maintenance, for which there cannot so much 
as the show of one solid argument be brought from 
scripture. I confess ministers may use exhortation in 
this as much as in any other case, even as the apostle 
did to the Corinthians, showing them their duty ; but 
it were fit for ministers that so do (that their testi- 
mony might have the more weight, and be the freer 
of all suspicion of covetousness and self-interest) that 
they might be able to say truly in the sight of God 
that which the same apostle subjoins upon the same 
occasion, 1 Cor. ix. 15 — 18: But 1 have used none 
of these things ; neither have I written these things, 
that it should be so done unto me : for it were letter 
for me to die, than that any man should make my glo- 
rying void. For though I preach the gosjiel, 1 have 


nothing to glory of ; for iiecessity is laid upon me, 
yea, woe is unto me if I preach not the gospel. For 
if I do this thing willingly, I have a reward; but 
if against my will, a dispensation of the gospel is com- 
mitted unto me, what is my reward then! Verily that 
when I preach the gospel, I may make the gospel of 
Christ without charge, that I abuse not my power in 
the gospel. 

Thirdly, As there is neither precept nor example Reas. s. 
for this forced and stinted maintenance in the scrip- 
ture, so the apostle, in his solemn farewell to the pas- 
tors and elders of the church of Ephesus, guards them 
against it, Acts, xx. 33 — 35. But if the thing had 
been either lawful or practised, he would rather have 
exhorted them to be content with their stinted hire, 
and not to covet more ; whereas he showeth them, 
first, by his own example, that they were not to covet p«ui coret- 
or eapect any maiUs silver or gold; secondly, that ^*]^"J^^''°**^'' 
they ought to work with their hands ior an honest gold, 
livelihood, as he had done ; and lastly, he exhorts 
them so to do from the words of Christ, because it is 
a more blessed thing to give than to receive ; showing 
that it is so far from a thing that a true minister ought 
to aim at, or expect, that it is rather a burden to a 
true minister, and cross to him, to be reduced to the 
necessity of wanting it. 

§. XXX. Fourthly, If a forced and stinted main-REAs.4. 
tenance were to be supposed, it would make the minis- 
ters of Christ just one with those hirelings whom the No hireiinjc 
prophets cried out against. For certainly if a man ''"'"f/^f 
make a bargain to preach to people for so much a Christ. 
year, so as to refuse to preach unless he have it, and 
seek to force the people to give it by violence, it can- 
not be denied that such a one preacheth for hire, and 
so looks for his gain from his quarter, yea, and/^re- mic. iii. 5. 
pares war against such as put not into his mouth ; but 
this is the particular special mark of a false prophet 
and a hireling, and therefore can noways belong to a 
true minister of Christ. 


Moderate' Ncxt, that a supcrfluous maintenance, that is, more 
Pwtesunts ^j^^j^ -jj reason is needful, oug^ht not to be received by 

and fapistf -^,.. -n i i n • 

exclaim Christian ministers, will not need much proof, seeing 
MceVi ** *^^ more moderate and sober, both among Papists 
the oiergj's and Protestants, readily confess it, who with one 
voice exclaim against the excessive revenues of the 
clergy ; and that it may not want a proof from scrip- 
ture, what can be more plain than that of the apostie 
to Timothy? 1 Tim. vi. 7 — 10, where he both shows 
wherewith we ought to be content, and also the hazard 
of such as look after more ; and indeed, since that 
very obligation of giving maintenance to a minister 
is founded upon their need, and such as have oppor- 
tunity to work are commended rather in not receiving 
than in receiving, it can noways be supposed lawful 
for them to receive more than is sufficient. And 
indeed, were they truly pious and right, though ne- 
cessitous, they would rather incline to take too little, 
than be gaping after too much. 
II. §. XXXI . Now that there is great excess and abuse 

Inhr*'^" hereof among Christians, the vast revenues which the 
priests' and bisliops and pricsts have, both Papists and Protes- 
tI'iIIim! '* tants, do declare ; since I judge it may be said with- 
out any hyperbole, that some particular persons have 
more paid them yearly than Christ and his apostles 
made use of in their whole lifetime, who yet wanted 
not what was needful as to the outward man, and no 
doubt deserved it far better than those that enjoy that 
fulness. But it is manifest these bishops and priests 
love their fat benejices, and the pleasure a»d honour 
that attend them, so well, that they purpose neither to 
follow Christ, nor his apostle's example or advice in 
this matter. 
Object. But it is usually objected. That Christians are 

become so hardhearted, and generally so little heed 
spiritual things, that if ministers had not a settled and 
stifjted maintenance secured them by law, they and 
their families might starve for want of bread. 
amw. I answer, This objection might have some weight 


as to a caraal ministry, made up of natural men, who 
have no life, power, nor virtue with them, and so may- 
insinuate some need of such a maintenance for such a 
ministry; but it saith nothing as to such as are called Thej want- 
and sent of God, who sends 7i(r man a wayfaring upon ^^J^^goI 
his own charges; and so go forth in the authority and sent; they 
power of God, to turn people from darkness to light ; wlirtheir 
for such can trust to him that sendeth them, and do i»ands. 
believe that he will provide for them, knowing that 
he requireth nothing of any but what he giveth power 
to perform ; and so when they return, if he inquire, 
can say they wanted nothing. And such also when 
they stay in a place, being immediately furnished by 
God, and not needing to borrow and steal what they 
preach from books, and take up their time that way, 
fall a working at their lawful employments and labour 
with their hand|, a^ Paul did when he gathered the 
church at Cqrinm. And indeed if this objection had 
any weight, the apostles and primitive pastors should 
never have gone forth to convert the nations, for feai* 
of want. Doth not the doctrine of Christ teach us to 
venture all, and part with all, to serve God? Can 
they then be accounted ministers of Christ who are 
afraid to preach him lest they get not money for it, 
or will not do it until they be sure of their payment? 
What serves the ministry for but to perfect the saints, 
and so to convert them from that hardheartedness ? 

But thou wilt say, I have laboured and preached to object. 
them, and they are hardhearted still, and will not give 
me anything : 

Then surely thou hast either not been sent to them answ. 
of God, and so thy ministry and preaching hath not 
been among them in the power, virtue, and life of 
Christ, and so thou deservest nothing; or else they 
have rejected thy testimony, and so are not worthy, 
and from such thou oughtest not to expect, yea, nor 
yet receive, any thing, if they would give thee, but thou 
oughtest to shake off the dust from thy feet, and leave Matt.x. i4. 
them. And how frivolous this objection is appears, L^uhj tes- 


timony in tliat in the darkest and most superstitious times the 
dutt from priests' revenues increased most, and they were most 
off ibj feet, richly rewarded, though they deserved least. So that 
he that is truly sent of God, as he needs not, so nei- 
ther will he, be afraid of want, so long as he serves so 
good a master ; neither will he ever forbear to do his 
work for that cause. And indeed such as make this 
objection show truly that they serve not the Lord 
Christ, but their own belly, and that makes them so 
anxious for want of food to it. 
II. §. XXXII. But lastly, As to the abuses of this 

IbusM*"^ kind of maintenance, indeed he that would go through 
priests' them all, though he did It passingly, might make of 
Mnc^ ^* alone a huge volume, they are so great and nume- 
brings. rous. For this abuse, as others, crept in with the 
apostacy, there being nothing of this in the primitive 
times : then the ministers claimed no tithes, neithet* 
sought they a stinted or forced maintenance ; but 
such as wanted had their necessity supplied by the 
church, and others wrought with their hands. But 
the persecutions being over, and the emperors and 
princes coming under the name of Christians, the 
zeal of those great men was quickly abused by the 
covetousness of the clergy, who soon learned to 
change their cottages with the palaces of princes, 
and rested not until by degrees some of them came 
to be princes themselves, nothing inferior to them in 
splendour, luxury, and magnificence ; a method of 
living that honest Peter and John the fishermen, and 
Paul the tent-maker, never coveted ; and perhaps as 
little imagined that men pretending to be their suc- 
cessors should have arrived to these thinofs. And so 
* soon as the bishops were thus seated and constituted, 
forgetting the life and work of a Christian, they went 
usually by the ears together about the precedency 
and revenues, each coveting the chiefest and fattest 
benefice. It is also to be regretted to think how soon 
Tiie Pro- this, mischicf crept in among Protestants, who had 
^•J*^"I*.^ scarce well appeared when the clergy among them 



began to speak at the old rate, and show that though «aken the 
they had forsaken the bishop of Rome, they were not [^3d^ffo\ 
resolved to part with their old benefices ; and there- forsake the 
fore so soon as any princes or states shook off the Je'v^enaTs?^ 
Pope's authority, and so demolished the abbeys, nun- 
neries, and other monuments of superstition, the 
.reformed clergy began presently to cry out to the 
magistrates to beware of meddling with the church's 
patrimony, severely exclaiming against making a 
lawful use of those vast revenues that had been super- 
stitiously bestowed upon the church, so called, to the 
good and benefit of the commonwealth, as no less 
than mcrUege. 

But by keeping up of this kind of maintenance for i. Thecier- 
the ministry and clergymen, so called, there is first a ^J^* 
bait laid for covetous ness, which is idolatry, and of all 
things most hurtful ; so that for covetousness sake, 
many, being led by the desire o^Jilthy lucre, do apply 
themselves to be ministers, that they may get a live- 
lihood by it. If a man have several children, he 
will allot one of them to be a minister ; which if he 
can get it to be, he reckons it as good as a patrimony : 
so that a fat benefice hath always many expectants ; 
and then what bribing, what courting, what industry, 
and shameful actions are used to acquire these things, 
is too openly known, and needs not to be proved. 

The scandal that by these means is raised among 
Christians is so manifest, that it is become a proverb, 
that the kirk is always greedy. Whereby the gift The greedj 
and grace of God being neglected, they have for the ^"^^ * p""" 
most part no other motive or rule in applying them- 
selves to one church more than another but the greater 
benefice. For though they hypocritically pretend, at 
their accepting of and entering into their church, 
that they have nothing before them but the glory of 
God and the salvation of souls ; yet if .j| richer bene- 
fice offer itself, they presently find it more for God's 
glory to remove from the first, and go thither. And 
thus they make no difficulty often to change, while 


notwithstanding tliey accuse us that we allow minis- 
ters to go from place to place, and not to be tied to 
one place ; but we allow this not for the gaining of 
money, but as moved of God. For if a minister be 
called to minister in a particular place, he ought not 
to leave it, except God call him from it, and then he 
ought to obey : for we make the will of God inwardly 
revealed, and not the love of money and more gain, the 
ground of removing. 
2.Thecier- Secondly, From this abuse hath proceeded that 
^^'^'^^^^^' liLvury and idleness that most of the clergy live in, 
even among Protestants as well as Papists, to the great ' 
scandal of Christianity. For not having lawful trades^ 
to work with their hands, and being so superfluously 
and sumptuously provided for, they live in idleness 
and liLvujy ; and there doth more pride, vanity, and 
worldly glory appear in their wives and children than 
in most others, which is open and evident to all. 
$. Thecier- Thirdly, They become hereby so glued to the love 
gy« cruelty. ^^ jnoucy, that there is none like them in inalice, rage, 
and cruelty. If they be denied their hire, they rage 
like drunken men, fret, fume, and as it were go mad. 
A man may sooner satisfy the severest creditor than 
them ; the general voice of the poor doth confirm this. 
For indeed they are far more exact in taking up the 
tithes of sheep, geese, swine, and eggs, &c. and look 
more narrowly to it than to the members of their' 
flock: they will not miss the least mite; and the 
Poor wi- poorest widow cannot escape their avaricious hands, 
tarnof"'.*-* Twenty lies they will hear unreproved ; and as many 
cape the oaths a man may swear in their hearing without 
grie*dV offending them ; and greater evils than all this they 
bands. can overlook. But if thou owest them aught, and 
refusest to pay it, then nothing but war will tliey 
thunder against thee, and they will stigmatize thee 
with the horrible title of sacrilege, and send thee to 
hell without mercy, as if thou hadst committed the 
sin against the Holy Ghost. Of all people we can 
The work of bcst bear witness to this ; for God having shown U3 
ututyT ^^*^ corrupt and Antichristian ministry, and called us 


out from it, and gathered us^nto his own power and envy, ma- 
life, to be a separate people, so that we dare not join '"^^* 
with, nor hear these Antichristian hirelings, neither 
yet put into their mouths, or feed them ; oh ! what 
malice, envy, and fury hath this raised in their hearts 
against us ! That though we get none of their wares, 
neither will buy them, as knowing them to be naught, 
yet will they force us to give them money : and because 
we cannot for conscience sake do it, our sufferings 
upon that account have been unutterable. Yea, to 
give account of their cruelty and several sorts of 
inhumanity used against us, would make no small 
history. These avaricious hirelings have come to 
that degree of malice and rage, that several poor 
labouring men have been carried hundreds of miles 
from their own dwellings, and shut up in prison, 
some two, some three, yea, some seven years together, 
for the value of one pound sterling, and less. I know a widow for 
myself a poor widow, that for the tithes of her ofeese, **»«*»<''« ''f 

i-i ^ 1 p i-iT IP geese about 

which amounted not to hve shiihngs, was about lour four years 
years kept in prison, thirty miles from her house. Yea, '" p''"''"' 
they by violence for this cause have plundered of men's 
goods the hundredfold, and prejudiced as much more; 
yea, hundreds have hereby spilt their innocent blood, 
by dying in the filthy noisome holes and prisons. Some lost 
And some of the priests have been so enraged, that Jn^'naitr* 
goods thus ravished could not satisfy them ; but they holes, some 
must also satisfy their fury by beating, knocking, and ^.e^prlesis^ 
wounding with their hands innocent men and women, &c- 
for refusing (for conscience sake) to put into their 

The only way then soundly to reform and remove 
all these abuses, and take away the ground and occa- 
sion of them, is, to take away all stinted and forced 
maintenance and stipends. And whoever call or wi.oso 
appoint teacliers to themselves, let them accordingly ^^^p^^^^^^JJ^". 
entertain them : and for such as are called and moved skives, let 
to the ministry by the Spirit of God, those that receive I'Sde theTr 
them, and taste of the good of their ministry, will no stipend. 
doubt provide things needful for them, and there will 



be no need of a law to force a hire for them : for he \ 
that sends them, will take care of them ; and they also, 
having food and raiment, will therewith be content. 
The differ- §• XXXIII. The sum then of what is said is, That 
•"c« *»*-^ the ministfy that we have pleaded for, and which also \ 
nlinfrtr^ of thc Lord httth raised np among us is, in all its parts, \ 
Ind^hei^*" ///ic the true ministry of the apostles and primitive 
adveriaries. chuTch. Whcrcas the vmiistry our adversaries seek to \ 
uphold and plead for, as it doth in all its parts differ 
from them, so, on the other hand, it is veiy like the 
false prophets and teachers testified against arid con- 
donned in the scripture, as may be thus briefly illus- 
The true I- The ministry and ministers we plead for are 
ministers' suck as urc immediately called and sent forth by Christ 
arid his Spirit unto the work of the ministry: so were 
the holy apostles and prophets, as appears by these 
places, Matt. x. 1 — 5 ; Eph. iv. II; Heb. v. 4. 

1. But the ministry and ministers our opposers , 

plead for are such as have no immediate call from 

Christ, to whom the leading and motion of the Spirit 

is 7iot reckoned necessary ; but who are called, sent 

forth, and ordained by wicked a?id ungodly men: such 

were of old the false prophets and teachers, as appears 
by these places, Jer. xiv. 14, 15, itern, chap, xxiii. 21, 
and xxvii. 15. 
True minis- II. The ministcrs we plead for are such as are 
(ers guide, ^(^ii^^f^d ^^^ j^^ j^y Qgd's Spirit, ttud by the power and 
operation of his grace in their hearts, are in some • 
measure converted and regenerate, and so are good, ' 
holy, and gracious men : such were the holy prophets , 
and apostles, as appears from 1 Tim. iii. 2 — 6 ; Tit. i. ' 
7—9. \ 

2. But the ministers our adversaries plead for are 
such to whom the grace of God is no needful qualifi- \ 
cation; and so may be true ministet^s, according to 
them, though they be ttngodly, unholy, and profligate ; 
men: such were the false prophets and apostles, as < 
appears from Mic. iii. 5, 1 1 ; 1 Tim. vi. 5 — 8, v^c. ; 

2 Tim. iii. 2 ; 2 Pet. ii. 1—3. 


III. The ministers we plead for are such as act, Trne minis 
move, and labour in the work of the ministry, not from *"*' ^'"'^' 
their own mere natural strength and ability, but as 

they are actuated, moved, supported, assisted, and in- 
fluenced by the Spirit of God, and minister according 
to the gift received, as good stewards of the manifold 
grace of God: such were the holy prophets and 
apostles, 1 Pet. iv. 10, 11 ; 1 Cor. i. 17 ; ii. 3, 4, 5, 
13 ; Acts, ii. 4 : Matt. x. 20 ; Mark, xiii. 1 1 ; Luke, 
xii. 12 ; 1 Cor. xiii. 2. 

3. But the ministers our adversaries plead for are 
such as wait not for, nor edpect, 7ior need, the Spirit 
of God to actuate and move them in the work of the 
ministry ; but what they do they do from their own 
mere natural strength and ability, and what they have 
gathered and stolen from the letter of the scripture, 
and other books, and so speak it forth in the ^strength 
of their own wisdom and eloquence, and not in the evi- 
dence and demonstration of the Spirit and power: 
such were the false prophets and apostles, as appears, 
Jer. xxiii. 30, 3 1 , 32, 34, &c. ; 1 Cor. iv. 1 8 ; Jude, 1 6. 

IV. The ministers we plead for are such as, being True 
holy and humble, contend not for precedency and ptio- ^^"' ^ 
rity, but rather strive to prefer one another, and serve '^ 
-one another in love ; neither desire to be disfmguished 
from the rest by their garments and large phylacteries, 
nor seek greetiiigs in the marketplaces, nor the tipper- 
most places at feasts, nor the chief seats i?i the syna- 
gogues ; nor yet to be called of men master, &c. such 
were the holy prophets and apostles, as appears from 
Matt, xxiii. 8—10; and xx. 25—27. 

4. But the ministers our adversaries plead for are 
such as strive and contend for superiority, and claim 
precedency over one another ; affecting and ambiti- 
ously seeking after the forementioned thi)igs ; such 
were the false prophets and apostles in times past. 
Matt, xxxiii. 5 — 7. 

V. The ministers we plead iox are such as having Trae minis 
freely received, freely give ; who covet no mans silver, ^^J' " 
gold, or garments ; ivho seek no man's goods, but seek 


ters' free 


than, and the salvation of their souls : whose hands 
supply their own necessities^ working homstlxffor bread 
to themselves and their families. And, if at any time 
they be called of God, so as the ivork of the Lord 
hinder them from the use of their trades, take what is 
freely given them by such to whom they have commu- 
nicatcd spirituals ; and, having food and raiment, are 
therewith content : such were the holy prophets and 
apostles, as appears from Matt. x. 8 ; Acts, xx. 33 — 
35 ; 1 Tim. vi. 8. 

5. But the ministers our adversaries plead for are 

such as not having freely received, will not freely give; 

but are covetous, doing that which they ought not, for 

filthy lucres sake ; as to preach for hire, and divine 

for money, and look for their gain from their quarter, 

and prepare war against such as put not into their 

mouths, &c. Greedy dogs, which can never Jiave 

enough. Shepherds who feed themselves, and not the 

jiock; eating the fat, and clothing themselves with the 

wool; makiiig merchandise of souls ; and following 

the way of Balaa?n, that loved the wages of unrighte- 

ousticss: such were the false prophets and apostles, 

Isai. Ivi. 1 1 ; Ezek. xxxiv. 2, 3, 8 ; Mic. iii. 5, 1 1 ; 

Tit. i. 10, 11 ; 2 Pet. ii. 1, 2, 3, 14, 15. 

Trae minis- And in a word, We are for a holy, spiritual, pure, 

Ind qudifi- ^^^^ living ministry, where the ministers are both 

cation. called, qualified, and ordered, actuated and influenced 

in all the steps of their ministry by the Spirit of God ; 

which being wanting, we judge they cease to be the 

ministers of Christ. 

But they, judging this life, grace, and Spirit no 
essential part of their ministry, are therefore for the 
upholding of a human, carnal, dry, barren, fruitless, 
and dead ministry ; of which, alas ! we have seen 
the fruits in the most part of their churches : of whom 
that saying of the Lord is certainly verified, Jer. xxiii. 
32. — / sent them 7iot, 7ior commanded them, therefore 
they shall not profit this people at all, saith the 




All true and acceptable worship to God is offered in the inward What the 
and immediate moving and drawing of his own Spirit, which true wor- 
is neither limited to places, times, nor persons. For though ?^'P '*^' ^''** 
we are to worship him always, and continually to fear before big to^Cod 
him ; yet as to the outward signification thereof, in prat/ers, 
praises, or preachings, we ought not to do it in our own willAioyf to he 
where and when we will ; but where and when we are movefS performed. 
thereunto by the stirring and secret inspiration of the Spirit of 
God in our hearts ; which God heareth and accepteth of, and 
is never wanting to move us thereunto, when need is; of 
which he himself is the alone proper judge. All other worship 
then, both praises, prayers, or preachings, which man sets 
about in his own will; and at his own appointment, which he 
can both begin and end at his pleasure, do or leave undone as 
himself seeth meet, whether Ihey be a prescribed form, as a 
liturgy, &c. or prayers conceived extempore by the natural 
strength and faculty of the mind, they are all but superstition, Supersti- 
will worship, and abominable idolatry in the sight of God, t'O" «»"<* 
which are now to be denied and rejected, and separated from, ^*j* ^T"""" 
in this day of his spiritual arising: however it might have ^ "'^"' ' 
pleased him (wJio winked at the times of ignorance, with a 
respect to the simplicity and integrity of some, and of his own 
innocent seed, which lay as it were buried in the hearts of 
men under that mass of superstition), to blow upon the dead 
and dry hones, and to raise some breathings of his own, and 
answer them; and that until the day should more clearly 
dawn and break forth. 

§. I. The duty of man towards God lieth chiefly in 
these two generals. \. In a holy conformity to the 
pure law and light of God, so as both to forsake the 
evil, and be found in the practice of those perpetual 
and moral precepts of righteousness and equity. And 
2. In rendering that reverence, honour, and adoratio7i 
to God, that he requires and demands of us ; which is 
comprehended under Worship. Of the former we 
have already spoken, as also of the different relations 
of Christians, as they are distinguished by the several 
measures of grace received, and given to every one ; 
and in that respect have their several offices in the 


bodif of Christ, which is the church. Now I come 
to speak of Worship, or of those acts, whether pri- 
vate or public, general or particular, whereby man 
renders to God that part of his duty which relates 
immediately to him : and as obedimce is better than 
sacrifice, so neither is any sacrifice acceptable, but 
that which is done according to the will of him to 
whom it is offered. But men, finding it easier to 
sacrifice in their own wills, than obey God's will, have 
Trae wor* heaped up sacrificcs without obedience ; and think- 

ship and •j-/-ii i ^ i .,. 

duty to mg to deceive God, as they do one another, give him 
co°rtriJted. ^ show of reverence, honour, and worship, while they 
are both inwardly estranged and alienated from his 
holy and righteous life, and wholly strangers to the 
pure breathings of his Spirit, in which the acceptable 
sacrifice and worship is only offered up. Hence it is, 
tliat there is not any thing relating to man's duty to- 
wards God, which among all sorts of people hath 
been more vitiated, and in which the devil hath more 
prevailed, than in abusing man's mind concerning 
this thing : and as among many others, so among 
those called Christians, nothing hath been more out 
of order, and more corrupted, as some Papists, and 
all Protestants, do acknowledge. As I freely approve 
whatsoever the Protestants have reformed from Pa- 
pists in this respect; so I meddle not at this time 
The Popish with their controversies about it : only it suffices me 
btr/dl° ^^^^ them to deny, as no part of the true worship of 
iiied.witb God, that abominable superstition and idolatry the 
r!Iiraj^'[y. Popish mass, the adoration of saints and angels, the 
veneration of relics, the visitation of sepulchres, and 
all those other superstitious ceremonies, confraterni- 
ties, and endless pilgrimages of the Romish syna- 
gogue. Which all may suffice to evince to Protes- 
tants, that Antichrist hath wrought more in this than 
If Protes- in any other part of the Christian religion ; and so it 
tants have coucems them narrowly to consider, whether herein 

made a per- ,, ^ "^ t n o 

f.fct refer- tliey have made a clear and perfect reiormation ; as 
"••'OD.' ^^^ which stands the controversy betwixt them and us. 


For we find many of the branches lopped off by them, 1 
but the root yet remaining : to wit, a worship acted \ 
in and from man's will and spirit, and not by and 
from the Spirit of God : for the true Christian and J 
spiritual worship of God hath been so early lost, and i 
man's wisdom and will hath so quickly and thoroughly ] 
mixed itself herein, that both the apostacy in this \ 
respect hath been greatest, and the reformation here- i 
from, as to the evil root, most difficult. Therefore I 
let not the reader suddenly stumble at the account of I 
our proposition in this matter, but patiently hear us I 
explain ourselves in this respect, and I hope (by the | 
assistance of God), to make it appear, that though 1 
our manner of speaking and doctrine seem most sin- 1 
gular and different from all other sorts of Christians ; ] 
yet it is most according to the purest Christian reli- 
gion, and indeed most needful to be observed and fol- ^ 
lowed. And that there be no ground of mistake (for ; 
that I was necessitated to speak in few words, and ! 
therefore more obscurely and dubiously in the Propo- | 
sition itself), it is fit in the first place to declare and 
explain our sense, and declare the state of the con- 
troversy. ' - 

§. II. And first, let it be considered, that what is i. 
here affirmed is spoken of the worship of God in w^at wor- ] 
these gospel times, and not of the worship that was »poke'n of.'* i 
under or before the laiv : for the particular commands I 
of God to men the?i are not sufficient to authorize us ] 
?iow ti) do the same things ; else we might be sup- 
pose,, at present acceptably to offer sacrifice as they \ 
did, v/hich all acknowledge to be ceased. So that i 
what might have been both commendable and ac- i 
ceptable under the law, may justly now be charged 
with superstition, yea, and idolatry. So that imper- ■ 
tincntly, in this respect, doth Arnoldus rage against 
this proposition [Exercit. Theolog. sect. 44], saying, i 
That I deny all public worship, and that according to \ 
me, such as in Enoch's time publicly began to call ; 
upon the name of the Lord; and such as at the com- \ 


nmnd of God went tlirkt up to Jerusalem to worship ; 
and that Anna^ Shneon, Alary, 8^c, were idolators, 
because they used the public worship of those times ; 
such a consequence is most impertinent, and no less 
foolish and absurd, than if I should infer from Paul's 
expostulating with the Galatians for their returning 
to the Jewish ceremonies, that he therefore condemned 
Moses and all the prophets as foolish and ignorant, 
because they used those things : the forward man, 
not heeding the different dispensations of times, ran 
Ceremonies into this impertincncy. Though a spiritual worship 
ra"w were** flight havc bccn, and no doubt was practised by 
noteMentJai many uudcr the law in great simplicity ; yet will it 
Ihip."*' ""^"^ liot follow, that it were no superstition to use all those 
ceremonies that they used, which were by God dis- 
pensed to the Jews, not as being essential to true 
worship, or necessary as of themselves for transmit- 
ting and entertaining a holy fellowship betwixt him 
and his people ; but in condescension to them, who 
were inclinable to idolatry. Albeit then in this, as 
in most other things, the substance was enjoyed imder 
the law by such as were spiritual indeed ; yet was it 
veiled and surrounded with many rites and ceremo- 
nies, which it is no ways lawful for us to use'^now 
under the gospel. 
II. §. III. Secondly, Albeit I say, that this toorship is 

Trae wor- neither limited to times, places, nor persons ; yet I 
limited to would uot bc uudcrstood, as if I intended the p^'tting 
^!^^6on! away of all set times and places to worship 1- God 
forbid I should think of such an opinion. N^p we 
are none of those that forsake the assembling (^ our- 
selves together; but have even certain times and 
places, in which we carefully meet together (nor can 
we be driven therefrom by the threats and persecu- 
tions of men), to wait upon God, and worship him, 
Necewit^ of To meet together we think necessary for the people of 
meetingH. q^^ , ^jg^j^usc, SO long as we are clothed with this 
outward tabernacle, there is a necessity to the enter- 
taining of a joint and visible fellowship, and bearing 


of an outward testimony for God, and seeing of the 
faces of one another, that we concur with our persons 
as well as spirits : to be accompanied with that in- 
ward love and unity of spirit, doth greatly tend to 
encourage and refresh the saints. 

But the limitation we condemn is, that whereas i. wm 
the Spirit of God should be the immediate actor, ^^^h limit 
mover, persuader, and influencer of man in the parti- the spirit 
cular acts of worship, when the saints are met toge- ° 
ther, this Spirit is limited in its operations, by setting 
up a particular man or men to preach or pray in 
man's will ; and all the rest are excluded from so 
much as believing that they are to wait for God's 
Spirit to move them in such things : and so they neg- 
lecting that in themselves which should quicken them, 
and not vra-iting to feel the pure breathings of God's 
Spirit, so as to obey them, are led merely to depend 
upon the preacher, and hear what he will say. 

Secondly, In that these peculiar men come not 2. Tme 
thither to meet with the Lord, and to wait for the [hetorVof 
inward motions and operations of his Spirit ; and so God. 
to pray as they feel the Spirit to breathe through them, 
and in them ; and to preach, as they find themselves 
actuated and moved by God's Spirit, and as he gives 
utterance, so as to speak a word in season to refresh 
weary souls, and as the present condition and state of 
the people's hearts require ; suffering God by his 
Spirit both to prepare people's hearts, and also give 
the preacher to speak what may be fit and seasonable 
for them : but he (viz. the preacher), hath hammered 
together in his closet, according to his own will, by 
his human wisdom and literature, and by stealing the 
words of truth from the letter of the scriptures, and 
patching together other men's writings and observa- 
tions, so much as will hold him speaking an hour, 
- while the glass runs ; and without waiting or feeling Priests 
the inward influence of the Spirit of God, he declaims J^p^b^^^J^ 
that by hap-hazard, whether it be fit or seasonable for iheir sta- 
the people's condition, or not ; and when he has ended ^ons"^ 


bis sermon, he saith his prayer also in his own will ; 
and so there is an end of the business. Which cus- 
tomary worship^ as it is no ways acceptable to God, 
so how unfruitful it is, and unprofitable to those that 
are found in it, the present condition of the nations 
doth sufficiently declare. It appears then, that we 
are not against set times for worship, as Amoldus 
against this proposition, sect. 45, no less imperti- 
nently allegeth ; offering needlessly to prove that 
which is not denied : only these times being appointed 
for outward conveniency, we may not therefore think 
with the Papists, that these days are holy, and lead 
people into a superstitious observation of them ; being 
Whether pcrsuadcd that all days are alike holy in the sight of 
bd/.*" Got/. And although it be not my present purpose to 
make a long digression concerning the debates among 
Protestants about ihe first day of the week, commonly 
called the Lord's Day, yet forasmuch as it comes fitly 
in here, I shall briefly signify our sense thereof. 
Of the first §. IV. We, not seeing any ground in scripture for 
teekf com- ^t, caunot bc so superstitious as to believe, that either 
monijr call- thc Jcwish sabbath now continues, or that the first 
itrdt day. day of the week is the antitype thereof, or the true 
Christian sabbath ; which with Calvin we believe to 
have a more spiritual sense : and therefore we know 
no moral obligation by the fourth command, or else- 
where, to keep the first day of the we^ more than 
any other, or any holiness inherent in it. But first, 
forasmuch as it is necessary that there be some time 
set apart for the saints to meet together to wait upon 
God ; and that secondly, it is fit at some times they 
be freed from their other outward affairs; and that 
thirdly, reason and equity doth allow that servants 
and beasts have some time allowed them to be eased 
from their continual labour ; and that fourthly, it ap- 
pears that the apostles and primitive Christians did 
use the first day of the week for these purposes ; we 
find ourselves sufficiently moved for these causes to 
do so also, without superstitiously straining the scrip- 


tures for another reason ; which, that it is not to be 
there found, many Protestants, yea, Calvin himself, 
upon the fourth command, hath abundantly evinced. 
And though we therefore meet, and abstain from 
working upon this day, yet doth not that hinder us 
from having meetings also for worship at other times. 
§. V. Thirdly, Though according to the knowledge 
of God, revealed unto us by the Spirit, through that 
more full dispensation of light which we believe the 
Lord hath brought about in this day, we judge it our 
duty to hold forth that pure and spiritual worship 
which is acceptable to God, and answerable to the 
testimony of Christ and his apostles, and likewise to 
testify against and deny not only manifest supersti- 
tion and idolatry, but also all formal will-worship. The wor- 
which stands not in the power of God ; yet, I say, we "'"p.'" **'• 
do not deny the whole worship of all those that have 
borne the name of Christians even in the apostacy, as 
if God had never heard their prayers, nor accepted 
any of them : God forbid we should be so void of 
charity ! The latter part of the Proposition showeth 
the contrary. And as we would not be so absurd on 
the one hand to conclude, because of the errors and 
darkness that many were covered and surrounded 
with in Babylon, that none of their prayers were heard 
or accepted of God, so will we not be so unwary on 
the other, as to conclude, that because God heard and 
pitied them, so we ought to continue in these errors 
and darkness, and not come out of Babylon, when it 
is by God discovered unto us. The Popish mass and The Popish 
vespers I do believe to be, as to the matter of them, '""" ''»'* 
abominable idolatry and superstition, and so also be- ^^*'''*"^** 
lieve the Protestants; yet will neither I or they affirm, 
that in the darkness of popery no upright-hearted 
men, though zealous in these abominations, have been 
heard of God, or accepted of him : who can deny, but 
that both Bernard and Bonaventure, Taulerus, Tho- Bernard 
mas a Kempis, and divers others have both known JgJtfr"'"*" 
and tasted of the love of God, and felt the power and Tauien/s, 


Tho.kKem- virtuc of God's Spirit working with them for their sal- 
fwted^Jnhe vation ? And yet ought we not to forsake and deny 
love of God. those superstitions which they were found in? The 
Calvinistical Presbyterians do much upbraid (and I 
say not without reason) the formality and deadness 
Thebiihop*' of the Episcopalian and Lutheran liturgies ; and yet, 
***"^^* as \hey will not deny but there have been some good 
men among them, so neither dare they refuse, but 
that when that good step was brought in by them, of 
turning the public prayers into the vulgar tongues, 
though continued in a liturgy, it was acceptable to 
God, and sometimes accompanied with his power and 
pr^ence : yet will not the Presbyterians have it from 
thence concluded, that the common prayers should 
still continue ; so likewise, though we should confess, 
that, through the mercy and wonderful condescension 
of God, there have been upright in heart, both among 
Papists and Protestants, yet can we not therefore ap- 
prove of their way in the general, or not go on to the 
upholding ot that spiritual worship, which the Lord 
is calling all to, and so to the testifying against what- 
soever stands in the way of it. 
Assemblies ^. VL Fourthly ; To come then to the state of tlie 
frpubiTc*"^ controversy, as to the public worship,%e judge it the 
described, duty of all to be diligent in the assembling of them- 
selves togethefJ(and what we have been, and are, in 
this matter, our enemies in Great Britain, who have 
used all means to hinder our assembling together to 
worship God, may bear witness),(and when assembled, 
the great work of one and all ougEt to be to wait upon 
God ; and retiring out of their own thoughts and 
imaginations, to feel the Lord's presence, and know a 
gathering into his mime indeed, where he is in the 
midst, according to his promise. And as every one 
is thus gathered, and so met togetlier inwardly in 
their spirits, as well as outwardly in their persons, 
there the secret power and virtue of life is known to 
refresh the soul, and the pure motions and breath* 
of God's Spirit are felt to arise ; from which, as >n * m 

OF WORSHIP. . 335. 

of declaration, prayers, or praises arise, the acceptable 

worship is known, which edifies the church, amd is | 

well pleasing to God. And no man here limits'^the 

Spirit of God, nor bringeth forth his own conned e^nd ; 

gathered stuff; but every one puts that forth whicJi 

the Lord puts into their hearts : and it is uttered fortU its giorions 

not in man's will and wisdom, but i?i the evidence firw</-?.'^^'^"*^' ' 

^ vJon, ; 

demonsjtration of the Spirit, and ofpowei]j Yea, though ! 

there be not a word spoken, yet is the true spiritual j 

worship performed, and the body of Christ edified ; \ 

yea, it may, and hath often fallen out among us, that 

divers meetings have passed without one word ; and 

yet our souls have been greatly edified and refreshed, ■ 

and our hearts wonderfully overcome with the secret i 

sense of God's power and Spirit, which without words j 

have been ministered from one vessel to another. I 

This is indeed strange and incredible to the mere , 

natural and carnally minded man, who will be apt to \ 

judge all time lost where there is not something spoken \ 

that is obvious to the outward senses ; and therefore 

I shall insist a little upon this subject, as one that can | 

speak from a certain experience, and not by mere 

hearsay, of this wonderful and glorious dispensation; ■ 

which hath so much the more of the wisdom and ] 

glory of God in it, as it is contrary to the nature of ^ 

man's spirit, will, and wisdom. \ 

§. VII. As there can be nothing more opposite to The silent 1 

the natural will and wisdom of man than this silent ^"^^,1"^^^ I 

waiting upon God, so neither can it be obtained, nor obtaioed. \ 

rightly comprehended by man, but as he layeth down | 

his own wisdom and will, so as to be content to be I 

thoroughly subject to God. And therefore it was not \ 

preached, nor can be so practised, but by such as find \ 

no outward ceremony, no observations, no words, yea, ^ 

not the best and purest words, even the words of j 

scripture, able to satisfy their weary and afflicted 

souls : because where all these may be, the life, power, 

and virtue, which make such things effectual, may 

be wanting. Such, I say, were necessitated to cease 

• I 


from mil externals, and to be silent before the Lord ; 
and Ageing directed to that inward principle of lift 
2^6/ light in themselves, as the most excellent teacher, 
ltd. XXX. w|iiich can ?iever be removed into a cornej\ came thereby 
**• t0 be taught to wait upon God in the measure of life 

yiuad grace received from him, and to cease from their 
/ own forward words and actings, in the natural willing 
and comprehension, and feel after this inward seed of 
/ life, that, as it moveth, they may move with it, and 
/ be actuated by its power, and influenced, whether to 
/ pray, preach, or sing. And so from this principle of 
' man s being silent, and not acting in the things of 
God of himself, until thus actuatedl)y God's light and 
grace in the heart, did naturally spring that manner 
of sitting silent together, and waiting together upon 
the Lord. For many thus principled, meeting toge- 
/ ther in the pure fear of the Lord, did not apply them- 

/ selves presently to speak, pray, or sing, &c. being afraid 

to be found acting forwardly in their own wills, but 
each made it their work to retire inwardly to the mea- 
sure of grace in themselves, not being only silent as to 
words, but even abstaining from all their own thoughts, 
imaginations, and desires ; so watching in a holy de- 
pendence upon the Lord, and meeting together not 
only outwardly in one place, but thus inwardly in one 
wimt it is Spirit, and in 07ie 7iaine of Jesus, which is his power 
jes"u!name. ^^^ virtuc, they comc thereby to enjoy and feel the 
arisings of this life, which, as it prevails in each par- 
ticular, becomes as a flood of refreshment, and over- 
spreads the whole meeting : for man, and man's part 
and wisdom, being denied and chained down in every 
individual, and God exalted, and his grace in domi- 
nion in the heart, thus his name comes to be one in 
all, and his glory breaks forth, and covers all ; and 
there is such a holy awe and reverence upon every 
soul, that if the natural part should arise in any, or 
the wise part, or what is not one with the life, it would 
presently be chained down, and judged out. And 
when any are, through the breaking forth of this 


power, constrained to utter a sentence of exhortation 
or praise, or to breathe to the Lord in prayer, then all 
are sensible of it ; for the same life in them answers 
to it, as in water face answer eth to face. This is that Prov.xxvii. 
divine and spiritual worship, which the world neither ^^' 
knoweth nor understandeth, which the vulture's eye 
seeth not into. Yet many and great are the advan- Advantage* 
tages which my soul, with many others, hath tasted ^Vetbgs. 
of hereby, and which would be found of all such as 
would seriously apply themselves hereunto : for^ when 
people are gathered thus together, not merely to hear 
men, nor depend upon them, but all are inwardly isai. x. 20. 
taught to stay their minds upon the Lord, and wait """^ '^^'"' ^' 
for his appearance in their hearts ; thereby the for- 
ward working of the spirit of man is stayed and hin- 
dered from mixing itself with the worship of God ; 
and the form of this worship is so naked and void of 
all outward and worldly splendour, that all occasion 
for man's wisdom to be exercised in that superstition 
and idolatry hath no lodging here ; and so there being 
also an inward quietness and retiredness of mind, the 
witness of God ariseth in the heart, and the light of 
Christ shineth, whereby the soul cometh to see its 
own condition. And there being many joined toge- 
ther in the same work, there is an inward travail and 
wrestling ; and also, as the measure of grace is abode 
in, an overcoming of the power and spirit of darkness; 
and thus we are often greatly strengthened and re- 
newed in the spirits of our minds without a word, 
and we enjoy and possess the holy fellowship and Epii. iv.s. 
communion of the body and blood of Christ, by which 
our inw^ard man is nourished and fed ; which makes 
us not to dote upon outward water, and bread and 
wine, in our spiritual things. Now as many thus 
gathered together grow up in the strength, power, 
and virtue of truth, and as truth comes thus to have a 
victory and dominion in their souls, then they receive 
an utterance, and speak steadily to th^edification of speakin? to 
their brethren, and the pure life hath a free passage «dificacion. 


through them, and what is thus spoken edifieth the 
body indeed. Such is the evident certainty of that 
divine strength that is communicated by thus meet- 
ing together, and waiting in silence upon God, that 
sometimes when one hath come in that hath been 
unwatchful and wandering in his mind, or suddenly 
out of the hurry of outward business, and so not in- 
wardly gathered with the rest, so soon as he retires 
himself inwardly, this power being in a good measure 
raised in the whole meeting, will suddenly lay hold 
upon his spirit, and wonderfully help to raise up the 
good in him, and beget him into the sense of the 
same power, to the melting and warming of his heart ; 
even as the warmth would take hold upon a man that 
is cold coming into a stove, or as a flame will lay hold 
upon some little combustible matter being near unto 
it. Yea, if it fall out that several met together be 
straying in their minds, though outwardly silent, and 
so wandering from the measure of grace in themselves 
(which through the working of the enemy, and negli- 
gence of some, may fall out), if either one come in, or 
may be in, who is watchful, and in whom the life is 
raised in a great measure, as that one keeps his places 
he will feel a secret travail for the rest in a sympathy 
with the seed which is oppressed in the other, and 
kept from arising by their thoughts and wanderings ; 
A secret aud as such a faithful one waits in the lights and 
Tr^L^lr l^^^ps in this divine work, God oftentimes answers the 
in silent sccrct travail and breathings of his own seed through 
such a one, so that the rest will find themselves se- 
cretly smitten without words, and that one will be as 
a midwife through the secret travails of his soul to 
bring forth the life in them, just as a little water 
thrown into a pump brings up the rest; whereby life 
will come to be raised in all, and the vain imagina- 
tions brought down ; and such a one is felt by the 
rest to minister life unto them without words. Yea, 
sometimes, when there is not a word in the meeting, 
but all are silently waiting, if one come in that is rude 



and wicked, and in whom the power of darkness pre- 
vailed! much, perhaps with an intention to mock or The mocker 
do mischief, if the whole meeting be gathered into J^rror^when 
the life, and it be raised in a good measure, it will no word is 
strike terror into such a one, and he will feel himself '*p°*'^"' 
unable to resist ; but by the secret strength and virtue 
thereof, the power of darkness in him will be chained 
down : and if the day of his visitation be not expired, 
it will reach to the measure of grace in him, and raise 
it up to the redeeming of his soul. And this we often 
bear witness of, so that we have had frequent occa- 
sion in this respect, since God hath gathered us to be 
a people, to renew this old saying of many. Is Said i Sam. x. 
also among thepropJiets? For not a few have come to ^^* 
be convinced of the truth after this manner, of which 
I myself, in part, am a true witness, who not by strength 
of arguments, or by a particular disquisition of each 
doctrine, and convincement of my understanding 
thereby, came to receive and bear witness of the truth, 
but by being secretly reached by this life ; for when 
I came into the silent assemblies of God's people, I The irae 
felt a secret power among them, which touched my 
heart, and as I gave way unto it, I found the evil 
weakening in me, and the good raised up, and so I | 

became thus knit and united unto them, hungering \ 

more and more after the increase of this power and \ 

life, whereby I might feel myself perfectly redeemed. \ 

And indeed this is the surest way to become a Chris- \ 

tian, to whom afterwards the knowledge and under- j 

standing of principles will not be wanting, but will 
grow up so much as is needful, as the natural fruit of \ 

this good root, and such a knowledge will not be bar- ' 

ren nor unfruitful. After this manner we desire there- i 

fore all that come among us to be proselyted, know- j 

ing that though thousands should be convinced in ] 

their understanding of all the truths we maintain, yet \ 

if they were not sensible of this inward life, and their 
souls not changed from unrighteousness to righteous- ; 

ness, they could add nothing to us. For this is that 

z2 j 

COUVlDCe- \ 



1 Cor. ti. cement whereby we are joined, as to the Lord so to 
lie life of ^°^ another, and without this none can worship with 
righfeons- us. Yca, if such should come among us, and from 
L^'m to ^^^^ understanding and convincement they liave of 
the Lord, the truth, speak ever so true things, and utter them 
forth with ever so much excellency of speech, if this 
life were wanting, it would not edify us at all, but be 
as soimdhig brass, or a tinkling cymbal, 1 Cor. xiii. 1. 
Oar work ^. VIII. Owx work thcu and worship is, when we 
"ou* raeet^ mcct togcthcr, for every one to watch and wait upon 
•nj,'*- God in themselveSy and to be gathered from all visi- 
bles thereunto. And as every one is thus stated, they 
come to find the good arise over the evil, and the pure 
- over the impure, in which God reveals himself, and 
draweth near to every individual, and so he is in the 
midst in the general, whereby each not only partakes of 
the particular refreshment and strength which comes 
from the good in himself, but is a sharer in the whole 
body, as being a living member of the body, having a 
joint fellowship and communion with all. And as this 
w^orship is steadfastly preached and kept to, it becomes 
easy, though it be very hard at first to the natural man, 
whose roving imaginations and running worldly de- 
sires are not so easily brought to silence. And there- 
fore the Lord oftentimes, when any turn towards him, 
and have true desires thus to wait upon him, and find 
great difficulty through the unstayedness of their minds, 
doth in condescension and compassion cause his power 
to break forth in a more strong and powerful manner. 
And when the mind sinks down and waits for the 
appearance of life, and that the power of darkness in 
the soul wrestles and works against it, then tlie good 
seed, as it ariseth, will be found to work as physic in 
the soul, especially if such a weak one be in the assem- 
bly of divers others in whom the life is arisen in greater 
dominion ; and through the contrary workings of the 
power of darkness there will be found an inward 
striving in the soul as really in the mystery as ever 
iiiiaa una Esau and Jacob strove in Rebecca's womb. And 

OF WORSHIP. 341 ' \ 

from this inward travail, while the darkness seeks to Jacob \ 

obscure the light, and the light breaks through the R^ca s j 

darkness, which it always will do, if the soul gives ^omb. \ 

not its strength to the darkness, there will be such a 1 

painful travail found in the soul, that will even work ^ 

upon the outward man, so that oftentimes, through j 

the working thereof, the body will be greatly shaken, ^ 

and many groans, and sighs, and tears, even as the \ 
pangs of a woman in travail, will lay hold upon it ; 

yea, and this not only as to one, but when the enemy, | 
who when the children of God assemble together is 
not wanting to be present, to see if he can let their 
comfort, hath prevailed in any measure in a whole 

meeting, and strongly worketh against it by spread- \ 

ing and propagating his dark power, and by drawing ' 
out the minds of such as are met from the life in them, 

as they come to be sensible of this power of his that \ 
works against them, and to wrestle with it by the 
armour of light, sometimes the power of God will 

break forth into a whole meeting, and there will be \ 

such an inward travail, while each is seeking to over- The travail ; 

come the evil in themselves, that by the strong^ con- *'^.°r "*"''• ' 

trary workmgs ot these opposite powers, like the going tonoas j 
of two contrary tides, every individual will be strongly '^°°^* 

exercised as in a day of battle, and thereby trembling i 

and a motion of body will be upon most, if not upon .^ 

all, which, as the power of truth prevails, will from \ 

pangs and groans end with a sweet sound of thanks- \ 

giviiig and praise. And from this the name of \ 

Quakers, i. e. Tremblers, was first reproachfully cast The name \ 

upon us : which, though it be none of our choosing, °\,e°c''e^Y* ' 

yet in this respect we are not ashamed of it, but have sprang. I 

rather reason to rejoice therefore, even that we are \ 

sensible of this power that hath oftentimes laid hold \ 

of our adversaries, and made them yield unto us, and i 

join with us, and confess to the truth, before they had 1 

any distinct or discursive knowledge of our doctrines, \ 
so that sometimes many at one meeting have been 

thus convinced : and this power would sometimes j 


also reach to and wonderfully work even in little chil- 
dren, to the admiration and astonishment of many. 
Yet silence §• I^' Many are the blessed experiences which I 
u oo law, could relate of this silence and manner of worship ; 
ma; follow, yet I do not so much commend and speak of silence 
as if we had bound ourselves by any law to exclude 
praying or preaching, or tied ourselves thereunto ; 
not at all : for as our worship consisteth not in words, 
so neither in silence, as silence ; but in a holi/ depend- 
ence of the mind upon God: from which dependence" 
silence necessarily follows in the first place, until 
words can be brought forth, which are from God's 
. Spirit. And God is not wanting to move in his chil- 
dren to bring forth words of exhortation or prayer, 
when it is needful ; so that of the many gatherings 
and meetings of such as are convinced of the truth, 
there is scarce any in which God raiseth not up some 
or other to minister to his brethren ; and there are 
few meetings that are altogether silent. For when 
many are met together in this one life and name, it 
doth most naturally and frequently excite them to 
pray to and praise God, and stir up one another by 
mutual exhortation and instructions ; yet we judge it 
needful there be in the first place some time of silence, 
during which every one may be gathered inward to 
the word and gift of grace, from which he that minis- 
tereth may receive strength to bring forth what he 
ministereth ; and that they that hear may have a 
sense to discern betwixt the precious and the vile, 
and not to hurry into the exercise of these thitigs so 
soon as the bell rings, as other Christians do. Yea, 
and we doubt not, but assuredly know, that the meet- 
ing may be good and refreshful, though from the sit- 
ting down to the rising up thereof there hath not been 
No abioiate a word as outwardly spoken, and yet life may have 
fo7w"rd«, ^^^ known to abound in each particular, and an 
ihoHKh from inward growing up therein and thereby, yea, so as 
lime*.* '* words might have been spoken acceptably, and from 
the life : yet there being no absolute necessity laid 


upon any so to do, all might have chosen rather 
quietly and silently to possess and enjoy the Lord in 
themselves, which is very sweet and comfortable to 
the soul that hath thus learned to be gathered out of 
all its own thoughts and workings, to feel the Lord to 
bring forth both the will and the deed, which many 
can declare by a blessed experience : though indeed 
it cannot but be hard for the natural man to receive 
or believe this doctrine, and therefore it must be rather 
by a sensible experience, and by coming to make 
proof of it, than by arguments, that such can be con- 
vinced of this thing, seeing it is not enough to believe 
it, if they come not also to erijoi/ and possess it ; yet 
in condescension to, and for the sake of, such as may 
be the more willing to apply themselves to the prac- 
tice and experience hereof, if they found their under- 
standings convinced of it, and that it is founded upon 
scripture and reason, I find a freedom of mind to add 
some few considerations of this kind, for the confir- 
mation hereof, besides what is before mentioned of 
our experience. 

§. X. That to wait upon God, and to loatch before To « ah and 
him, is a duty incumbent upon all, I suppose none ^and'ed*^™ 
will deny ; and that this also is a part of worship the scrip- 
will not be called in question, since there is scarce *""* 
any other so frequently commanded in the holy scrip- 
tures, as may appear from Psalm xxvii. 14 ; and 
xxxvii. 7, 34; Prov. xx. 22; Isa. xxx. 18; Hosea, 
xii. 6; Zech. iii. 8; Matt. xxiv. 42, and xxv. 13, and 
xxvi. 41; Mark, xiii. 33, 35, 37; Luke, xxi. 36; 
Acts, i. 4, and xx. 31; 1 Cor. xvi. 13; Col. iv. 2; 
1 Thess. V. 6 ; 2 Tim. iv. 5 ; 1 Pet. iv. 7. Also this 
duty is often recommended with very great and pre- 
cious promises, as Psalm xxv. 3, and xxxvii. 9, and 
Ixix. 6 ; Isa. xl. 23 ; Lam. iii. 25, 26. They that 
wait tipon the Lord shall renew their strength, &c. 
Isa. xl. 31. Now how is this waiting upon God, or 
icatching before him, but by this silence of which we 
have spoken ? Which as it is in itself a great and 


principal duty, so it necessarily in order both of nature 
and time precedeth all other. But that it may be the 
better and more perfectly understood, as it is not only 
an outward siloice of the body, but an inward silence 
of the mind from all its own imaginations and self- 
cogitations, let it be considered according to truth, 
and to the principles and doctrines heretofore affirmed 
and proved, that man is to be considered in a two- 
fold respect, to wit, in his natural, unrcgeneratCy and 
fallen state, and in his spiritual a fid renewed condi- 
tio7i; from whence ariseth that distinction of the 
natural and spiritual man so much used by the apos- 
tle, and heretofore spoken of. Also these two births 
of the mind proceed from the two seeds in man re- 
spectively, to wit, the good seed and the evil ; and 
from the evil seed doth not only proceed all manner 
of gross and abominable wickedness and profanity. 
Whence but also hypocrisy, and those wickednesses which the 
rJs^es^arise scripturc calls spiritual, because it is the serpent work- 
that are spi- ing in and by the natural man in things that are 
spiritual, which having a show and appearance of 
good, are so much the more hurtful and dangerous, 
as it is Satan transformed and transforming himself 
into an angel of light ; and therefore doth the scrip- 
ture so pressingly and frequently, as we have hereto- 
fore had occasion to observe, shut out and exclude the 
natural man from meddling with the things of God^ 
denying his endeavours therein, though acted and 
performed by the most eminent of his parts, as of 
wisdom and utterance. 

Also this spiritual wickedness is of two sorts, though 

both one in kind, as proceeding from one root, yet 

differing in their degrees, and in the subjects also 

I'rom sometimes. The one is, when as the natural man, 

he'teRie^s did i^cddling with and working in the things of religion, 

•piiog. doth from his own conceptions and divinations affirm 

or propose wrong and erroneous notions and opinions 

of God and things spiritual, and invent superstitions, 

ceremonies, observations, and rites in worship, from 


whence have sprung all the heresies and superktitions 
that are among Christians. The other is, when as 
the natural man, from a mere conviction of his under- 
standing, doth in the forwardness of his own will, 
and by his own natural strength, without the influ- 
ence and leading of God's Spirit, go about either in 
his understanding to imagine, conceive, or think of 
the things of God, or actually to perform them by 
preaching or praying. The first is a missing both in 
matter and form ; the second is a retaining of the True chri»- 
form without the life and substance of Christianity ; ^l^^^lli^^ ^ 
because Christian religion consisteth not in a mere consists not. 
belief of true doctrines, or a mere performance of acts 
good in themselves, or else the bare letter of the scrip- 
ture, though spoken by a drunkard, or a devil, might 
be said to be spiiit and Ufa, which I judge none will 
be so absurd as to affirm ; and also it would follow, 
that where the form of godliness is, there the power 
is also, which is contrary to the express words of the 
apostle. For the form of godliness cannot be said to 
be, where either the notions and opinions believed 
are erroneous and ungodly, or the acts performed evil 
and wicked ; for then it would be the form of ungod- 
liness, and not of godliness : but of this more here- 
after, when we shall speak particularly of preaching 
and praying. Now though this last be not so bad as 
the former, yet it hath made way for it ; for men 
having first departed from the life and substance of 
true religion and worship, to wit, from the inward 
power and virtue of the Spirit, so as therein to act, 
and thereby to have all their actions enlivened, have 
only retained the form and show, to wit, the true 
words and appearance ; and so acting in their own 
natural and unrenewed wills in this form, the form 
could not but quickly decay, and be vitiated. For 
the working and active spirit of man could not con- 
tain itself within the simplicity and plainness of truth, 
but giving way to his own numerous inventions and 
imaginations, began to vary in the form, and adapt 


it to his own inventions, until by degrees the form of 

godliness for the most part came to be lost, as well as 

idoutrj the power. For this kind of idolatry, whereby man 

doe$hugit8 iQveth, idolizeth, and embraceth his own conceptions, 

own con- . \ ' , . . ^ . . 

ccivings. mventions, and product ot his own bram, is so mci- 
dent unto him, and seated in his fallen nature, that 
so long as his natural spirit is the first author and 
actor of him, and is that by which he only is guided, 
and moved in his worship towards God, so as not 
first to wait for another guide to direct him, he can 
never perform the pure, spiritual worship, nor bring 
forth any thing but the fruit of the first fallen, natural, 
and corrupt root. Wherefore the time appointed of 
God being come, wherein by Jesus Christ he hath 
been pleased to restore the true spiritual worship, and 
the outward form of worship, which was appointed 
No form of by God to the Jews, and whereof the manner and 
the'^sprrh "* ^^^^ ^^ ^t^ performance was particularly determined 
prescribed by God himsclf, being come to an end, we find that 
by Christ, jggyg Christ, the author of the Christian religion, 
prescribes no set form of worship to his children, 
under the more pure administration of the nexo cove- 
nant^, save that he only tells them. That the worship 
now to be performed is spiritual, and in the Spirit. 
And it is especially to be observed, that in the whole 
New Testament there is no order nor command given 
in this thing, but to follow the revelation of the Spirit, 
save only that general one oi meeting together; a thing 
dearly owned and diligently practised by us, as shall 

* If any object here, That the Lord's prayer is a prescribed 
form of prayer, and therefore of worship given by Christ to his 
children : 

I answer, First, This cannot be objected by any sort of Chris- 
tians that I know, because there are none who use not other 
prayers, or that limit their worship to this. Secondly, This was 
commanded to the disciples, while yet weak, before they had 
received i)\e dispensation of the ffospel ; not tliat they should 
only use it in praying, but that he might show them bV one 
example how that their prayers ought to be short, and not like the 
long prayers of the Pharisees. And that tliis was the use of it, 
appears by all their prayers, which divers saints nftorwards made 


hereafter more appear. True it is, mention is made Praj, 
of the duties oi praying, preaching, and singing ; but sfng*in's*"i! 
what order or method should be kept in so doing, or "t. 
that presently they should be set about so soon as the 
saints are gathered, there is not one word to be found : 
yea, these duties, as shall afterwards be made appear, 
are always annexed to the assistance, leadings, and 
motions of God's Spirit. Since then man in his 
natural state is thus excluded from acting or moving 
in things spiritual, how or what way shall he exer- 
cise this first and previous duty of waiting upon God To wait on 
but by siknce, and by bringing that natural part to ^J'J; Jj^j^ 
silence ? Which is no other ways but by abstaining performed, 
from his own thoughts and imaginations, and from all 
the self-workings and motions of his own mind, as 
well in things materially good as evil ; that he being 
silent, God may speak in him, and the good seed may 
arise. This, though hard to the natural man, is so 
answerable to reason, and even natural experience in 
other things, that it cannot be denied. He that cometh a simile of 
to learn of a master, if he expect to hear his master anj^^^-s*^ 
and be instructed by him, must not continually be scholar, 
speaking of the matter to be taught, and never be 
quiet, otherwise, how shall his master have time to 
instruct him ? Yea, though the scholar were never so 
earnest to learn the science, yet would the master 
have reason to reprove him, as untoward and indocile, 
if he would always be meddling of himself, and still 
speaking, and not wait in silence patiently to hear 

use of, whereof the scripture makes mention; for none made use 
of this, neither repeated it, but used other words, according as 
the thing required, and as the Spirit gave utterance. Thirdly. 
That this ought to be so understood, appears from Rom. viii. 26, 
of which afterwards mention shall be made at greater length, 
where the apostle saith. We know not what we sh&idd pray for as 
we ought, but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us, &c. 
But if this prayer had been such a prescribed form of prayer to 
the church, that had not been true, neither had they been igno- 
rant what to pray, nor should they have needed the help of the 
Spirit to teach them. 


his master instructing and teaching hitn, who ought 
not to open his mouth until by his master he were 
Of a prince Commanded and allowed so to do. So also if one 
■od bi« »er- lyere about to attend a great prince, he would be 
thouglit an impertinent and imprudent servant, who, 
while he ought patiently and readily to wait, that he 
might answer the king when he speaks, and have his 
eye upon him to observe the least motions and incli- 
nations of his will, and to do accordingly, would be 
still deafening him with discourse, though it were in 
praises of him ; and running to and fro, without any 
particular and immediate order, to do things that 
perhaps might be good in themselves, or might have 
been commanded at other times to others. Would 
the kings of the earth accept of such servants or ser- 
Tow»itin vice? Since then we are commanded to wait upon 
■iienw. Q^^ diligent I If, and in so doing it is promised that 
our strength shall be renewed, this waiting cannot be 
performed but by a silence or cessation of the natural 
part on our side, since God manifests himself not to 
the outward man or senses, so much as to the inward, 
The think- to wit, to the soul and spirit. If the soul be still 
ioDi*'e°'^ thinking and working in her ownAvill, and busily 
6iude8 the exercised in her own imaginations, though the matters 
GoT ** as in themselves may be good concerning God, yet 
thereby she incapacitates herself from discerning the 
still, small voice of the Spirit, and so hurts herself 
greatly, in that she neglects her chief business of 
vmiting upon the Lord: nothing less than if I should 
busy myself, crying out and speaking of a business, 
while in the meantime I neglect to hear one who is 
quietly whispering into my ear, and informing me in 
those things which are most needful for me to hear 
and know concerning that business. And since it is 
the chief work of a Christian to know the natural will 
in its own proper motions crucified, that God may 
both move in the act and in the will, the Lord chiefly 
regards this profound subjection and self-denial. For 
some men please themselves as much, and gratify 


their o^yn sensual wills and humours in his^h and 
curious speculations of religion, affecting a name and Religions 
reputation that way, or because those things by cus- "J^^/^"'^' 
tom or other ways are become pleasant and habitual 
to them, though not a whit more regenerated or in- 
wardly sanctified in their spirits, as others gratify Sensuai re- 
their lusts in acts of sensuality, and therefore both *"^^»'*o"'*- 
are alike hurtful to men, and sinful in the sight of 
God, it being nothing but the mere fruit and effect of , 
man's natural and unrenewed will and spirit. Yea, 
should one, as many no doubt do, from a sense of sin, 
and fear of punishment, seek to terrify themselves 
from sin, by multiplying thoughts of death, hell, and Thoaghts of 
judgment, and by presenting to their imaginations JentVkeep 
the happiness and joys of heaven, and also by multi- out sin are 
plying prayers and other religious performances, as '^" ^*^^''* 
these things could never deliver him from one iniquity, 
without the secret and inward power of God's Spirit 
and grace, so would they signify no more than the 
fig-leaves wherewith Adam thought to cover his 
nakedness. And seeing it is only the product of 
man's own natural will, proceeding from a self-love, 
acd seeking to save himself, and not arising purely 
from that divine shed of righteousness which is given 
of God to all for grace and salvation, it is rejected of 
God, and no ways acceptable unto him ; since the 
natural man, as natural, while he stands in that state, 
is, with all his arts, parts, and actings, reprobated by 
him. This great duty then of waiting upon God, 
must needs be exercised in man's denying self, both Denial of 
inwardly and outwardly, in a still and mere depen- *'"*'* '®"^" 
dence upon God, in abstracting from all the workings, 
imaginations, and speculations of his own mind, that 
being emptied as it were of himself, and so thoroughly 
crucified to the natural products thereof, he may be 
fit to receive the Lord, who will have no copartner 
nor dorival of his glory and power. And man being 
thus stated, the little seed of righteousness which God 


liatli planted in his soul, and Christ hath purchased 
for him, even the measure of grace and ///c, which is 
burdened and crucified by man's natural thoughts 
and imaginations, receives a place to arise, and be- 
The hoi J Cometh a holy birth and geniture in man ; and is that 
birib. (livhie air in and by which man's soul and spirit 
comes to be leavened ; and by wj^iting therein he 
comes to be accepted in the sight of God, to stand in 
• his presence, hear his voice, and observe the motions 
of his holy Spirit. And so man's place is to wait in 
this ; and as hereby there are any objects presented 
to his mind concerning God, or things relating to 
religion, his soul may be exercised in them without 
hurt, and to the great profit both of himself and others ; 
because those things have their rise not from his own 
will, but from God's Spirit : and therefore as in the 
arisings and movings of this his mind is still to be 
exercised in thinking and meditating, so also in the 
No Qnakers more obvious acts of preaching and praying. And 
a i»eda*a"hg ^^ ^^ ^^Y ^^^^cc appear we are not against meditation, 
mind. as some have sought falsely to infer from our doctrine ; 
From lia- but we are against the thoughts and imaginatioris of 
thoughts all ^^ natural man in his own will, from which all errors 
errors rise, aud hercsics conccming the Christian religion in the 
whole world have proceeded. But if it please God 
at any time, when one or more are waiting upon him, 
not to present such objects as give them occasion to 
exercise their minds in thoughts and imaginations, 
but purely to keep them in this holy dependence, and 
as they persist therein, to cause the secret refreshment 
and the pure incomes of his holy life to flow in upon 
them, then they have good reason to be content, be- 
cause by this, as we know by good and blessed expe- 
Tbe soul re- rieucc, thc soul is more strengthened, renewed, and 
"v*h*i?' The confirmed in the love of God, and armed against the 
hou life of power of sin, than any way else ; this being a fore- 
taste of that real and sensible enjojrment of God, 
which the saints in heaven daily possess, which God 


frequently affords to his children here for their com- 
fort and encouragement, especially when they are 
assembled together to wait upon him. 

§. XI. For there are two contrary power^s or spirits, whatever 
to wit, the power and spirit of this world, in which ^crwtrhout 
4he prince of darkness bears rule, and over as many the power 
as are acted by it, and work from it ; and the power ^^^ accept- 
or Spirit of God, in which God worketh and beareth ^d. 
rule, and over as many as act in and from it. So 
whatever be the things that a man thinketh of, or 
acteth in, however spiritual or religious as to the 
notion or form of them, so long as he acteth and moveth 
in the natural and corrupt spirit and will, and not 
from, in, and by the power of God, he sinneth in all, 
and is not accepted of God. For hence both the 
ploioing and praying of the wicked is sin ; as also Prov. xxi 
whatever a man acts in and from the Spirit and power ^• 
of God, having his understanding and will influenced 
and moved by it, whether it be actions religious, civil, 
or even natural, he is accepted in so doing in the 
sight of God,^ and is blessed in them. From what is Ja. i. 25. 
said it doth appear how frivolous and impertinent 
their objection is, that say they wait upon God in 
praying and preaching, since waiting does of itself 
imply a passive dependence, rather than an acting. 
And since it is, and shall yet be more shown, that To praj «nd 
preaching ^uA praying without the Spirit is an oflend- ou^''('i|'e'^'pt 
ing of God, not a waiting upon him, and that pi^aying ritisoflence 
and preaching by the Spirit presupposes necessarily a *° ^°'^' 
silent waiting to feel the motions and influence of the 
Spirit to lead thereunto ; and lastly, that in several of 
these places where praying is commanded, as Matt, 
xxvi. 41 ; Mark, xiii. 33; Luke, xxi. 36; 1 Pet. iv. 7; 
watching is specially prefixed as a previous prepara- 
tion thereunto ; we do well and certainly conclude, that 
since waiting and watching are so particularly com- 
manded and recommended, and cannot be truly per- 
formed but in this inward silence of the mind from 
men's own thouofhts and imao^inations, tliis silence is 


and must necessarily be a special and principal part 
of GoiCii worship. 
II. §. XII. But Secondly, The cwcellem'i/ oi this sikfU 

I*'iiin''*bl ^^'^'''^ ^P^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ appear, in that it is impossitje 
devil cannot for the cuemy, viz. the devil, to counterfeit it, so as 
couDieifeit. ^Qj. ^^y gQ^j ^Q i^g deceived or deluded by him, in the 

exercise thereof. Now in all other matters* he may 
mix himself with the natural mind of man, and so b'y^ 
transforming himself he may deceive the soul, by 
busying it about things perhaps innocent in them- 
selves, while yet he keeps them from beholding the 
pu?x light of Christ, and so from knowing distinctly 
their duty, and doing of it. For that envious spirit 
of man's eternal happiness knoweth well how to 
accommodate himself, and fit his snares for all the 
several dispositions and inclinations of men ; if he 
find one not fit to be engaged with gross sins, or 
worldly lusts, but rather averse from them, and reli- 
giously inclined, he can fit himself to beguile such a 
one, by suffering his thoughts and imaginations to run 
upon spiritual matters, and so hurry him to work, act, 
and meditate in his own will. For he well knoweth 
that so long as self bears rule, and the Spirit of God 
is not the principal and chief actor, man is not put 
out of his reach ; so therefore he can accompany the 
Altar, pray- pricst to the altar, the preacher to the pulpit, the zea- 
ttTidTcin- ^^^ ^^ ^^^ praxjers, yea, the doctor and professor of 
not shut the diviuity to his study, and there he can cheerfully sufi'er 
devil out. jj-j^ ^^ labour and work among his books, yea, and 
help him to find out and invent subtile distinctions 
and quiddities, by which both his mind, and others 
through him, may be kept from heeding Gods light 
in the conscience, and waiting upon him. There is 
not any exercise whatsoever, wherein he cannot enter, 
and have a chief place, so as the soul many times 
cannot discern it, except in this alone : for he can 
only work in and by the natural man, and his facul- 
ties, by secretly acting upon his imaginations and 
desires, &c. ; and therefore, when he (to wit, the 


natural man) is silent, there he must also stand. And 
therefore when the soul comes to this silence, and as 
it were is brought to nothingness, as to her own work- 
ings, then the devil is shut out ; for the pure presence 
of God, and shining of his Light he cannot abide, 
because so long as a man is thinking and meditating 
as of himself, he cannot be sure but the devil is influ- 
encing him therein ; but when he comes wholly to 
be silent, as the pui^e Light of God shines in upon 
him, then he is sure that the devil is shut out ; for 
beyond the imaginations he cannot go, which we 
often find by sensible experience. For he that of old 
is said to have come to the a^atherins tos-ether of the 
children of God, is not wanting to come to our assem- 
blies. And indeed he can well enter and work in a 
meeting, that is silent only as to words, either by 
keeping the minds in various thoughts and imagina- 
tions, or by stupifying them, so as to overwhelm them 
with a spirit of heaviness and slothfulness : but when 
we retire out of all, and are turned in, both by being 
diligent and watchful upon the one hand, and also 
silent and retired out of all our thoughts upon the 
other, as we abide in this sure place, we feel ourselves 
out of his reach. Yea, oftentimes the power and glory 
of God will break forth and appear, just as the bright 
sun through many clouds and mists, to the dispelling 
of that power of darkness ; which will also be sen- 
sibly felt, seeking to cloud and darken the mind, and 
wholly to keep it from purely icaiting upon God. 

§. XIII. Thirdly, The excellency of this worship iii. 
doth appear, in that it can neither be stopped norTb^wor- 
interrupted by the malice of men or devils, as all guaUrsnot 
others can. Now interruptions and stoppings of wor- flopped or 

,. , - ,^. n \ ^ ' ^ interrupted 

ship may be understood m a twoiold respect, either by men or 
as we are hindered from meeting, as being outwardly ^®^**'* 
by violence separated one from another; or when per- 
mitted to meet together, as we are interrupted by the 
tumult, noise, and confusion which such as are mali- 
cious may use to molest or distract us. Now in both 

A A 


these respects, this worship doth greatly overpass all 
others : for how far soever people be separate or hin- 
dered from coming together, yet as every one is in- 
wardly gathered to the measure of lift in himself, 
there is a secret unity and fellowship enjoyed, which 
the devil and all his instruments can never break or 
hinder. But, secondly, It doth as well appear, as to 
those molestations which occur, when we are met 
together, what advantage this true and spiritual wor- 
ship gives us beyond all others ; seeing in despite of 
a thousand interruptions and abuses, one of which 
were sufficient to have stopped all other sorts of Chris- 
tians, we have been able, through the nature of this 
worship, to keep it uninterrupted as to God, and also 
at the same time to show forth an example of our 
Christian patience towards all, even oftentimes to the 
reaching and convincing of our opposers. For there 
is no sort of worship used by others which can subsist 
(though they be permitted to meet) unless they be 
either authorized and protected by the magistrate, or 
defend themselves with the arm of flesh : but we at 
the same time exercise worship towards God, and 
also patiently bear the reproaches and ignominies 
which Christ prophesied should be so incident and 
The wor- frcqucut to Christians. For how can the Papists say 
pi^irt?*** their mass, if there be any there to disturb and inter- 
soon inter- Hipt them ? Do but take away the mass-book, the cha- 
rupted. I'^g^ ^^ j^Qg|.^ ^j, ^g priest's garments, yea, do but spill 

the water, or the wine, or blow out the candles (a 
thing quickly done) and the whole business is marred. 
The Prote*- and no sacrifice can be offered. Take from the Lu- 
li""! aid therans or Episcopalians their Liturgy or Common 
Ai.absp. Prayer Book, and no service can be said. Remove 
from the Calvinists, Arminians, Socinians, Indepen- 
dents, or Anabaptists, the pulpit, tlie Bible, and the 
hourglass, or make but such a noise as the voice of 
the preacher cannot be heard, or disturb him but so 
before he come, or strip him of his Bible or his books, 
and he must be dumb : for they all think it a heresy 
to wait to speak as the Spirit of God giveth utter- 


ous meet- 


ance ; and thus easily their whole worship may be 
marred. But when people meet together, and their 
worship consisteth not in such outward acts, and they 
depend not upon any one's speaking, but merely sit 
down to wait upon God, and to be gathered out of all 
visibles, and to feel the Lord in Spirit, none of these 
things can hinder them, of which we may say of a 
truth, We are seiisible witnesses. For when the magis- 
trates, stirred up by the malice and envy of our op- 
posers, have used all means possible (and yet in vain) 
to deter us from meeting together, and that openly 
and publicly in our own hired houses for that pur- 
pose, both death, banishments, imprisonments, finings. The suffer- 
beatings, whippings, and other such devilish inven- guaktrffor 
tions, have proved ineffectual to terrify us from our ihtir reiijii- 
holy assemblies. And we having, I say, thus often- 
times purchased our liberty to meet, by deep sufferings, 
our opposers have then taken another way, by turning 
in upon us the worst and wickedest people, yea, the 
very offscourings of men, who by all manner of inhu- 
man, beastly, and brutish behaviour, have sought to 
provoke us, weary us, and molest us, but in vain. It 
would be almost incredible to declare, and indeed a 
shame, that among men pretending to be Christians, 
it should be mentioned, what things of this kind men's 
eyes have seen, and I myself, with others, have shared 
of in suffering ! There they have often beaten us, and 
cast water and dirt upon us ; there they have danced, 
leaped, sung, and spoken all manner of profane and 
ungodly words ; offered violence and shameful beha- 
viour to grave women and virgins ; jeered, mocked, 
and scoffed, asking us. If the Spirit was not yet come? 
And much more, which were tedious here to relate : 
and all this while we have been seriously and silently 
sitting together, and waiting upon the Lord. So that 
by these*things our inward and spiritual fellowship 
with God, and one with another, in the pure life of 
righteousness, hath not been hindered. But on the 
contrary, the Lord knowino^ our sufferings and re- 

A A 2 

356 OF WORSHIP. PROP. xi. 

preaches for his testimony's sake, hath caused his 
power and glory more to abound among us, and hath 
mightily refreshed us by the sense of his love, which 
hath filled our souls ; and so much the rather, as we 
Pro?, xfiii. found oursclvcs gathered into the name of the Lord, 
*®* which is the strong tower of the righteous ; whereby 

we felt ourselves sheltered from receiving any inward 
hurt through their malice : and also that he had de- 
livered us from that vain name and profession of Chris- 
tianity, under which o\ir opposers were not ashamed 
to bring forth those bitter and cursed fruits. Yea, 
sometimes in the midst of this tumult and opposition, 
God would 'poxcerfully move some or other of us, by his 
Spirit, both to testify of that J6>j/, which notwithstand- 
ing their malice we enjoyed, and powerftilly to de- 
clare, in the evidence and demonstration of the Spirit, 
against their folly and wickedness ; so as the power 
of truth hath brought them to some measure of quiet- 
ness and stillness, and stopped the impetuous streams 
The rod of of their fury and madness : that even as of old Moses 
JIded'the by bis rod divided the waves of the Red Sea, that the 
«ea: the Israclitcs might pass ; so God hath thus by his Spirit 
eth way " made a way for us in the midst of this raging wicked- 
through the ncss, pcaccably to enjoy and possess him, and accom- 
waTcs. plish our worship to him : so that sometimes upon 
such occasions sevei*al of our opposers and interrup- 
ters have hereby been convinced of the truth, ,anld 
gathered from being persecutors to be sufferers with 
us. And let it not be forgotten, but let it be inscribed 
and abide for a constant remembrance of the thing. 
What bra- that iu thcse beastly and brutish pranks, used to 
di'd roTlhat n^olest us in our spiritual meetings, none have been 
joung frjr of more busy than the young students of the universi- 
loramtt?^ tJ6s, who wcrc learning philosophy and divinity (so 
called), and many of them preparing themselves for 
the ministry. Should we commit to writing all the 
abominations committed in this respect by the young 
fry of the clergy, it would make no small volume; as the 
churches of Christ, gathered into his pure worship in 

OF woKsuiP. 357 j 

Oxford and Cambridge in England, and Edinburgh ;| 

and Aberdeen in Scotland, where the universities are, 

can well bear witness. \ 

§. XIV. Moreover, in this we know, that we are How tbe 
partakers oi the new covenant's dispensation, and (lis- °ant-wor- 

ciples of Christ indeed, sharing with him in that ship doth ■ 

spiritual worship, which is performed in the Spirit 'l^^l^^^ ^ 

and in truth ; because as he was, so are we in this \ 

world. For the old covenant-worship had an out- ] 

ward glory, temple, and ceremonies, and was full of , 

outward splendour and majesty, having an outward ■ 

tabernacle and altar, beautified with gold, silver, and i 

precious stones ; and their sacrifices were confined to ' \ 

a particular place, even the outward Mount Sion; ] 
and those that prayed were to pray with their faces 

towards that outward temple : and therefore all this \. 

was to be protected by an outward arm. Nor could '\ 

the Jews peaceably have enjoyed it, but when they ] 

were secured from the violence of their outward ene- i 

mies : ' and therefore when at any time their enemies \ 

prevailed over them, their glory was darkened, and i 

their sacrifices stopped ; and the face of their worship i 

marred : hence they complain, lament, and bewail the '\ 

destroying of the temple, as a loss irreparable. But The new i 

Jesus Christ, the author and institutor of the ncw^'^l^^^^]^ j 

covenant-worship, testifies, that God is neither to be inward- ... i 
worshiped in this nor that place, but in the Spirit 36.'" *^"'' 
and in Truth : and forasmuch as his kingdom is not 

of this world, neither doth his worship consist in it, \ 

or need either the wisdom, glory, riches, or splendour \ 

of this world to beautify or adorn it ; nor yet the out- ; 
ward power or arm of flesh to maintain, uphold, or 

protect it ; but it is and may be performed by those \ 
that are spiritualli/-7nmded, notwithstanding all the 
opposition, violence, and malice of men ; because it 

being purely spiritual, it is out of the reach of natu- i 

ral men to interrupt or obstruct it. Even as Jesus \ 

Christ, the author thereof, did enjoy and possess his \ 

sj)iritual kingdoni, while oppressed, persecuted, and \ 


Injected of men ; and as, in despite of the malice and 
(..i.i. ij. rage of the devil, he spoiled principalities and powers, 
triinnphing over them, and through death destroyed 
him that had the power of death, that is, the devil; so 
also all his followers both can and do worship him, 
not only without the arm of flesh to protect them, but 
cnruri »or. cvcn whcn oppressed. For their worship being spi- 
MiltlnA ^'^'^A ^s ^y the power of the Spirit defended and 
^vithoui the maintained ; but such worships as are carnal, and 
■'""^ "'**''• consist in carnal and outward ceremonies and ohsei'- 
vatiojis, need a carnal and outward arm to protect and 
defend them, else they cannot stand and subsist. And 
therefore it appears, that the several worships of our 
opposers, both Papists and Protestants, are of this 
kind, and not the true spiritual and new-covenant 
•worship of Christ ; because, as hath been observed, 
they cannot stand without the protection or counte- 
nance of the outward magistrate, neither can be per- 
formed, if there be the least opposition : for they are 
not in the patience of Jesus, to serve and worship 
him with sufferings, ignominies, calumnies, and re- 
proaches. And from hence have sprung all those 
wars, fightings, and bloodshed among Christians, 
while each by the arm of flesh endeavoured to defend 
and protect their own way and worship : and from 
this also sprung up that monstrous opinion of perse- 
cution ; of which we shall speak more at length 
IV- §• XV. But Fourthly; The nature of this worship, 

Ji,7p®io°spi. which is performed by the operation of the Spirit, 
rit e«t»b- the natural man being silent, doth appear from these 
c^rui.''^ words of Christ, John, iv. 23, 24 : But the hour 
comet h, and notu is, when the true worshippers shall 
worship the Father in Spirit and in Truth : for the 
Father seeketh such to worship him. God is a Spirit, 
and they that wo7\ship him must worship him in Spirit 
and in Truth. This testimony is the more specially 
to be observed, for that it is both the first, chiefest, 
and most ample testimony, which Christ gives us of 

OF woRsHir. 359 ) 

his Christian worship, as different and contradistin- | 

guished from that under the law. For first, he show- / ; 

eth that the season is now come, wherein the worship \ 

must he in Spirit and in Truth ; for the Father seek- I 

eth such to worship him: so then it is no more a i 

worship consisting in outward observations, to be i 
performed by man at set times or opportunities^ which 

he can do in his own will, and by his own natural 1 
strength ; for else it would not differ in matter, but 

only in some circumstances from that under the law. \ 

Next as for a reason of this worship, we need not The reason \ 

give any other, and indeed none can give a better ^'j"**/^'^'" \ 

than that which Christ giveth, w^hich I think should ship in Spi- \ 
be sufficient to satisfy every Christian, to wit, GOD "** 
IS A SPIRIT, and they that icorship him, must 
worship him in Spirit and in Truth. As this ought 

to be received, because it is the words of Christ, so ; 
also it is founded upon so clear a demonstration of 

reason, as sufficiently evinceth its verity. For Christ ' 

excellently argues from the analogy that ought to j 

be betwixt the object, and the worship directed there- X 

unto : ; 

God is a Spirit ; arg. I 

Therefore, he must be woi^shiped in Spirit. \ 

This is so certain, that it can suffer no contradic- \ 

tion ; yea, and this analogy is so necessary to be ) 

minded, that under the law, when God instituted and j 

appointed that ceremonial worship to the Jews, be- i 

cause that worship was outward, that there might be ^\ 

an analogy, he saw it necessary to condescend to them ] 

as in a special manner, to dwell betwixt the cheru- \ 
bims within the tabernacle, and afterwards to make 

the temple of Jerusalem in a sort his habitation, and j 
cause something of an outward glory and majesty to The giorj of , 

appear, by causing fire from heaven to consume the [gmpk^"^ \ 
sacrifices, and filling the temple with a cloud : through 

and by which mediums, visible to the outward eye, ^ 

he manifested himself proportionably to that outward I 

worship which he had commanded them to perform. \ 


So now under the new covenant^ he seeing meet in 
his heavenly wisdom to lead his children in a path 
more heavetili/ and spiritual, and in a way more easy 
. and familiar, and also purposing to disappoint carnal 
and outivard observations, that his may have an eye 
more to an inward glory and kingdom than to an out- 
wa?^d, he hath given us for an example hereof the 
appearance of his beloved Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, 
AiMoses who (as Moscs delivered the Israelites out of their 
oi'tIa°rd. so outward bondage, and by outwardly destroying their 
chrUt dtii- enemies) hath delivered and doth deliver us by suf- 
from inward faring, and dying by the hands of his enemies ; there- 
•i«?erj. by triumphing over the devil, and his and our inward 
enemies, and delivering us therefrom. He hath also 
instituted an inward and spiritual worship: so that 
God now tieth not his people to the temple of Jeru- 
salem, nor yet unto outward ceremonies and observa- 
tions ; but taketh the heart of every Christian for a 
temple to dwell in ; and there immediately appeareth, 
and giveth him directions how to serve him in any 
outward acts. Since, as Christ argueth, God is a 
Spirit, he will now be worshiped in the Spirit, where 
he reveals himself, and dwelleth with the contrite in 
heart. Now, since it is the heart of man that now is 
become the tanple of God, in which he will be wor- 
shiped, and no more in particular outward temples 
(since, as blessed Stephen said, out of the prophet, to 
the professing Jews of old. The Alost High dwelleth 
not in temples made with hands), as before the glory 
of the Lord descended to fill the outward temple, it 
behoved to be purified and cleansed, and all polluted 
stuft' removed out of it ; yea, and the place for the 
tabernacle was overlaid with gold, the most precious 
and cleanest of metals ; so also before God be wor- 
shiped in the inward temple of the heart, it must also 
be purged of its own filth, and all its own thoughts 
and imaginations, that so it may be fit to receive the 
Spirit of God, and to be actuated by it. And doth 
not this directly lead us to that inward silence, of 


which we have spoken, and exactly pointed out? And 
further, This worship must be in truth ; intimating, 
that this spiritual worship, thus actuated, is only and 
properly a true worship ; as being that which, for the 
reasons above observed, cannot be counterfeited by 
the enemy, nor yet performed by the hypocrite. 

§. XVI. And though this worship be indeed very 
different from the divers established invented worships 
among Christians, and therefore may seem strange to 
many, yet hath it been testified of, commended and 
practised, by the most pious of all sorts, in all ages, 
as by many evident testimonies might be proved. So 
that from the professing and practising thereof, the 
name of Mysticks hath arisen, as of a certain sect, a certain 
generally commended by all, whose writings are full tfcks^^^oL'' 
both of the explanation and of the commendation of the Papists, 
this sort of worship; where they plentifully assert ^^^yg^er- 
this inward introversion and abstraction of the mind, c>se. see 
as they call it, from all images and thoughts, and the phla, prinT- 
prayer of the will: yea, they look upon this as the edAn.Oom. 
height of Christian perfection ; so that some of them, 
though professed Papists, do not doubt to aflirm, That 
such as have attained this method of worship, or are 
aiming at it (as in a book called Sancta Sophia, put 
out by the English Benedictines, printed at Doway, The English 
Anno 1657. tract, i. Sect. ii. cap. 5.) need not, nor ^^^lf\ll^^, 
ought to trouble or busy themselves with frequent and monj for 
unnecessary confessions, ivith e.vercising corporal la- ^^l^^\^^^^ 
hours and austerities, the using of vocal voluntary againsttheir 
prayers, the hearing of a number of masses, or set ""devo" 
devotions, or exercises to saints, or prayers for the t'^""- 
dead, or having solicitous and distracting cares to gain 
indulgences, by going to such and such churches, or 
adjoining ones self to confraternities, or entangling 
ones self with vows and promises ; because such kind 
of things hinder the soul from observing the operations 
of the Divine Spirit in it, and from having liberty to 
follow the Spirit whither it would draw her. And 
yet who knows not that in such kind of observations 


the very substance of the Popish religion consisteth ? 
Yet nevertheless, it appears by this, and many other 
passages, which out of their My stick writers might 
be mentioned, how they look upon this worship as 
excelling all other ; and that such as arrived here- 
unto had no absolute need of the others: yea (see 
the Life of Balthazar Alvares, in the same Sancta 
Sophia, Tract, iii. Sect. i. cap. 7.), such as tasted of 
this, quickly confessed, that the other fonns and cere- 
monies of worship were useless as to them ; neither 
did they perform them as things necessary, but merely 
for order or example's sake. And therefore, though 
some of them were so overclouded with the common 
darkness of their profession, yet could they affirm that 
this spiritual worship was still to be retained and 
sought for, even though it should be become necessary 
BeroAfd to omit their outward ceremonies. Hence Bernard, 
The Spidf ^s i" many other places, so in his Epistle to William, 
above Po- abbot of thc same order, saith. Take heed to the rule 
pi. or crs. gj-Qg^. fj^^ kiugclom of God is tcithinyou: and after- 
wards, saying, That their outward orders and rules 
should be observed, he adds ; But otherwise^ when it 
shall happen that one of these two must be omitted, in 
such a case these are much rather to be omitted than 
those former: for by how much the Spirit is more 
cvcellent and noble than the body, by so ynuch are spi- 
ritual e.vercises more profitable than corporal. Is not 
that then the best of worships, which the best of men 
in all ages, and of all sects, have commended, and 
which is most suitable to the doctrine of Christ? I 
say. Is not that worship to be followed and pei^ 
formed ? And so much the rather, as God hath raised 
a people to testify for it, and preach it, to their great 
refreshment and strengthening, in the very face of jhe 
world, and notwithstanding much opposition; Who 
Those Mj»- do uot, as tlicsc Mysticks, make of it a mystery, on^y 
roMfinc'ihat *^ ^^ attained by a few men or women in a cloister^ 
iii.viteryto or, as their mistake was, after wearying themselves 
oisier. ^-^1^ many outward ceremonies and observations, as 

OF WOKSHIP. . 363 

if it were the consequence of such a labour ', but who 
in the free love of God (who respects not persons, 
and was near to hear and reveal himself, as well to 
Cornelius, a centurion and a Roman, as to Simeon 
and Anna ; and who discovered his glory to Mary, a 
poor handmaid, and to the poor shepherds, rather 
than to the high priest and devout proselytes among 
the Jews) in and according to his f7re love, finding 
that God is revealing and establishing this worship, 
and making many poor tradesmen, yea, young boys 
and girls, witnesses of it, do entreat and beseech all 
to lay aside their own will- worships, and voluntary 
acts, performed in their own wills, and by their own 
mere natural strength and power, without retiring 
out of their vain imaginations and thoughts, or feeling 
the pure Spirit of God to move and stir in them ; that 
they may come to practise this acceptable worship, 
which is in Spirit and in Truth. But against this 
worship they object ; 

§. XVII. First, It seems to be an unprojitabk eaer- object, i. 
cise for a man to be doing or thitiking nothing ; and 
that one might be much better employed, either in me- 
ditating upon some good subject, or otherwise praying 
to or praising God. 

I answer; That is not unprofitable, which is ofANsw. 
absolute necessity before any other duty can be ac- 
ceptably performed, as we have shown this waiting 
to be. Moreover, those have but a carnal and gi'oss 
apprehension of God, and of the things of his king- 
dom, who imagine that men please him by their own 
workings and actings : whereas, as hath been shown, 
the first step for a man to fear God, is to cease from 
his own thoughts and imaginations, and suffer God's 
Spirit to work in him. For we must cease to do eviluai. \. le, 
ere we learn to do well ; and this meddling in things ^'^ ^^^^ 
spiritual by man's own natural understanding is one cease to do 
,,of the greatest and most dangerous evils that man is'ie.;"toTo 
incident to : beina: that which occasioned our first ^eii. 
parents' fall, to wit, a forwardness to desire to know 

Object. 2. 

Set times 
aod placet 
for meet- 

their use 
and reason 


364 OF WOllSHlP. PROP. \I. 

things, and a meddling with them, both without and 
contrary to the Lord's command. 

Secondly ; Some object, If your worship merely 
consist 171 inwardly reluming to the Lord, and feeling 
of his Spirit arise in you, and then to do outward acts 
as ye are led by it, what need ye have public nieetings 
at set times and places, since every one may enjoy this 
at home ? Or should ?iot every one stay at home, until 
thty be particularly moved to go to such a place at such 
a time ; since to meet at set times and places seems to 
he an outward observation and cerenwny, contrary to 
what ye at other times assert } 

I answer, first; To meet at set times and places is 
not any religious act, or part of worship in itself; but 
only an outward conveniency, necessary for our seeing 
one another, so long as we are clothed with this out- 
ward tabernacle : and therefore our meeting at set 
times and places is not a part of our worship, but a 
preparatory accommodation of our outward man, in 
order to a public visible worship ; since we set not 
about the visible acts of worship when we meet toge- 
ther, until we be led thereunto by the Spirit of God. 
Secondly, God hath seen meet, so long as his children 
are in this world, to make use of the outward senses, 
not only as a means to convey spiritual life, as by 
speaking, praying, praising, Sec. which cannot be done 
to mutual edification, but when we hear and see one 
another ; but also to maintain an outward, visible tes- 
timony for his name in the world : he causeth the 
inward life (which is also many times not conveyed 
by the outward senses), the more to abound, when 
his children assemble themselves diligently together 
to wait upon him ; so that as iron sharjyeneth i?'on, 
the seeing of the faces one of anotlier, when both are 
inwardly gathered unto the life, giveth occasion for 
the life secretly to rise, and pass from vessel to vessef. 
And as many candles lighted, and put in one place, 
do greatly augment the light, and make it more to 
shine forth, so when many are gathered together into 


the same life, there is more of the glory of God, and 
his power appears, to the refreshment of each indivi- 
dual ; for that he partakes not only of the light and 
life raised in himself, but in all the rest. And there- 
fore Christ hath particularly promised a blessing to 
such as assemble together in his name, seeing he will 
be in the midst of them, Matt, xviii. 20. And the 
author to the Hebrews doth precisely prohibit the 
neglect of this duty, as being of very dangerous and 
dreadful consequence in these words ; Heb. x. 24 : 
And let us consider one another, to provoke unto love, 
and to good works; not forsaking the assembling o/' Assembling 
ourselves together, as the manner of some is; — For if isHWt'he 
we sin wilfully, after that we have received the know- neglected. 
ledge of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice 
for sins. And therefore the Lord hath shown that 
he hath a particular respect to such as thus assemble 
themselves together, because that thereby a public 
testimony for him is upheld in the earth, and his 
name is thereby glorified ; and therefore such as are 
right in their spirits are naturally drawn to keep the 
meetings of God's people, and never want a spiritual 
influence to lead them thereunto : and if any do it in 
a mere customary way, they will no doubt suffer con- 
demnation for it. Yet cannot the appointing of places 
and times be accounted a ceremony and observation, 
done in man's will, in the worship of God, seeing none 
can say that it is an act of worship, but only a mere 
presenting of our persons in order to it, as is abovesaid. 
Which that it was practised by the primitive church 
and saints, all our adversaries do acknowledge. 

Lastly, Some object, 2'haf this manner of worship object, s. 
in silence is not to be found in all the scripture: 

I answer ; We make not silence to be the sole mat- answ. 
ter of our worship ; since, as I have said above, there in waiting 
are many meetings, which are seldom altogether silent ; f^g'^Jnid?*' 
some or other are still moved either to preach, pray, ance.siience 
or praise : and so in this our meetings cannot be but ** ^"pi^"'*" • 
like the meetings of the primitive churches recorded 

366 Of WORSHIP, PROP. xi. 

in scripture, since our adversaries confess that they 
did preach and pray by the Spirit. And then what 
absurdity is it to suppose, that at some time the Spirit 
did not move them to these outward acts, and that 
then they were silent? Since we may well conclude 
they did not speak until they were moved ; and so no 
doubt had sometimes silence. Acts, ii. 1 , before the 
Spirit came upon them, it is said, — They were all 
with ofie accord in one place; and then it is said. The 
Spirit suddenly canie upon them ; but no mention is 
made of any one speaking at that time ; and I would 
willingly know what absurdity our adversaries can 
infer, should we conclude they were a while silent ? 
Inst. But if it be urged, That a whole silent meeting can- 

7iot be found in scripture: 
answ. I answer ; Supposing such a thing were not re- 

corded, it will not therefore follow that it is not law- 
siient meet- ful ; siucc it naturally followeth from other scripture 
*"roteTfroni pi*6cepts, as wc havc proved this doth. For seeing 
siripture thc scripturc commands to meet together, and when 
■lid reasou. ^^^^^ ^|^g scripture prohibits prayers or preachings, but 
as the Spirit moveth thereunto ; if people meet toge- 
ther, and the Spirit move not to such acts, it will 
necessarily follow that they must be silent. But fur- 
ther, there might have been many such things among 
the saints of old, though not recorded in scripture ; 
and yet we have enough in scripture, signifying that 
such things were. For Job sat silent seven days with 
his /fiends together ; here was a long silent meeting: 
see also Ezra, ix. 4 ; and Ezekiel, xiv. 1 , and xx. 1 . 
Thus having shown the excellency of this worship, 
proving it from scripture and reason, and answering 
the objections which are commonly made against it, 
which, though it may suffice to the explanation and 
proof of our Proposition, yet I shall add somethinir 
more particularly o{ preachings praying, and sing/f^^, 
and so proceed to the following Proposition. 
I. §. XVill. Preachings as it is. used both among 

Tewbio i. Papists and Protestants, is for one man to take some 

OF WORSHIP. 367 ^ 

place or verse of scripture, and thereon speak for an uHb the j 

hour or two, what he hath studied and premeditated ^^p^^st*. ] 

in his closet, and gathered together froni his own in- a studied ] 

ventions, or from the writings and observations of [f^ ^^^o. '""^ ' 

others ; and then having got it by heart (as ^ school- ] 

boy doth his lesson), he brings it forth, and repeats it i 
before the people : and how much the more fertile 

and strong a man's invention is, and the more indus- i 

trious and laborious he is in collecting such observa- \ 

tions, and can utter them with the excellency of speech ; 

and human eloquence, so much the more is he ac- 1 

counted an able and excellent preacher. \ 

To this we oppose, that when the saints are met True '! 

together, and eveiy one gathered to the gift and grace bv^'the'spi- \ 

of God in themselves, he that ministereth, being ac- ^''- , . 

tuated thereunto by the arising of the grace in him- , 

self, ought to speak forth what the Spirit of God fur- ^; 

nisheth him with ; not minding the eloquence and I 

wisdom of words, but the demonstration of the Spirit '\ 

and oi power : and that either in the interpreting sortie ; 
part of scripture, in case the Spirit, which is the good 

remembrancer, lead him so to do, or otherwise words S 

of exhortation, advice, reproof, and instruction, or the '\ 
sense of some spiritual experiences : all which will 

still be agreeable to the scripture, though perhaps not j 

relative to, nor founded upon any particular chapter i 

or verse, as a text. Now let us examine and consider | 

which of these two sorts of preaching is most agree- i 

able to the precepts of Christ and his apostles, and S 

the primitive church recorded in scripture? For, first, | 

as to their preaching upon a text, if it were not merely ; 

customary or premeditated, but done by the imme- j 
diate motion of the Spirit, we should not blame it ; - \ 
but to do it as they do, there is neither precept nor ' \ 

practice, that ever I could observe, in the New Testa- ■ 

ment, as a part of the instituted worship thereof. ' \ 

But they allege. That Christ took the book of Isaiah, object. ' 
and read out of it, and spake therefrom; and that 

Peter preached from a sentence of the prophet Joel. ' 

I answer, That Christ and Peter did it not but as answ. j 


1. chrin't immediately actuated and moved thereunto by tbe 
aad Peter*, ji^pirit of God, and that without premeditation, which 

•peaking ^ ^ . -ii ^ • i • i 

wMnotbj I suppose our adversaries will not deny: m which 
UoT'**'** ^^^^ ^^ willingly approve of it. But what is this to 
their customary conned way, without either waiting 
for or expecting the movings or leadings of the Spirit? 
Moreover, that neither Christ nor Peter did it as a 
settled custom or form, to be constantly practised by 
all the ministers of the church, appears, in that most 
of all the sermons recorded of Christ and his apostles 
in scripture were without this, as appears from Christ's 
sermon upon the mount. Matt. v. 1, Ike; Mark, iv. 1, 
&c. ; and Paul's preaching to the Athenians, and to 
the Jews, &c. As then it appears that this method 
of preaching is not grounded upon any scripture pre- 
cept, so the nature of it is contrary to the preaching 
of Christ under the new covenant, as expressed and 
recommended in scripture ; for Christ, in sending 
forth his disciples, expressly mentioneth, that they 
are not to speak of or from, themselves, or to forecast 
beforehand, but that which the Spirit in the same hour 
shall teach them, as is particularly mentioned in the 
three evangelists. Matt. x. 20 ; Mark, xiii. 1 1 ; Luke, 
xii. 12. Now if Christ gave this order to his disci- 
ples before he departed from them, as that which they 
were to practise during his abode outwardly with 
them, much more were they to do it after his depar- 
ture, since then they were more especially to receive 
the Spirit, to lead them in all things, and to brifig all 
things to their remembrance, John, xiv. 26. And if 
they were to do so when they appeared before the 
magistrates and princes of the earth, much more in 
the worship of God, when they stand specially before 
him ; seeing, as is above shown, his worship is to be 
performed in Spirit ; and therefore after their receiv- 
ing of the Holy Ghost, it is said, Acts, ii. 4 : They 
spake as the Spirit gave them utterance, not what they 
had studied and gathered from books in their closets 
in a premeditated way. 
FrtDoiacus Franciscus Lambertus, before cited, speaketh well 


and slioweth their hypocrisy, Tract. 5, of Prophecy, Lamber- 
chap. 3, saying, Where are they now that glory in J^o^y**"^ 
their inventions, who say, a fine invention ! a fine in- against the 
vention! This they call invention, which themselves ^^^^tin^^l'. 
have made up ; but what have the faithful to do with »i«n« a«d 
such kind of i?iventions ? It is not figments, nor yet ^™^" *' 
inventions, that we will have, hut things that are solid, 
invincible, eternal, and heavenly ; not which men have 
invented, but which God hath revealed: for if we 
believe the scriptures, our invention profiteth nothing, 
but to provoke God to our ruin. And afterwards. Be- 
ware (saith he) that thou determine not precisely to 
speak what before thou hast meditated, whatsoever it 
be; for though it be lawful to determine the text which 
thou art to expound, yet not at all the interpretation ; 
lest if thou so dost, thou take from the Holy Spirit 
that which is his, to wit, to direct thy speech, that thou 
mayest prophesy in the name of the Lord, void of all 
learning, meditation, and experience, and as if thou 
hadst studied nothing at all, committing thy heart, thy 
tongue, and thyself wholly unto his Spirit, and trust- 
ing nothing to thy former studying or meditation ; hut 
saying with thyself, in great confidence of the divine 
promise, The Lord will give a word with much power 
unto those that preach the gospel. But above all 
things be careful thou follow not the manner of hypo- 
crites, who have written almost word for word what 
they are to say, as if they were to repeat some verses 
upon a theatre, having learned all their preachiyig as 
they do that act tragedies. A7ul afterwards, when they 
are in the place of prcyphesying, pray the Lord to 
direct their tongue ; but in the meantime, shutting up 
the way of the Holy Spirit, they determine to say no- 
thing but what they have written. O unhappy kind 
of prophets, yea, and truly cursed, which depend not 
upon God's Spirit, but upon their own writings or 
meditation ! Why prayest thou to the Lord, thou false 
prophet, to give thee his holy Spirit, by which thou 
mayest speaJk things profitable, and yet thou repelkst 

B B 


the Spirit? Why preferrest thou thy meditation or 
study to the Spirit of God ? Otherwise why committest 
thou not thyself to the Spirit ? 
1. The §. XIX. Secondly, This manner of preaching as 

Zr/dom*'" ^sed by them (considering that they also affirm that 
brings be- it may be and often is performed by men who are 
fiUih?* wicked, or void of true grace), cannot only not edify 
the church, beget or nourish true faith, but is destruc- 
tive to it, being directly contrary to the nature of the 
Christian and apostolic ministry mentioned in the 
scriptures : for the apostle preached the gospel not in 
the wisdom of words, lest the cross of Christ should be 
of none effect, 1 Cor. i. 17. But this preaching not 
being done by the actings and movings of God's 
Spirit, but by man's invention and eloquence, in his 
own will, and through his natural and acquired parts 
and learning, is in the wisdom of words, and there- 
fore the cross of Christ is thereby made of none eflbct. 
The apostles' speech and preaching was not with en- 
ticing words of mans wisdom, but in demot?stration of 
the Spirit and of power, that the faith of their hearers 
should 7wt stand in the wisdom of men, but in the 
power of God, 1 Cor. ii. 3, 4, 5. But this preaching 
having nothing of the Spirit and power in it, both the 
preachers ^nd hearers confessing they wait for no such 
thing, nor yet are oftentimes sensible of it, must needs 
stand in the enticing words of man's wisdom, since it 
is by the mere wisdom of man it is sought after, and 
by the mere strength of man's eloquence and enticing 
words it is uttered ; and therefore no wonder if the 
faith of such as hear and depend upon such preachers 
and preachings stand in the wisdom of men, and not 
in the power of God. The apostles declared, That 
they spake not in the words which mans wisdom teach^ 
cth, but which the Holy Ghost teachcth, 1 Cor. ii. 13. 
But these preachers confess that they are strangers to 
the Holy Ghost, his motions and operations, neither^ 
do they wait to feel them, and therefore they speak 
in the words which their own natuml wisdom and 


learning teach them, mixing them in, and adding 
them to, such words as they steal out of the scriptures 
and other books, and therefore speak not what the 
Holy Ghost teacheth. 

Thirdly, This is contrary to the method and order 3. Tme 
of the primitive church mentioned by the apostle, ^''e'thoVwas 
1 Cor. xiv. 30, &c. where in preaching every one is to speak bj 
to wait for his revelation, and to give place one unto ^^^^^^*^'°"- 
another, according as things are revealed ; but here 
there is no waiting for a revelation, but the preacher 
must speak, and not that which is revealed unto him, 
but what -he hath prepared and premeditated before- 
hand. , 

Lastly, By this kind of preaching the Spirit of God, 4. Tbe Spi- 
which should be the chief instructor and teacher of ^^^J ''^"^ 
God's people, and whose influence is that only which priests from 
makes all preaching effectual and beneficial for the I'e^acben* 
edifying of souls, is shut out, and man's natural wis- 
dom, learning, and parts set up and exalted ; which 
no doubt is a great and chief reason why the preach- 
ing among the generality of Christians is so unfruit- 
ful and unsuccessful. Yea, according to this doc- 
trine, the devil may preach, and ought to be heard 
also, seeing he both knoweth the truth, and hath as 
much eloquence as any. But what avails excellency 
of speech, if the demonstration and power of the 
Spirit be wanting, which toucheth the conscience? 
We see that when the devil confessed to the truth, 
yet Christ would have none of his testimony. And 
as these pregnant testimonies of the scripture do prove 
this part of preaching to be contrary to the doctrine 
of Christ, so do they also prove that of ours before 
affirmed to be conformable thereunto. 

§. XX. But if any object after this manner, Have object. 
not many been benefited, yea, and both converted and 
edified by the ministry of such as have premeditated 
their preaching 1 Yea, and hath not the Spirit often 
concurred by its divine influence with preachings thus 



prefneditatedj so as they have been powerfully borne in 
upon the souls of the hearers to their advantage ? 
Ahsw. I answer, Though that be granted, which I shall 

not deny, it will not infer that the thing was good in 
Paoi perse- itself, morc than because Paul was met with by Christ 
*°nve*rud* *^ ^^^^ convcrting of his soul riding to Damascus to 
k therefore pcrsccutc the saiuts that he did well in so doing. 
goST***'"^ Neither particular actions, nor yet whole congrega- 
tions, as we above observed, are to be measured by 
the acts of God's condescension in times of ignorance. 
But besides, it hath oftentimes fallen out, that God, 
having a regard to the simplicity and integrity either 
of the preacher or hearers, hath fallen in upon the 
heart of a preacher by his power and holy influence, 
and thereby hath led him to speak things that were 
not in his premeditated discourse, and which perhaps 
he never thought on before ; and those passing ejacu- 
lations, and unpremeditated but living exhortations, 
have proved more beneficial and refreshing both to 
preacher and hearers than all their premeditated ser- 
mons. But all that will not allow them to continue 
in these things which in themselves are not approved, 
but contrary to the practice of the apostles, when God 
is raising up a people to serve him, according to the 
primitive purity and spirituality ; yea, such acts of 
God's condescension, in times of darkness and igno- 
rance, should engage all more and more to follow him, 
according as he reveals his most perfect and spiritual 
II. §. XXI. Having hitherto spoken of preaching, now 

Of prajer, jt is fit to speak of vravins^, concerniner which the like 
how the . *^ • xi: r\ * 1 • ^ 1 r ' 

outward is coutroversy ariseth. Our adversaries, whose religion 

dist^iogaish- is all for the most part outside, and such whose acts 
inward. are the mere product of man's natural will and abili- 
ties, as they can preach, so can they pray when they 
please, and therefore have their set particular prayers. 
I meddle not with the controversies among themselves, 
concerning this, some of them being for set prayers, 
as a liturgy, others for such as are conceived extern- 

OF WORSH«». 373 

pore ; it suffices me that all of them agree in this, > 
That the motions and influence of the Spirit of God ] 
are not necessary to be previous thereunto; and there- i 
fore they have set times in their public worship, as The priests j 
before and after preaching, and in their private devo- ^^g^^^"^„^° \ 
tion, as morning and evening, and before and after praj, deny j 
meat, and other such occasions, at which they pre- *^® ^^"^^' ] 
cisely set about the performing of their prayers, by l 
speaking words to God, whether they feel any motion 5 
or influence of the Spirit or not ; so that some of the '\ 
chiefest have confessed that they have thus prayed 
without the motions or assistance of the Spirit, ac- ] 
knowledging that they sinned in so doing; yet i 
they said they looked upon it as their duty so to j 
do, though to pray without the Spirit be sin. We • 
freely confess that prayer is both very profitable, and 
a necessary duty commanded, and fit to be practised ; 
frequently by all Christians ; but as we can do no- 
thing without Christ, so neither can we pray without : 
the concurrence and assistance of his Spirit. But 
that the state of the controversy may be the better t. 
understood, let it be considered, first, that prayer is 
twofold, inward and oulicard. Inward prayer is that What in- ' 
secret turning of the mind towards God, whereby, j^af'^P'^J^'^ | 
being secretly touched and awakened by the light of * 
Christ in the conscience, and so bowed down under j 
the sense of its iniquities, unworthiness, and misery, '\ 
it looks up to God, and, joining with the secret shin- | 
ings of the seed of God, it breathes towards him, and = 
is constantly breathing forth some secret desires and ^ \ 
aspirations towards him. It is in this sense that we 1 
are so frequently in scripture commanded to pray \ 
continualli/, Luke, xviii. 1 ; 1 Thess. v. 17 ; Eph. vi. 1 
18; Luke, xxi. 36; which cannot be understood of \ 
outward prayer, because it were impossible that men i 
should be always upon their knees, expressing words \ 
of prayer ; and this would hinder them from the exer- 
cise of those duties no less positively commanded. j 
Outivard prayer is, v/hen as the spirit, being thus in what oot- 
the exercise of inward retirement, and feeling the|^"^P"^*' ^ 


breathing of the Spirit of God to arise powerfully in 
the soul, receives strength and liberty by a superadded 
motion and influence of the Spirit to bring forth either 
audible sighs, groans, or words, and that either in 
public assemblies, or in private, or at meat, &c. 
Inward As then biward prayer is necessayy at all times, so, 

Mss^rVat ^^ \oiig as the day of every man's visitation lasteth, 
all times, hc Hcver wants some influence, less or more, for the 
practice of it ; because he no sooner retires his mind, 
and considers himself in God's presence, but he finds 
himself in the practice of it. 
Outward The outward exercise of prayer, as needing a 
Je'Jdrel"^** greater and superadded influence and motion of the 
saperadded Spirit, as it cauuot be continually practised, so nei- 
10 aenoe. ^^^ ^^^ .^ ^^ ^^ readily, so as to be effectually pei^ 
formed, until his mind be some time acquainted with 
the inward; therefore such as are diligent and watch- 
ful in their minds, and much retired in the exercise of 
this inward prayer, are more capable to be frequent 
in the use of the outward, because that this holy influ- 
ence doth more constantly attend them, and they 
being better acquainted with, and accustomed to, the 
motions of God's Spirit, can easily perceive and dis- 
cern them. And indeed, as such who are most dili- 
gent have a near access to God, and he taketh most 
delight to draw them by his Spirit to approach and 
call upon him, so when many are gathered together 
in this watchful mind, God doth frequently pour forth 
the Spirit of prayer amonor them and stir them there- 
unto, to the edifying and building up of one another 
in love. But because this outward prayer depends 
upon the inward, as that which must follow it, and 
cannot be acceptably performed but as attended with 
a superadded influence and motion of the Spirit, 
We oaoDot therefore cannot we prefix set times to pray outwardly, 
to.pVal'Tnd ^^ ^ ^^ ^^y ^ necessity to speak words at such and 
praj. ' such times, whether we feel this heavenly influence 
and assistance or no ; for that we judge were a tempt- 
ing of God, and a coming before him without due 
preparation. Wc think it fit for \x% to present our- 


selves before him by this inward retirement of the 
mind, and so to proceed further, as his Spirit shall 
help us and draw us thereunto ; and we find that the 
Lord accepts of this, yea, and seeth meet sometimes 
to exercise us in this silent place for the trial of our 
patience, without allowing us to speak further, that 
he may teach us not to rely upon outward perform- 
ances, or satisfy ourselves, as too many do, with the 
saying of our prayers ; and that our dependence upon 
him may be the more firm and constant, to wait for 
the holding out of his sceptre, and for his allowance 
to draw near unto him, w^ith greater freedom and 
enlargement of Spirit upon our hearts towards him. 
Yet nevertheless w^e do not deny but sometimes God, 
upon particular occasions, very suddenly, yea, upon 
the very first turning in of the mind, may give power 
and liberty to bring forth words or acts of outward 
prayer, so as the soul can scarce discern any previous 
motion, but the influence and bringing forth thereof 
may be as it were simul et semel : nevertheless that 
saying of Bernard is true, that all pi'cnjer is lukewarm^ 
which hath not an inspiration preceding it. Though 
we affirm that none ought to go about prayer without 
this motion, yet we do not deny but such sin as neg- Sach sin %% 
lect prayer ; but their sin is in that they come not to "^ p^Jer!" 
that place where they may feel that which would lead 
them thereunto. And therefore we question not but 
many, through neglect of this inward watchfulness 
and retiredness of mind, miss many precious oppor- 
tunities to pray, and thereby are guilty in the sight of 
God; yet would they sin, if they should set about the 
act until they first felt the influence. For as he grossly a forward 
offisnds his master that lieth in his bed and sleeps, j'"^/g^*'*/^*j 
and neglects to do his master's business ; yet jf such answers not 
a one should suddenly get up, without putting on his ^'* ^'*^^* 
clothes, or taking along with him those necessary 
tools and instruments, without which he could no^ 
possibly work, and should forwardly fall a doing to 
no purpose, he would be so far thereby from repairing 


his former fault, that he would justly incur a new 
censure: and as one that is careless and otherways 
busied may miss to hear one speaking unto him, or 
even not hear the bell of a clock, though striking 
hard by him, so may many, through negligence, miss 
to hear God oftentimes calling upon them, and giving 
them access to pray unto him ; yet will not that allow 
them, without his liberty, in their own wills to fall to 

And lastly. Though this be the only true and pro* 
per method of prayer, as that which is alone accept- 
in times of able to God, yet shall we not deny but heu)ftentimes 
God^hiof- answered the prayers and concurred with the desires 
ten bear of somc, cspccially in times of darkness, who have 
^heir pr«j- greatly erred herein ; so that some that have set down 
in formal prayer, though far wrong in the matter as 
well as manner, without the assistance or influence of 
God's Spirit, yet have found him to take occasion 
therethrough to break in upon their souls, and won- 
derfully tender and refresh them ; yet as in preaching 
and elsewhere hath afore been observed, that will not 
prove any such practices, or be a just let to hinder 
any from coming to practise that pure, spiritual, and 
acceptable prayer, which God is again restoring and 
leading his people into, out of all superstitions and 
mere empty formalities. The state of the contro- 
versy, and our sense thereof, being thus clearly stated, 
will both obviate many objections, and make the an- 
First.spiri- swcr to othcrs more brief and easy. I shall first prove 
*roved from ^^^^ Spiritual prayer by some short considerations 
•cripture. from scripturCy and then answer the objections of our 
opposers, which will also serve to refute their method 
and manner thereof. 
J. §. XXII. And First, That there is a necessity of 

^*^t*b%it ^^^^ ifitvard retirement of the mind as previous to 
to move the prat/ery that the Spirit may be felt to draw thereunto, 
^!»Vr^ appears, for that in most of those places where prayer 
is commanded, watching is prefixed thereunto, as ne- 
cessary to go before, as Matt. xxiv. 42 ; Mark, xiii. 

OF WORSHIP. ' 377 

33, and xiv. 38 ; Luke, xxi. 36 ; from which it is 

evident that this watching was to go before prayer. 

Now to what end is this watching, or what is it, but 

a waiting to feel GocTs Spirit tp draw unto prayer, 

that so it may be done acceptably ? For since we are 

to pray always in the Spirit, and cannot pray of our- Eph. vi. is 

selves without it acceptably, this watching must be for 

this end recommended to us, as preceding prayer, that 

we may watch and wait for the seasonable time to 

pray, which is when the Spirit moves thereunto. 

Secondly, This necessity of the Spirit's moving and u. 
concurrence appears abundantly from that of the apos- We know 
tie Paul, Rom. viii. 26, 27 : Likewise the Spirit also jlray b^t L 
helpeih our injirmities : for we know not what we J*^® ^p'"^ 
should pray for as ice ought ; but the Spirit itself ^ ^'" 
maketh intercession for us with groanings which can- 
not be uttered. And he that searcheth the hearts know- 
eth what is the mind of the Spiiit, because he inaketh 
intercession for the saints according to the ivill of God. 
Which first holds forth the incapacity of men as of 
themselves to pray or call upon God in their own wills, 
even such as have received the faith of Christ, and 
are in measure sanctified by it, as was the church of 
Rome, to which the apostle then wrote. Secondly, 
It holds forth that which can only help and assist 
men to pray, to wit, the Spirit, as that without which 
they cannot do it acceptably to God, nor beneficially 
to their own souls. Thirdly, The manner and way of 
the Spirit's intercession, ivith sighs and groans which 
are unutterable. And Fourthly, That God receiveth 
graciously the prayers of such as are presented and 
offered unto himself by the Spirit, knoicing it to be 
according to his ivill. Now it cannot be conceived 
but this order of prayer thus asserted by the apostle 
is most consistent with those other testimonies of scrip- 
ture, commending and recommending to us the use of 
prayer. From which I thus argue. 

If any man knoio not how to pray, neither can do arg. 
it without the help of the Spirit, then it is to no pur- 

378 ^ or woKSHip. PROP. xi. 

pose for him, but altogether unprofitable, to pray with- 
out it. - 

But thejirst is true, therefore also the last. 

III. Thirdly, This neqessity of the Spirit to true prayer 
r?/*lrv* appears from Eph. vi. 18, and Jude, 20, where the 

in the Spi- r^i^ r » • 1 f. • •. J 

rit, and apostle comiiiands to pray always in the cspint, ana 
uierewnto. ^^^tchijig thcfxuf^to / which is as much as if he had 
said, that we were never to pray without the Spirit, 
or watching thereunto. And Jude showeth, that such 
prayers as are in the Holy Ghost only, tend to the 
building up of ourselves in our most holy faith. 

IV. Fourthly, The apostle Paul saith expressly, 1 Cor. 

!!!iTchr8r ^"* ^' ^^^^ ^^ ^'^'^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^'^^ Jesus is the Lord 
Lord but b? but by the Holy Ghost : if then Jesus cannot be thus 
Gbo^°'^ rightly named but by the Holy Ghost, far less can he 
be acceptably called upon. Hence the same apostle 
declares, 1 Cor. xiv. 15, that he will pray with the 
Spirit, &c. A clear evidence that it was none of his 
method to pray without it. 

V. But Fifthly, All prayer without the Spirit is abomi- 
^o'Ara" 'nation, such as are the prayers of the wicked, Prov. 
the prajer* xxviii. 9. And the confidence that the saints have 
wicked. *^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ them is, if they ask any thing ac- 
cording to his will, 1 John, v. 14. So if the prayer 
be not according to his will, there is no ground of 
confidence that he will hear. Now our adversaries 
will acknowledge that prayers without the Spirit are 
not according to the will of God, and therefore such 
as pray without it have no ground to expect an an- 
swer: for indeed to bid a man pray without the Spirit 
is all one as to bid one see without eyes, work without 
hands, or go without feet. And to desire a man to 
fall to prayer ere the Spirit in some measure less or 
more move him thereunto, is to desire a mam to see 
before he opens his eyes, or to walk before he rises up, 
or to vvork with his hands before he moves them. 

VI. §. XXIII. But Lastly, From this false opini^ttof 
fJl""ift" P^'^y^^? without the Spirit, and not judging it neces- 

oflT.ired bj SETy tO bc Waited for. n« l)»'»f \v Uifh ni:iv hv felt to 
tb« .Spirit. 


move us thereunto, hath proceeded all the supersti- 
tion and idolatry that is among those called Chris- 
tians, and those many abominations wherewith the 
Lord is provoked, and his Spirit grieved; so that 
many deceive themselves now, as the Jews did of old, 
thinking it sufficient if they pay their daily sacrifices, 
and offer their customary oblations ; from thence 
thinking all is well, and creating a false peace to 
themselves, as the whore in the Proverbs, because 
they have offered up their sacrifices of morning and 
evening prayers. And therefore it is manifest that 
their constant use of these things doth not a whit 
influence their lives p,nd conversations, but they re- 
main for the most part as bad as ever. Yea, it is 
frequent both among Papists and Protestants, for 
them to leap as it were out of their vain, light, and 
profane conversations at their set hours and seasons, 
and fall to their customary devotion ; and then, when 
it is scarce finished, and the words to God scarce out, 
the former profane talk comes after it ; so that the 
same wicked profeyae spirit of this world actuates them 
in both. If there be any such thing as vai7i oblations, 
or prayers that are abomi)iatio7i, which God heareth 
not (as is certain there are, and the scripture testifies, 
Isa. Ixvi. 3 ; Jer. xiv. 12;) certainly such prayers as 
are acted in man's will, and by his strength, without 
God's Spirit, must be of that number. 

§. XXIV. Let this suffice for proof. I shall now 
proceed to answer their objections, when I have said 
something concQvmn^ jpining in prayer with othe?*s. concerning 
Those that pray toerether with one accord use not only J°'"'"K •". . 

.^ 1 . ^ . . 1 f . 1 •' prajer with 

to concur m their spirits, but also m the gesture oi others, 
their body, which we also willingly approve of. It 
becometh those who approach before God to pray, 
that they do it with bowed knees, and with their heads 
uncovered, which is our practice. 

But here ariseth a controversy. Whether it be law- object, i. 
fiil to join with others by those cMernal signs of reve- 
rcnce, albeit not in heart, who pray formally, not wait- • ^ 


big for the motion of the Spirit, nor judging it neces- 
answ. We answer, Not at all ; and for our testimony in 

this thing, we have suffered not a little. For when it 
The rewon hath fallen out, that either accidentally, or to witness 
TannoTjoin ^gaiust their worship, we have been present during 
io prater, the Same, and have not found it lawful for us to haw 
with them thereunto, they have often persecuted us, 
not only with reproaches, but also with strokes and 
cruel beatings. For this cause they used to accuse 
us of pride, profanity, and madness, as if we had no 
respect or reverence to the worship of God, and as if 
we judged none could pray, or were heard of God, 
but ourselves. Unto all which, and many more re- 
proaches of this kind, we answer briefly and modestly. 
That it suffices us that we are found so doing, neither 
through pride, nor madness, nor profanity, but merely 
lest we should hurt our consciences ; the reason of 
which is plain and evident : for since our principle 
and doctrine oblige us to believe that the prayers of 
those who themselves confess they are 7iot actuated by 
the Spirit are abominations, how can we with a safe 
conscience join with them? 
Object. 1. If they urge, That this is the height of uncharita- 
bleness and arrogancy, as if we jmlged ourselves always 
to pray by the Spirit's motion, but they never; as if we 
were never deceived by praying without the motions of 
the Spirit, and that they were never actuated by it, 
seeing albeit they judge 7iot the motion of the Spirit 
always necessary, they confess nevertheless that it is 
very profitable and comfortable, and they feel it often 
influencing them ; which that it sometimes falls out we 
cannot deny; 
answ. To all which I answer distinctly, If it were their 

known and avowed doctritie not to pray without the 
motion of the Spirit, and that, seriously holding there- 
unto, they did not bind themselves to pray at certain 
prescribed times precisely, at which times they deter- 
mine to pray, though without the Spirit, then indeed 


we might be accused of uncharitableness and pride, 

if we never joined with them ; and if they so taught shaii we 

and practised, I doubt not but it would be lawful for ««nfi™ *''« 

111111 T hypocrites 

US so to do, unless there should appear some maniiest when pray- 
and evident hypocrisy and delusion. But seeing they *"^' 
confess that they pray without the Spirit, and seeing 
God hath persuaded us that such prayers are abomi- 
nable, how can we with a safe conscience join with 
an abomination 1 That God sometimes condescends 
to them, we do not deny ; although now, when the 
spiritual worship is openly proclaimed, and all are 
invited unto it, the case is otherwise than in those old 
times of apostacy and darkness ; and therefore, albeit 
any should begin to pray in our presence, not expect- 
ing the motion of the Spirit; yet if it manifestly 
appear that God in condescension did concur with 
such a one, then according to God's will we should 
not refuse to join also ; but this is rare, lest thence 
they should be confirmed in their false principle. 
And although this seems hard in our profession, ne- 
vertheless it is so confirmed by the authority both of 
scripture and right reason, that many convinced there- 
of have embraced this part before other truths, which 
were easier, and, as they seem to some, clearer. 
Among whom is memorable of late years Alexander 
Skein, a magistrate of the city of Aberdeen, a man 
very modest, and very averse from giving offence to 
others, who nevertheless being overcome by the power 
of truth in this matter, behoved for this cause to 
separate himself from the public assemblies and 
prayers, and join himself unto us ; who also gave the 
reason of his change, and likewise succinctly, but yet 
substantially, comprehended this controversy concern- 
ing worship in some short questions, which he offered 
to the public preachers of the city, and which I think 
meet to insert in this place. 

1. Whether or not should an act of God's worship soimx^net- 
he gone about without the motions, leadings, and act- stefn^pro- 
ings of the Holy Spirit 1 posed to ihe 

2. If the motions of the Spirit be necessary to every AbeTdee"'" 




particular duty, whether should he be waited upon, 
that all our acts and words may be according as he 
gives utterance and assistance ? 

3. Whether every one that bears the name of a 
Christian, or professes to be a Protestant, hath such 
an unuiterrupted measure thereof, that he may, with- 
out waituig, go immediately about the duty ? 

4. If there be an indisposition and unfitness at some 
times for such exercises, at least as to the spiritual and 
lively performance thereof, whether ought they to be 
performed in that case, and at that time ? 

5. If any duty be gone about, under pretence that 
it is in obedience to the external com??iand, without the 
spiritual life and motion 7iecessary, whether such a duty 
thus performed can in faith be expected to be accepted 
of God, and not rather reckoned as a bringing of 

1- strange fire before the Lord, seeing it is performed at 
best by the strength of natural and acquired parts, and 
not by the strength and assistance of the Holy Ghost, 
which was typified by the fii^e that came doum from 
heaven, which alone behoved to consume the sacrifice, 
and no other ? 

6.' Whether duties go7ie about in the mere strength 
of natural and acquired parts, whether in public or 
private, be ?iot as really, upon the matter, an image of 
maris inventioji as the popish worship, though not so 
gross in the outward appearance ? And therefojr tvhe- 
ther it be not as real superstition to countenance any 
worship of that nature, as it is to countenance popish 
worship, though there be a difference in the degree? 

7. Whetha^ it be a ground of offence or just scandal 
to countenance the worship of those whose professed 
principle it is neither to speak for edification, nor to 
pray, but as the Holy Ghost shall be pleased to assist 
them in some measure less or more; without which 
they rather choose to be silent, than to speak without 
this influence? 

Unto these they answered but very coldly and 
faintly, whose answers likewise long ago he refuted. 
W6»tt»t Seeing then God hath called us to his spiritual 


worship, and to testify against the human and volun- not lose our 
taiy worships of the apostacy, if we did not this way J*r God "^ 
stand immovable to the truth revealed, but should 
join with them, both our testimony for God would be 
weakened and lost, and it would be impossible stea- 
dily to propagate this worship in the world, whose 
progress we dare neither retard nor hinder by any 
act of ours ; though therefore we shall lose not only 
worldly honour, but even our lives. And truly many 
Protestants, through their unsteadiness in this thing, 
for politic ends complying with the popish abomina- 
tions, have greatly scandalized their profession, and 
hurt the Reformation ; as appeared in the example of 
the Elector of Saxony ; who, in the convention at Elector of 
Augsburgh, in the year 1530, being commanded ^ylUn^^y* 
the Emperor Charles the Fifth to be present at the s'ven to 
mass, that he might carry the sword before him, ac- ^'^*'^"**"*^- 
cording to his place ; which when he justly scrupled 
to perform, his preachers, taking more care for their 
prince's honour than for his conscience, persuaded 
him that it was lawful to do it against his conscience. 
Which was both a very bad example, and great scan- 
dal to the Reformation, and displeased many ; as the Secondly, 
author of the History of the Council of Trent, in his l^J^rA'^pl 
fi rst book, well observes. But now I hasten to the niuai 
objections of our adversaries against this method of ^^Yred.*"" 

§. XXV. First, They object. That if such particu- OBiEcj. i. 
lav influences were needful to outward acts of worship, 
then they should also be needful to inward acts, to wit, 
desire and love to God. But this is absurd; There- 
fore also that from whence it follows, 

I answer ; That which was said in the state of the answ. 
controversy cleareth this ; because, as to those gene- 
ral duties, there never wants an influence, so long as 
the da,y of a man's visitation lasteth ; during w^hich 
time God is always near to him, and wrestling with 
him by his Spirit, to turn him to himself; so that if 
he do but stand still, and cease from his evil thoughts, , 


the Lord is near to help him, &c. But as to the out- 
ward acts of prayer, they need a more special motion 
and influence, as hath been proved. 

Object. 2. Secondly, They object, That it might be also alleged, 
that men ought not to do moral duties, as children to 
honour their paixnts, men to do right to their neigh" 
hours, e.vcept the Spirit move them to it, 

Answ. I answer ; There is a great difference betwixt these 

general duties betwixt man and man, and the parti- 
cular express acts of worship towards God : the one 
is merely spiritual, and commanded by God to be 
performed by his Spirit ; the other answer their end, 
as to them whom they are immediately directed to 
and concern, though done from a mere natural prin- 
ciple of self-love ; even as beasts have natural affec- 
tions one to another, and therefore may be thus per- 
formed. Though I shall not deny, but that they are 
not works accepted of God, or beneficial to the soul, 
but as they are done in the fear of God, and in his 
blessing, in which his children do all things, and 
therefore are accepted and blessed in whatsoever they 
, do. 

Object. 3. Thirdly, They object. That if a wicked man ought 
7iot to pray without a motion of the Spirit, because his 
prayer would be sinful; neither ought he to plow by 

ProT. xx'i. the same i^eason, because the plowing of the wicked, 

^' as well as his praying, is sin. 

arsw. This objection is of the same nature with the for- 

mer, and therefore may be answered the same way ; 

How «ct« of seeing there is a great difference betwixt natural acts, 

fe^r from 'the ^^^^^ ^ cating, dnjiJiing, sleeping, and seeking suste- 

Spirit's, nance for the body (which things man hath common 
with beasts) and spiritual acts. And it doth not fol- 
low, because man ought not to go about spijitual acts 
without the Spirit, that therefore he may not go about 
natural acts without it. The analogy holds better 
thus, and that for the proof of our affirmation, That 
as man for the going about natural acts needs his 
natural spirit ; so to perform spiritual acts he needs 


the Spirit of God. That the natural acts of the 
wicked and unregenerate are sinful, is not denied ; 
though not as in themselves, but in so far as man in 
that state is in all things reprobated in the sight of 

Fourthly, They object, That wicked men 7)iai/, ac- object, ^x. 
co7^di7ig to this doctrine, forbear to pray for years 
together, alleging, they want a motion to it. 

I answer ; The false pretences of wicked men do answ. 
nothing invalidate the truth of this doctrine ; for at ' 
that rate there is no doctrine of Christ, which men 
might not set aside. That they ought not to pray 
without the Spirit, is granted ; but then they ought 
to come to that place of watching, where they may be That wick- 
capable to feel the Spirit's motion. They sin indeed itcuh" mol 
in not praying ; but the cause of this sin is their not tions of the 
watching : so their neglect proceeds not from this p^*^^'^ *** 
doctrine, but from their disobedience to it ; seeing if 
they did pray without this, it would be a double sin, 
and no fulfilling of the command to pray : nor yet 
would their prayer, without this Spirit, be useful unto 
them. And this our adversaries are forced to ac- 
knowledge in another case : for they say, It is a duty 
incumbent on Christians to frequent the sacramoit of 
the Lord's Supper, as they call it ; yet they say, No 
man ought to take it unworthily: yea, they plead, 
that such as find themselves unprepared, must ab- 
stain ; and therefore do usually excommunicate them 
from the table. Now, though according to them it 
be necessary to partake of this sacrament ; yet it is 
also necessary that those that do it do first examine 
themselves, lest they eat and drink their own condem- 
nation : and though they reckon it sinful for them to 
forbear, yet they account it more sinful for them to do 
it without this examination. 

Fifthly, They object. Acts, viii. 22, tvhere Peter onncj, 5, 
commanded Simon Alagus, that wicked sorcerer, to 
pray; from thence inferring, That wicked men may 
and ought to pray, 

I answer ; That in the citing of this place, as I answ. 

c c 


have often observed, they omit the first and chiefest 
The (.orcer- part of the versc, which is thus, Acts, viii. 22 : Re- 
bax^Jot^^' P^^'^ ^^^^^^fi^^ ^f ^^''* ^f^H wickedness^ and praj/ God, 
wiihoQtre- if perhaps the thought of t hi fie heart may be forgiven 
penitoce. ^y^^^ . g^ j^^^.^ ^le bids him first Repent. Now the 

least measure of true repentance cannot be without 
somewhat of that inward retirement of the mind which 
we speak of : and indeed where true repentance ^oeth 
first, we do not doubt but the Spirit of God will be 
near to concur with, and influence such to pray to, and 
call upon God. 
Object, c. And Lastly, They object. That manypraijers begun 
without the Spii^it have proved effectual; and that the 
prayers of wicked men have been heard, and found 
acceptable, as Ahab's. 
ansvv. This objection was before solved. For the acts of 

God's compassion and indulgence at some times, and 
to some persons, upon singular extraordinary occa- 
sions, are not to be a rule of our actions. For if we 
should make that the measure of our obedience, great 
inconveniences would follow ; as is evident, and will 
be acknowledged by all. Next, We do not deny, 
but wicked men are sensible of the motions and ope- 
rations of God's Spirit oftentimes, before their day be 
expired ; from which they may at times pray accep- 
tably ; not as remaining altogether wicked, but as 
entering into piety, from whence they afterwards fall 
III. §. XXVI. As to the singing of psalms, there will 

Of singing not be need of any long discourse; for that the case 
psa m». .^ j^^^ ^^^ same as in the two former oi preaching and 
prayer. We confess this to be a part of God's wor- 
ship, and very sweet and refreshing, when it proceeds 
from a true sense of God's love in the heart, and arises 
from the divine influence of the Spirit, which leads 
A sweet souls to breathe forth either a sweet harmony, or 
io3."'°"' words suitable to the present condition ; whether they 
be words formerly used by the saints, and recorded in 
scripture, such as the Psalms of David, or other words ; 
as were the hymns and songs of Zacharias, Simeon, 


and the blessed Virgin Mary. But as for the formal But formal 
customary way of sing;inp\ it hath no foundation in '^'''S'"- *'f 
scripture, nor any ground m true Christianity: yea, insciiptare. 
besides all the abuses incident to prayer and preach- 
ing , it hath this more peculiar, that oftentimes great 
and horrid lies are said in the sight of God : for all Profane 
manner of wicked profane people take upon them to ^af id^*"*^ 
personate the experiences and conditions of blessed conditions 
David ; which are not only false, as to them, but also '■^^°^^'^- 
as to some of more sobriety, who utter them forth : as 
where they will sing sometimes, Psalm xxii. 14, My 
heart is like wax\ it is melted in the midst of my bowels: 
and verse 15, My strength is dried up like a potsherd^ 
and my tongue cleaveth to my jaws ; and thou hast 
brought me into the dust of death : and Psalm vi. 6, 
/ am weary with my groaning, all the night make I 
my bed to swim : I water my couch with my tears : 
and many more, which those that speak know to be 
false, as to them. And sometimes will confess just 
after, in their prayers, that they are guilty of the 
vices opposite to those virtues, which but just before 
they have asserted themselves endued with. Who 
can suppose that God accepts of such juggling? And 
indeed such singing doth more please the carnal ears 
of men, than the pure ears of the Lord, who abhors 
all lying and hypocrisy. 

That si7iging then that pleaseth him must proceed 
from that which is PURE in the heart (even from 
the Word of Life therein) in and by which, richly 
dwelling in us, spiritual songs and hymns are returned 
to the Lord, according to that of the apostle, Col. iii. 

But as to their artificial music, either by organs, or Artificial 
other instruments, or voice, we have neither example "'°'"°* 
nor precept for it in the New Testament. 

§. XXVII. But Lastly, The great advantage of this 
true worship of God, which we profess and practise, 
is, that it consisteth not in man's wisdom, arts, or in- 
dustry ; neither needeth the glory, pomp, riches, nor No spien- 



door of this splendour of this world to beautify it, as being of a 
^nd^ihu spiritual and heavenly nature ; and therefore too sim- 
inwtrd WON pie and contemptible to the natural mind and will of 
*'"P* man, that hath no delight to abide in it, because he 

finds no room there for his imaginations and inven- 
tions, and hath not the opportunity to gratify his out- 
ward and carnal senses : so that this form being 
observed, is not likely to be long kept pure without 
the power ; for it is of itself so naked without it, that 
it hath nothing in it to invite and tempt men to dote 
upon it, further than it is accompanied with the 
The carnal powcr. Whcrcas the worship of our adversaries, 
pie'a^wseif. ^^^^g performed in their own wills, is self-pleasing, 
as in which they can largely exercise their natural 
parts and invention : and so (as to most of them) 
having somewhat of an outward and worldly splen- 
dour, delectable to the carnal and worldly senses, they 
can pleasantly continue it, and satisfy themselves, 
though without the Spirit and power; which they 
make no ways essential to the performance of their 
worship, and therefore neither wait for, nor expect it. 
Thewor- §. XXVIII. So that to conclude. The worship, 
QuaLerf * P^Gachiug, praying, and singing, which we plead for, 
is such as procecdeth from the Spirit of God, and is 
always accompajiied with its iiiflmnce^ being begun by 
its motion, and carried on by the power and ^rength 
thereof; and so is a worship purely spiritual: such 
as the scripture holds forth, John, iv. 23, 24 ; 1 Cor. 
xiv. 15; Eph. vi. 18, &c. 
onr adver- But the worship, prcachiug, praying, and singing, 
■hi>* ^^^ which our adversaries plead for, and which we oppose, 
is a worship which is both begtai, carried on, and con- 
cluded in mans own natural will and strength, without 
the motion or influence of God's Spirit, which they 
Judge they need jwt wait for; and therefore may be 
truly performed, both as to the matter and manner, by 
the wickedest of men. Such was the worship and 
vain oblations which God always rejected, as appears 
from Isa. Ixvi. 3 ; Jer. xiv. 12, &c. ; Isa. i. 13 ; Prov. 
XV. 29; John, ix. 3J. 




As there is one Lord, and one faith, so there is one baptism; Eph.iv. 5, ■ 
which is not the putting away the filth of the flesh, but the 1 ?«*• »'•• 
answer of a good conscience before God, by the resuiTcction of'L' . 

Jesus Christ. And this baptism is a pure and spiritual thing, q^^ jjj 27*^ ? 

to wit, the baptism of the Spirit and fire, by which we are Col. ii. 12. \ 

buried with him, that being washed and purged from our sins, John iii. 30. j 

we may walk in newness of life: of which the baptism of 1 Co'"'^' l'^* \ 

John was a figure, which was commanded for a time, and not \ 

to continue for ever. As to the baptism of infants, it is a J 

mere human tradition, for which neither precept nor practice ] 

is to be found in ail the scripture. \ 


§. I. I DID sufficiently demonstrate, in the explana- ; 
tion and proof of the former proposition, how greatly j 
the professors of Christianity, as well Protestants as I 
Papists, were degenerated in the matter of worship, | 
and how much strangers to, and averse from that true \ 
and acceptable worship that is performed in the Spi- I 
lit of truth, because of man s natural propensity in \ 
his fallen state to exalt his own tuoentions, and to in- *i 
termix his own ivork and product in the serv^ice of ; 
God :' and from this root sprung all the idle worships. From i 
idolatries, and numerous superstitious inventions J^J^^.^^Ynd*' 
among the heathens. For when God, in condescen- iieatheu sa- •; 
sion to his chosen people the Jews, did prescribe to Jl^'ipJS^. j 
them by his servant Moses many ceremonies and ob- i 
servations, as types and shadows of the substance, ] 
which in due time was to be revealed ; which con- ^ 
sisted for the most part in washings, outward purifi- 
cations and cleansings, which were to continue until \ 
the time of reformation, until the spiritual woi^ship \ 
should be set up ; and that God, by the more plen- j 
tiful pouring forth of his Spirit, and guiding of that ] 
anointing, should lead hi^ children into all truth, and | 
teach them to worship him in a way more spiritual I 
and acceptable to him, though less agreeable to the \ 



The Pliari- 
sees the 
•mong the 

tilings in 
dom are 
from the 
Jews and 

Of Mcra- 

meiits 8» 
many con- 


carnal and outward senses; yet, notwithstanding 
God's condesceiision to the Jews in such things, we 
see that that part in man, which delights to follow its 
own ifiventhns, could not be restrained, nor yet satis- 
fied with all these observations, but that oftentimes 
they w ould be either declining to the other supersti- 
tions of the Gentiles, or adding some new observations 
and ceremonies of their own ; to which they were so 
devoted, that they were still apt to prefer them before 
the commands of God, and that under the notion of 
zeal and piety. This we see abundantly in the ex- 
ample of the Pharisees, the chiefest sect among the 
Jews, whom Christ so frequently reproves y(?r making 
void the commandments of God by their traditions, 
Matt. XV. 6, 9, &c. This complaint may at this day 
be no less justly made as to many bearing the name 
of Christians, who have introduced many things of 
this kind, partly borrowed from the Jews, which they 
more tenaciously stick to, and more earnestly contend 
for, than for the weightier points of Christianity ; be- 
cause that self, yet alive, and ruling in them, loves 
their own inventipns-^ better "than God's commands. 
But if they can by~a(ny ^eans stretch any scripture 
practice, or conditional precept or pennission, fitted 
to the weakness or capacity of some, or appropriate 
to some particular dispensation, to give some colour 
for any of these their inventions; they do then so 
tenaciously stick to them, and so obstinately and 
obstreperously plead for them, that they will not pa- 
tiently hear the most solid Christian reasons against 
them. Which zeal, if they would but seriously exa- 
mine it, they would find to be but the prejudice of 
education, and the love of self more than that of 
God, or his pure worship. This is verified concern- 
ing those things which are called saauuoaits, about 
which they are very ignorant in religious controver- 
sies, who understand not how much debate, conten- 
tion, jangling, and quarrelling there have been among 
those called Christians : so that I may safely say the 


controversy about them, to wit, about their number, 
nature, virtue, efficacy, administration, and other 
things, hath been more than about any other doctrine 
of Christ, whether as betwixt Papists and Protestants, 
or among Protestants betwixt themselves. And how 
great prejudice these controversies have brought to 
Christians is very obvious; whereas the things con- 
tended for among them are for the most part but 
empty shadows, and mere outside things : as I hope 
hereafter to make appear to the patient and unpreju- 
dicate reader. 

§. II. That which comes first under observation, is The name of 
the name \sacrament\ which it is strange that Chris- (not^foond 
tians should stick to and contend so much for, since it »« scrjp- 
is not to be found in all the scripture ; but was bor- rowerfrom 
rowed from the military oaths among the heathens, the heathen, 
from whom the Christians, when they began to apos- 
tatize, did borrow many superstitious terms and ob- 
servations, that they might thereby ingratiate them- / 
selves, and the more easily gain the heathens to their 
religion ; which practice, though perhaps intended by ^ 
them for good, yet as being the fruit of human policy, 
and not according to God's wisdom, has had very 
pernicious consequences. I see not how any, whe- 
ther Papists or Protestants, especially the latter, can 
in reason quarrel with us for denying this term, which 
it seems the Spirit of God saw not meet to inspire the 
penmen of the scriptures to leave unto us. 

But if it be said. That it is not the name, hut the object, i. 
thing they contend for ; 

I answer ; Let the name then, as not being scrip- answ. 
tural, be laid aside, and we shall see at first entrance 
how much benefit will redound by laying aside this 
traditional term, and betaking us to plainness of scrip- 
ture language. For presently the great contest about 
the number of them will vanish ; seeing there is no 
term used in scripture that can be made use of, whe- 
ther we call them institutions, ordinances, precepts, 
commandments, appointrnetits, or laivs, &c. that would 


afford ground for such a debate ; since neither will 
Papists affirm, that there are only seven, or Protes- 
tants only two, of any of these aforementioned. 
Object. 2. If it be said. That this controversy arises from the 

difuiitmi of the thing, as well as from the name; 
answ. It will be found otherwise : for whatever way we 

Uon of w- *^^ ^^^^^ definition of a sacrament, whether as an 
crament outwurd visibk sign, whereby inward grace is coii- 
man"other f^^rcd, or Only signified, this definition will agree to 
tbings. many things, which neither Papists nor Protestants 
will acknowledge to be sacrainents. If they be ex- 
pressed under the name of sealing ordinances, as by 
some they are, I could never see, either by reason or 
scripture, how this title could be appropriate to them, 
more than to any other Christian, religious perform- 
Wbat «eai- aucc : for that must needs properly be a sealing ordi- 
nan^Jdoth naucc, which makes the persons receiving it infallibly 
mean. Certain of the 'promise or thing sealed to them. 
Object. 3. If it be Said, It is so to them that are faithful; 
Answ. I answcr ; So is praying and preaching, and doing 

of every good work. Seeing the partaking or per- 
forming of the one gives not to any a more certain 
title to heaven, yea, in some respect, not so much, 
there is no reason to call them so, more than the 

Besides, we find not any thing called the seal and 
pledge of our inheritance, but the Spirit of God. It 
is by that we are said to be sealed, Eph. i. 14, and iv. 
30, which is also termed the earnest of our inherit- 
ance, 2 Cor. i. 22, and not by outward water, or eat- 
ing and drmking ; which as the wickedest of men 
may partake of, so many that do, do, notwithstand- 
That oat- ing it, go to pcrditiou. For it is not outward washing 
h"dorh"o"t "^'^^^ water x\\?l maketh iheJieart dean, by which 
cleanse the mcu are fitted for heaven : and as that which goeth 
***■'*• into the mouth doth ?iot defile a man, because it is put 
forth again, and so goeth to the dunghill ; neitoer 
doth any thing which man eateth purify him, or fit 
him for heaven. What is said here in general, may 


serve for an introduction, not only to this proposition, 
but also to the other concerning the supper. Of these 
sacraments (so called) baptisju is always first num- 
bered, which is the subject of the present proposition ; 
in whose explanation I shall first demonstrate and 
prove our judgment, and then answer the objections, 
and refute the sentiments of our opposers. As to the 
first part, these things following, which are briefly part r. 
comprehended in the proposition, come to be proposed 
and proved. 

§. III. First, There is but one baptism, as well as prop. i. 
but one Lord, one faith, &c. 

Secondly, That this one baptism, which is the bap- pr. ii. 
tism of Christ, is not a washing with, or dipping in 
water, but a being baptized by the Spirit. 

Thirdly, That the baptism of John was but a figure pr. hi. 
of this ; and therefore, as the figure, to give place to 
the substance; which though it be to continue, yet the 
other ceaseth. 

As for the first, viz. That there is but one baptism, prop. r. 
there needs no other proof than the words of the text, 9"® ^^^' 

T\ ^ • /-^ -r J tisin prov- 

Eph. IV. 5, One Lord, 07ie faith, one baptism: where ed. 
the apostle positively and plainly aflftrms, that as there 
is but one body, one Spirit, one faith, one God, &c. so 
there is but one baptism. 

As to what is commonly alleged by way of expla- object, i. 
nation upon the text. That the baptism of water and 
of the Spirit make up this one baptism, by virtue of 
the sacramental union ; 

I answer; This exposition hath taken place, notANsw. 
because grounded upon the testimony of the scripture, 
but because it wrests the scripture to make it suit to 
their principle of water baptism ; and so there needs 
no other reply, but to deny it, as being repugnant to 
the plain words of the text ; which saith not, that Whether 
there are two baptisms, to wit, one of water, the other Jrsms make 
of the Spirit, which do make up one baptism ; but ap the one. 
plainly, that there is one baptism, as there is one faith, 
and one God. Now as there go not two faiths, nor 


two Gods^ nor two Spirits, nor two bodies, whereof 
the one is outward and elementary, and the other 
spiritual and pure, to the making up the one faith, the 
oue God, the one body, and the one Spirit; so neither 
ought there to go two baptisms to make up the one 
Object. 2. But Secondly, If it be said, The baptism is but one, 
whereof loater is the one part, to wit, the sign ; and 
the Spirit, the thing signified, the other ; 
answ. I answer ; This yet more confirmeth our doctrine : 

theTjrpe,''^ for if water be only the sign, it is not the matter of 
the sab-' the one baptism (as shall further hereafter by its defi- 
8tance most ^j^j^jj jj^ scripture appear) and we are to take the o)ic 
baptism for the matter of it, not for the sign, ox figure 
and type that went before. Even as where Christ is 
called the one offering in scripture, though he was 
typified by many sacrifices and offerings under the 
law, we understand only by the 07ie offering, his offer- 
ing himself upon the cross ; whereof though those 
many offerings were signs and types, yet we say not 
that they go together with that offering of Christ, to 
make up the one offering : so neither, though water 
baptism was a sign of Christ's baptism, will it follow, 
that it goeth now to make up the baptism of Christ, 
If any should be so absurd as to affirm, That this one 
baptis?n //ere was the baptism of water, and 7iot of the 
Spirit ; that were foolishly to contradict the positive 
testimony of the scripture, which saith the contrary ; 
as by what followeth will more amply appear. 
Pk. II. Secondly, That this one baptism, which is the bap- 

tism of Christ, is not a washing with water, appears, 
Proof I. first, from the testimony of John, the proper and pecu- 
Tbe differ- Har administrator of water baptism. Matt. iii. 11, / 
tween *^ ij^deed baptize you with water unto repentance ; hut he 
John", bap- that Cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I 
cmsVb, ttfn not worthy to bear ; he shall baptize you with the 
Holy Ghost and with fire. Here John mentions two 
manners of baptizing, and two different baptisms ; 
the one with water, and the other with the Spirit ; 

OF BAPTISM. 395 i 

the one whereof he was the minister of; the other ] 
whereof Christ was the minister of: and such as 
were baptized with the first were not therefore bap- 
tized with the second : / indeed baptize you, but he ■ 
shall baptize you. Though in the present time they \ 
were baptized with the baptism of water; yet they i 
were not as yet, but were to be, baptized with the \ 
baptism of Christ. From all which I thus argue : ^ 

If those that were baptized with the baptism of arg. i. \ 
water, were not therefore baptized with the baptism ] 
of Christ ; then the baptism of water is not the bap- 
tism of Christ : I 

But the first is true ; 

Therefore also the last. \ 

And again, ] 

If he, that truly and really administered the bap- arg. 2. 1 

tism of water, did notwithstanding declare, that he ] 

neither could, nor did baptize with the baptism of ) 

Christ ; then the baptism of water is not the baptism ' 
of Christ: ' \ 

But the first is true ; ' i 

Therefore, &c. ' 

And indeed to understand it otherwise would make \ 
John's words void of good sense: for if their baptisms 

had been all one, why should he have so precisely | 

contradistinguished them ? Why should he have said, I 

that those whom he had already baptized should yet ^ 
be baptized with another baptism ? 

If it be urged. That baptism with water was the object. 

one part, and that with the Spirit the other part, or | 

effect only of th e former ; \ 

I answer ; This exposition contradicts the plain answ. \ 

words of the text. For he saith not, / baptize you ] 

with water, and he that cometh after me shall produce one bap- \ 

the effects of this my baptism in you by the Spirit, &c. pa"'*o°°ef. j 

or he shall accomplish this baptism i?i you; but //(Effect of the ; 

shall baptize you. So then if we understand the words °^^^'"- j 

truly and properly, when he saith, I baptize you, as 1 

consenting that thereby is really signified that he did ] 


baptize with the baptism of water; we must needs, 
unless we offer violence to the text, understand the 
other part of the sentence the same way ; viz. where 
he adds presently. But he shall baptize you, &c. that 
he understood it of their being truly to be baptized 
with another baptism, than what he did baptize with : 
else it had been nonsense for him thus to have contra- 
distinguished them. 
PR. II. Secondly, This is further confirmed by the saying 

of Christ himself, Acts, i. 4, 5, But wait for the pro- 
mise of the Father, which, saith he,- ye have heard of 
Who were Vie .* for Johu truly baptized with water, but ye shall 
John were^ ^c baptized with the Holy Ghost not many days hejice. 
«uii to wait There can scarce two places of scripture run more 
blpUsm'* ' parallel than this doth with the former, a little before- 
witb the mentioned ; and therefore concludeth the same way 
*""** as did the other. For Christ here grants fully that 
John completed his baptism, as to the matter and 
substance of it : John, saith he, truly baptized with 
tvater ; which is as much as if he had said, John did 
truly and fully administer the baptism of water ; But 
ye shall be baptized with, &c. This showeth that they 
were to be baptized with some other baptism than the 
baptism of water ; and that although they were for- 
merly baptized with the baptism of water, yet not 
with that of Christ, which they were to be baptized 
PR. III. Thirdly, Peter observes the same distinction, Acts, 
xi. 16 : Then remembered I the word of the Lord, how 
The bap- that he said, John indeed baptized with water ; but ye 
11711^1^' ^//«// be baptized with the Holy Ghost. The apostle 
Gho»t and malccs tliis application upon the Holy Ghost's falling 
^^^L7d\l ^pon them; whence he infers, that they were then 
f^r. baptized with the baptism of the Spirit. As to what 

is urged from his calling afterwards for water, it 
shall be spoken to hereafter. From all which three 
sentences, relative one to another, first of John, secondly 
of Christ, and thirdly of Peter, it doth evidently fol- 
low, that such as were truly and really baptized with 


the baptism of water, were notwithstanding not bap- 
tized with the baptism of the Spirit, which is that of 
Christ : and such as truly and really did administer 
the baptism of water did, in so doing, not administer 
the baptism of Christ. So that if there be now but 
one baptism, as we have already proved, we may 
safely conclude that it is that of the Spirit, and not of 
water; else it would follow, that the one baptism, 
which now continues, were the baptism of water, i. e. 
John's baptism, and not the baptism of the Spirit, 
i. e. Christ's ; which were most absurd. 

If it be said further, That though the baptism of object. 
John, before Chrisfs was administered, was differ erit 
from it, as being the figure only ; yet now, that both 
it as the figure, and that of the Spirit as the substance, 
is necessary to make up the one baptism ; 

I answer. This urgeth nothing, unless it be granted 
also that both of them belong to the essence of bap- 
tism ; so that baptism is not to be accounted as truly 
administered, where both are not ; which none of our 
adversaries will acknowledge : but, on the contrary, 
account not only all those truly baptized with the bap- 
tism of Christ, who are baptized with water, though Water bap- 
they be uncertain whether they be baptized with the Jjfe'",,'*^""* 
Spirit, or not ; but they even account such truly bap- baptism of 
tized with the baptism of Christ, because sprinkled, *^'*'''=*** 
or baptized with water, though it be manifest and 
most certain that they are not baptized with the Spirit, 
as being enemies thereunto in their hearts by wicked 
works. So here, by their own confession, baptism 
with water is without the Spirit. Wherefore we may 
far safer conclude, that the baptism of the Spirit, 
which is that of Christ, is and may be without that 
of water ; as appears in that of Acts, xi. where Peter 
testifies of these men, that they were baptized with the 
Spirit, though then not baptized with water. And 
indeed the controversy in this, as in most other things, 
stands betwixt us and our opposers, in that they often- 
times prefer the form and shadow to the power and 


substance ; by denominating persons as inheritors and 
possessors of the thing, from their having the form 
and shadow, though really wanting the power and 
substance ; and not admitting those to be so denomi- 
nated, who have the power and substance, if they 
want the form and shadow. This appears evidently, 
in that they account those truly baptized with the one 
baptism of Christ, who are not baptized with the 
Spirit (which in scripture is particularly called the 
baptism of Christ) if they be only baptized with 
water, which themselves yet confess to be but the sha- 
The bap- dow or figurc. And moreover, in that they account 
sprJit" nfed- ^0^ those who are surely baptized with the baptism of 
eih no the Spirit baptized, neither will they have them so 
nr"!pp?n| denominated, unless they be also sprinkled with, or 
ill water, dipped iu, water : but we, on the contrary, do always 
prefer the power to the form, the substance to the 
shadow ; and where the substance and power is, we 
doubt not to denominate the person accordingly, 
thousrh the form be wanting:. And therefore we al- 
ways seek first, and plead for the substance and power, 
as knowing that to be indispensably necessary, though 
the form sometimes may be dispensed with, and the 
figure or type may cease, when the substance and 
antitype come to be enjoyed, as it doth in this case, 
which shall hereafter be made appear. 
PR. IV. §. IV. Fourthly, that the one baptism of Christ is 

not a washing with water, appears from 1 Pet. iii. 21 : 
•Or. as it The like Jiguve* ivhereinito, even baptism^ doth also 
traTJuted, ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ' ^^^^ ^^^^ putting uwaif of the filth of the 
wjuist mo- flesh, but tlie answer of a good conscience towards God, 
doe$lLT' ^y the resurrection of Jesus Christ. So plain a defi- 
noiTMreiu. nition of baptism is not in all the Bible; and there- 
LuefTni" ^*^^^» seeing it so plain, it may well be preferred to all 
tion of the the coined definitions of the schoolmen. The a[X)stle 
arriitTn^aii ^^^^^ US first ucgativcly what it is not, viz. AW a put- 
the Bible, ting away of the filth of the flesh : then surely it is 
not a washing with water, since that is so. Secondly, 
Jie tells us affirmatively what it is, viz. The oiswer of 

OF BAPTISM. 399 ; 

a good conscience towards God, by the resurrection of 
Jesus Christ ; where he affirmatively defines it to be 
the answer (or confession, as the Syriac version hath 
it), of a good conscience. Now this answer cannot ' | 

be but where the Spirit of God hath purified the soul, j 

and the fire of his judgments hath burned up the 
unrighteous nature ; and those in whom this work is '\ 

wrought may be truly said to be baptized with the ^ 

baptism of Christy i. e. of the Spirit and of fire. 
Whatever way then we take this definition of the 
apostle of Christ's baptism, it confirmeth our sentence : "\ 

for if we take the first or negative part, viz. That it is \ 

not a putting awaij of the filth of thefiesh, then it will 
follow that water baptism is not it, because that is a w^ater bap- ■ 

putting away of the filth of the flesh. If we take the 1,'yJ'fro''^*,,^ ; 

second and affirmative definition, to wit. That it is bactism of 
the answer or confession of a good conscience, Sec. then ^^'"'*** 
water baptism is not it ; since, as our adversaries will j 

not deny, water baptism doth not always imply it, 1 

neither is it any necessary consequence thereofl More- \ 

over, the apostle in this place doth seem especially to \ 

guard against those that might esteem water baptism \ 

the true baptism of Christ ; because (lest by the com- 
parison induced by him in the preceding verse, be- \ 
twixt the souls that were saved in Noah's ark, and us i 
that are now saved by baptism ; lest, I say, any should i 
have thence hastily concluded, that because the former ! 
were saved by water, this place must needs be taken 
to speak of water baptism), to prevent such a mistake, • j 
he plainly affirms, that it is not that, but another ^ 
thing. He saith not that it is the water, or the put- ^ 
ting away of the filth of the flesh, as accompanied with \ 
the answer of a good conscience, whereof the one, viz. i 
water, is the sacramental element, administered by the - \ 
minister; and the other, the grace or thing signified, j 
conferred by Christ ; but plainly. That it is not the '1 
putting away, &c. than which there can be nothing ' \ 
more manifest to men unprejudicate and judicious. \ 
'Moreover Peter calls this here which saves avrirvTrov, ' 


the antitype, or the thing figured ; whereas it is usually 
translated, as if the like figure did now save us ; 
thereby insinuating that as they were saved by water 
in the ark, so are we now by water baptism. But 
this interpretation crosseth his sense, he presently 
after declaring the contraiy, as hath above been ob- 
served ; and likewise it would contradict the opinion 
The Protes- of all our opposcrs. For Protestants deny it to be 
ing wate7 absolutely necessary to salvation ; and though Papists 
bapUsm its say, none are saved without it, yet in this they admit 
cenlry^to* an exception, as of martyrs, &c. and they will not say 
men's »aiva- that all that havc it are saved by water baptism ; which 
iiiouih the they ought to say, if they will understand by baptism 
Papists saj (by which the apostle saith we are saved), water bap- 

none can be \ "^ t« • l l. xi* 1, j.* 

saved with-tism. ror seeing we are saved by this baptism, as 
out it, jet jjj those that were in the ark were saved by Water, it 
ceptioDs. would then follow, that all those that have this bap- 
tism are saved by it. Now this consequence would 
be false, if it were understood of water baptism ; be- 
cause many, by the confession of all, are baptized 
with water that are not saved ; but this consequence 
holds most true, if it be understood, as we do, of the 
baptism of the Spirit; since none can have this answer 
of a good conscience, and, abiding in it, not be saved 
by it. 
PR. V. Fifthly, That the one baptism of Christ is not a 

washing with water, as it hath been proved by the 
Theeflects dcfinitiou of the one baptism, so it is also manifest 
'be ba7)li»m ^^^"^ the ucccssary fruits and effects of it, which are 
of Christ, three times particularly expressed by the apostle Paul ; 
as first, Rom. vi. 3, 4, where he saith. That so many 
of them as were baptized into Jesus Christ, were bap- 
tized into his death, buried with him by baptism into 
death, that they should walk in Jiewness of life. Se- 
condly, to the Galatians, iii. 27, he saith positively, 
For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ 
have put on Christ, And thirdly, to the Colossians, 
ii. 12, he saith, That they were buried with him in 
baptism, and risen with him through the faith of the 


operation of God. It is to be observed here, that the \ 
apostle speaks generally, without any exclusive term, 

but comprehensive of all. He saith not, some of you : 
that were baptized into Christ, have put on Christ, 

but as many of you ; which is as much as if he had i 

said, Every one of you that hath been baptized into i 

Christ, hath put on Christ. Whereby it is evident which ef- \ 

that this is not meant of water baptism, but of the {fa'^^Vm*^*' ^ 

baptism of the Spirit ; because else it would follow, wants. , 

that whosoever had been baptized with water baptism j 
had put on Christ, and were risen with him, which 

all acknowledge to be most absurd. Now supposing i 
all the visible members of the churches of Rome, Ga- 

latia, and Colosse had been outwardly baptized with \ 

water (I do not say they were, but our adversaries \ 
will not only readily grant it, but also contend for it), 
suppose, I say, the case so, they will not say they had 

all put on Christ, since divers expressions in these i 

epistles to them show the contrary. So that the \ 

apostle cannot mean baptism with water ; and yet i 

that he meaneth the baptism of Christ, i. e. of the \ 
Spirit, cannot be denied ; or that the baptism where- 
with these were baptized (of whom the apostle here 

testifies that they had put on Christ), was the one i 

baptism, I think none will call in question. Now I 

admit, as our adversaries contend, that many in these ,< 
churches who had been baptized with water had not 
put on Christ, it will follow, that notwithstanding 

that water baptism, they were not baptized into Christ, \ 

or with the baptism of Christ, seeing as many of them I 

that weix baptized mio Christ, had put on Christ, See. \ 
From all which I thus argue : 

If the baptism with water were the one bajjtism, ^^o^\. | 

i. e. the baptism of Christ, as many as were baptized \ 

with tvater would have put on Christ : \ 

But the last is false, j 

Therefore also the first. j 

And again : 4 
Since as many as are baptized into Christ, i. e. with aro. 2. 

D D I 


the one baptism^ which is the baptism of Christ, have 
put on Christ, then water baptism is not the one bap- 
tism, viz. the baptism of Christ, 
But the first is true, 
Therefore also the last. 
Pro. III. §. V. Thirdly, Since Johns baptism was a figure, 
Proved. Qjj^ seeing the figure gives way to the substance, al- 
though the thing figured remain, to wit, the one bap- 
tism of Christ, yet the other ceaseth, which was the 
baptism of John, 
I. That John's baptism was a figure of Christ^s bap- 

john'8 bap- \\sm, I judge will not readily be denied ; but in case 
figure of it should, it can easily be proved from the nature of 
Christ's, j^ John's baptism was a being baptized with water, 
but Christ's is a baptizing with the Spirit ; therefore 
John s baptism must have been a figure of Christ's. 
But further, that water baptism was John's baptism, 
will not be denied : that water baptism is not Christ's 
baptism, is already proved. From which doth arise 
the confirmation of our proposition thus : 

There is no baptism to continue now, but the one 
baptism of Christ. 

Therefore water baptism is not to continue now, 
because it is not the one baptism of Christ, 
ir. That John's baptism is ceased, many of our adver- 

john's bap- saries confess ; but if any should allege it is otherwise, 
ceased onr it may bc casily proved by the express words of John, 
Sew" ^^^ ^^y ^ being insinuated there, where he contra- 
distinguisheth his baptism from that of Christ, but 
particularly where he saith, John, iii. 30 : He [Christ] 
must increase, but I [John] inust decrease. From 
whence it clearly follows, that the increasing or taking 
place of Christ's baptism is the decreasing or abolish- 
ing of John's baptism ; so that if water baptism wad 
a particular part of John's ministry, and is no part of 
Christ's baptism, as we have already proved, it will 
necessarily follow that it is not to continue. 
aro. Secondly, If water baptism had been to continue a 

perpetual ordinance of Christ in his church, he would 


either have practised it himself, or commanded his apos- 
tles so to do. 

But that he practised it not, the scripture plainly 
affirms, John, iv. 2. And that he commanded his 
disciples to baptize with water, I could never yet 
read. As for what is alleged, that, Matt, xxviii. 19, 
&c. where he bids them baptize, is to be understood 
of water baptism, that is but to beg the question, and 
the grounds for that shall be hereafter examined. 

7 her ef ore to baptize with water is no perpetual 
ordinance of Chinst to his church. 

This hath had the more weight with me, because I 
find not any standing ordinance or appointment of 
Christ necessary to Christians, for which we have not 
either Christ's own practice or command ; as to obey 
all the commandments, which comprehend both our 
duty towards God and man, &c. and where the gospel 
requires more than the law, which is abundantly sig- 
nified in the 5th and 6th chapters of Matthew, and 
elsewhere. Besides, as to the duties of worship, he 
exhorts us to meet, promising his presence : commands 
to pray, preach, watch, &c. and gives precepts con- 
cerning some temporary things, as the washing of one 
another's feet, the breaking of bread, hereafter to be 
discussed ; only for this one thing of baptizing with 
water, though so earnestly contended for, we find not 
any precept of Christ. 

§. VI. But to make water baptism a necessary in- in. 
stitution of the Christian relig-ion, which is pure and '^''f sosp^' 
spiritual, and not carnal and ceremonial, is to derogate to camai 
from the new covenant dispensation, and set up the of<*'"»"*="' 
legal rites and ceremonies, of which this of baptism, 
or washing with water, was one, as appears from Heb. 
ix. 10, where the apostle speaking thereof saith, that 
it stood only in meats and drinks, and divers baptisms, 
and carnal ordinances, imposed until the time of refor- 
mation. If then the time of reformation, or the dis- 
pensation of the gospel, which puts an end to the 
shadows, be come, then such baptisms and carnal 

D d2 

OflJKCT. 1. 

Object. 2. 

Men are no 
more now 
thtn before 
by water 
baptism ia- 


ordinances are no more to be imposed. For how 
baptism with water comes now to be a spiritual ordi- 
nance, more than before in the time of the law, doth 
not appear, seeing it is but water still, and a washing 
of the outward man, and a putting away of the filth 
of the flesh still : and, as before, those that were so 
washed were not thereby made perfect, as pertaining 
to the conscience, neither are they at this day, as our 
adversaries must needs acknowledge, and experience 
abundantly showeth. So that the matter of it, which 
is a washing with water, and the effect of it, which 
is only an outward cleansing, being still the same, 
how comes water baptism to be less a carnal ordinance 
now than before? 

If it be said. That God cmifers i7iward gi^ace upon 
some that are now baptized ; 

So no doubt he did also upon some that used those 
baptisms among the Jews. 

Or if it be said, Because it is commanded by Christ, 
note, under the 7iew covenant ; 

I answer, First, That is to beg the question; of 
which hereafter. 

But Secondly, We find that where the matter of 
ordinances is the same, and the end the same, they 
are never accounted more or less spiritual, because of 
their different times. Now was not God the author 
of the purifications and baptisms under the law ? Was 
not water the matter of them, which is so now ? Was 
not the end of them to signify an inward purifying 
by an outward washing ? And is not that alleged to 
be the end still? And are the necessary effects or 
consequences of it any better now than before, since 
men are now by the virtue of water baptism, as a 
necessary consequence of it, no more than before 
made inwardly clean? And if some by God's grace 
that are baptized with water are inwardly purified, so 
were some also under the law ; so that this is not any 
necessary consequence or effect, neither of this nor 
that baptism. It is then plainly repugnant to right 


reason, as well as to the scripture testimony, to affirm 
that to be a spiritual ordinance now, which was a 
carnal ordinance before, if it be still the same, both 
as to its author, matter, and end, however made to 
vary in some small circumstances. The spirituality 
of the new covenant, and of its worship established 
by Christ, consisted not in such superficial alterations 
of circumstances, but after another manner. There- 
fore let our adversaries show us, if they can, without 
begging the question, and building upon some one 
or other of their own principles denied by us, where 
Christ ever appointed or ordained any institution or 
observation under the new covenant, as belonging to 
the nature of it, or such a necessary part of its wor- 
ship, as is perpetually to continue ; which being one 
in substance and effects (I speak of necessary, not 
accidental effects), yet, because of some small differ- 
ence in form or circumstance, was before carnal, not- 
withstanding it was commanded by God under the 
law, but now is become spiritual, because commanded 
by Christ under the gospel ? And if they cannot do 
this, then if water baptism was once a carnal ordi- 
nance, as the apostle positively affirms it to have been, 
it remains a carnal ordinance still; and if a carnal 
ordinance, then no necessary part of the gospel or 
new covenant dispensation ; and if no necessary part 
of it, then not needful to continue, nor to be practised 
by such as live and walk under this dispensation. 
But in this, as in most other things, according as we 
have often observed, our adversaries judaize, and re- 
nouncing the glorious and spiritual privileges of the 
new covenant, are sticking in and cleaving to the 
rudiments of the old, both in doctrine and worship, 
as being: more suited and ag^reeable to their carnal 
apprehensions and natural senses. But we, on the 
contrary, travail above all to lay hold upon and cleave 
unto the light of the glorious gospel revealed unto us. 
And the harmony of the truth we profess in this may The Uw 
tappear, by briefly observing how in all things we fol- ^jf f^'j^J^ 



low tlie spiritual gospel of Christ, as contradistin- 
guished from the carnality of the legal dispensation ; 
while our adversaries, through rejecting this gospel, 
are still labouring under the burden of the law, which 
neither they nor their fathers were able to bear. 
The ooi- For the law and imle of the old covenant and Jews 
iTtm**wo^- ^^^ outward, written in tables of stone afid parch- 
•hip,' law. ?nent ; so also is that of our adversaries. But the 
ed from the ^^^' of the 7i€w covcnufit is Inwaj^d and perpetual, writ- 
inward. tcH in thc hcttrt ; so is ours. 

The worship of the Jews was outward and carnal, 
limited to set times, places, and persons, and perfo7ined 
according to set prescribed forms and observations; 
so is that of our adversaries. But the worship of the 
new covcjiant is neither limited to time, place, nor per- 
son, but is perfortned in the Spirit and in truth ; and 
it is not acted according to set forms and p rescript iofis, 
but as the Spirit of God immediately actuates, moves, 
and leads, whether it be to preach, pray, or sing; and 
such is also our worship. 

So likewise the baptism among the Jews under the 
law was an outward washing with outward water, only 
to typify an inward purification of the soul, which did 
not fiecessarily follow upon those that were thus bap- 
tized ; but the baptism of Christ under the gospel is 
the baptism of the Spirit and of fire ; 7iot the putting 
away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good 
conscience towards God ; and such is the baptism that 
we labour to be baptized withal, and contend for. 
Arc. §. VII. But again. If water baptism had been an 

ordinance of the gospel, then the apostle Paul would 
have been sent to administer it; but he declares posi- 
tively, 1 Cor. i. 1 7, That Christ sent him not to bap- 
tize, but to preach the gospel. The reason of that 
IV. consequence is undeniable, because the apostle Paul's 
bapu.m' u^ commission was as large as that of any of them ; and 
no badge of conscquctttly he being in special manner the apostle 
Hkedrcum- ^f ChHst to the Gcutiles, if water baptism, as our 
ei»ioaofihe advcrsarics contend, be to be accounted the badge of 

Jew», ^ 

OF BAPTISM. 407 ( 

Christianity, he had more need than any of the rest 
to be sent to baptize with water, that he might mark 

the Gentiles converted by him with that Christian j 

sign. But indeed the reason holds better thus, that \ 

since Paul was the apostle of the Gentiles, and that 1 

in his ministry he doth through all (as by his epistles . \ 

appears) labour to wean them from the former Jewish j 

ceremonies and observations (though in so doing he \ 

was sometimes undeservedly judged by others of his I 

brethren, who were unwilling to lay aside those cere- .; 

monies), therefore his commission, though as full as i 

to the preaching of the gospel and new covenant dis- ' 

pensation as that of the other apostles, did not require .\ 

of him that he should lead those converts into such ' 

Jewish observations and baptisms, however that prac- I 

tice was indulged in and practised by the other apos- i 

ties among their Jewish proselytes, for which cause i Cor. i. i-i. ] 

he thanks God that he had baptized so few : intimat- \ 

ing that what he did therein he did not by virtue of Paui was i 

his apostolic commission, but rather in condescension "°\':^"* •« ] 

1. ' 1 • 1 . baptize. i 

to their weakness, even as at another time he circum- 
cised Timothy. j 

Our adversaries, to evade the truth of this testi- object, i. ; 

mony, usually allege, That by this is only to be un- j 

det^stood, thai he ivas not sent principally to baptize, \ 

not that he was 7iot sent at all. \ 

But this exposition, since it contradicts the positive answ. ^ ! 

words of the text, and has no better foundation than 1 

the affirmation of its assertors, is justly rejected as I 

spurious, until they bring some better proof for it. He j 

saith not, / was not sent principally to baptize, but / I 

was not sent to baptize. ■] 

As for what they urge, by way of confirmation, confir. 

from other places of scripture, where [not] is to be so ■ 
taken, as where it is said, I will have mercy and not^ i 

sacrifice, which is to be understood that God requires **"''• ""* ^- ■ 

principally mercy, not excluding sacrifice : I 

I say this place is abundantly explained by the fbl- RErux. l 

lowing words [a?2d the knowledge of God more than ] 


burnt offerings;'] by which it clearly appears tliat 
burnt ofterings, which are one with sacrifices, are not 
excluded ; but there is no such word added in that of 
Paul, and therefore the parity is not demonstrated to 
be alike, and consequently the instance not sufficient, 
unless they can prove that it ought to be so admitted 
here ; else we might interpret by the same rule all 
other places of scripture the same way, as where the 
apostle saith, 1 Cor. ii. 5: That your faith might not 
stand in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God, 
it might be understood, it shall not stand principally 
so. How might the gospel by this liberty of inter- 
pretation be perverted ? 
Object. 2. If it be said, That the abuse of this baptism among 
the Corinthians, in dividing themselves according to 
the persofis by whom they were baptized, nuide the 
apostle speak so ; but that the abuse of a thing doth 
not abolish it ; 
A NSW. I answer. It is true, it doth not, provided the thing 

be lawful and necessary :• and that no doubt the abuse 
abovesaid gave the apostle occasion so to write. But 
let it from this be considered how the apostle excludes 
baptizing, not preaching, though the abuse [mark] 
proceeded from that, no less than from the other. For 
these Corinthians did denominate themselves from 
those different persons by whose preaching (as well 
as from those by whom they were baptized), they were 
converted, as by the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th verses 
Thtt of chap. iii. may appear : and yet to remove that 

r/nund- abuse the apostle doth not say he was not sent to 
ingordi- preach, nor yet doth he rejoice that he had only 
norto be preached to a few; because preaching, being a stand- 
forborne. ing ordinance in the church, is not, because of any 
abuse that the devil may tempt any to make of it, to 
be forborne by such as are called to perform it by the 
Spirit of God : wherefore the apostle accordingly, 
chap. iii. 8, 9, informs them, as to that, how to re- 
move that abuse. But as to water baptism, for that 
it was no standing ordinance of Christ, but only prac- 


tised as in condescension to the Jews, and by some 
apostles to some Gentiles also, therefore, so soon as 
the apostle perceived the abuse of it, he let the Co- 
rinthians understand how little stress was to be laid 
upon it, by showing them that he was glad that he 
had administered this ceremony to so few of them ; 
and by telling them plainly that it was no part of his 
commission, neither that which he was sent to admi- 

Some ask us. How we know that baptizing here z^qderv. 
meant of water, and not of the Spirit ; which if it be, 
then it will exclude the baptism of the Spirit, as well 
as of water. 

I answer. Such as ask the question, I suppose, answ. 
speak it not as doubting that this was said of water 
baptism, which is more than manifest. For since the That which 
apostle Paul's message was, to turn people from dark- ch"rirusiie 
ness to light, and convert them to God; and that as baptism of 
many as are thus turned and converted (so as to have ^^^ ^'^'"'* 
the answer of a good conscience towards God, and to 
have put on Christ, and be risen with him in newness 
of life), are baptized with the baptism of the Spirit. 
But who will say that only those few mentioned there 
to be baptized by Paul were come to this ? Or that to 
turn or bring them to this condition was not, even ad- 
mitting our adversaries' interpretation, as principal a 
part of Paul's ministry as any other ? Since then our 
adversaries do take this place for water baptism, as 
indeed it is, we may lawfully, taking it so also, urge 
it upon them. Why the word baptism and baptizing 
is used by the apostle, where that of water and not of 
the Spirit is only understood, shall hereafter be spoken 
to. I come now to consider the reasons alleged for part ii. 
such as plead for water baptism, which are also the 
objections used against the discontinuance of it. 

§. VIII. First, Some object. That Christ, who had object, i. 
the Spirit above measure, ivas notivithstanding baptized •'o^''''''-^'*- 
with water. As Nic. Arnoldus against this Thesis, 
Sect. 46, of his Theological Exercitation. 


An8w. I answer, So was he also circumcised : it will not 

follow from thence that circumcision is to continue : 
Wb^chrisifor it behoved Christ to fulfil all righteousness, not 
iiMd*b'* ®^^y *^^ ministry of John, but the law also, therefore 
John. did he observe the Jewish feasts and rites, and keep 
the passover. It will not thence follow that Chris- 
tians ought to do so now; and therefore Christ, Matt, 
iii. 15, gives John this reason of his being baptized, 
desiring him to suffa^ it to be so now ; whereby he 
sufficiently intimates that he intended not thereby to 
perpetuate it as an ordinance to his disciples. 
Object. 2. Secondly, They object. Matt, xxviii. 19 : Go ye 
therefore and teach all iiations, baptizing them in the 
name of the Father^ and of the Son, and of the Holy 
ANiw. This is the great objection, and upon which they 

build the whole superstructure ; whereunto the first 
and general sound answer is, by granting the whole; 
What bap- but putting them to prove that water here is meant, 
*""^'"'"* since the text is silent of it. And thousrh in reason 

doth mean . „ . » 

in Matt, it DC suihcient upou our part that we concede the 
»*▼"'• whole expressed in the place, but deny that it is by 
water, which is an addition to the text, yet I shall 
premise some reasons why we do so, and then consi- 
der the reasons alleged by those that will have water 
to be here understood. 
Arc. 1. The first is a maxim yielded to by all. That ive 

ought not to go from the literal sigiiification of the text, 
except some urgent necessity force us thereunto. 

But no urgent necessity in this place forceth us 
thereunto : 

Therefore we ought not to go from it. 
Arc. 2. Secondly, That baptism which Christ commanded 

his apostles was the one baptism, id est, his own ba[> 
tism : 

But the one baptism, which is Christ's baptism, is 
not with water, as we have already proved : 

Therefore the baptism commanded by Christ to his 
apostles was not water baptism. 


Thirdly, That baptism which Christ commanded arg. 3. 
his apostles was such, that as many as were therewith 
baptized, did put on Christ : 

But this is not true of water baptism ; 

Therefore, &c. 

Fourthly, The baptism commanded by Christ to arg. 4. 
his apostles was not John's baptism : 

But baptism with water was John's baptism : 

Therefore, &c. 

But First, They allege. That Chrisfs baptism, alle. i. 
though a baptism with water, did differ from Johns, 
because John only baptized with water unto repent- 
ance, but Christ commands his disciples to baptize in 
the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; ixckon- 
i7ig that in this form there lieth a great difference be- 
twijct the baptism of John and that of Christ. 

I answer. In that John's baptism was unto repent- 
ance, the difference lieth not there, because so is 
Christ's also ; yea, our adversaries will not deny but' 
that adult persons that are to be baptized ought, ere 
they are admitted to water baptism, to repent, and 
confess their sins : and that infants also, with a re- 
spect to and consideration of their baptism, ought to 
repent and confess ; so that the difference lieth not 
here, since this of repentance and confession agrees 
as well to Christ's as to John's baptism. But in this 
our adversaries are divided ; for Calvin will havfe 
Christ's and John's to be all one, Inst. lib. 4, cap. 15, 
sect. 7, 8, yet they do differ, and the difference is, 
that the one is by water, the other not, &c. 

Secondly, As to what Christ saith, in commanding 
them to baptize in the name of the Father, Son, and 
Spirit, I confess that states the difference, and it is 
great ; but that lies not only in admitting water bap- 
tism in this different form, by a bare expressing of 
these words : for as the text says no such thing, nei- 
ther do I see how it can be inferred from it. For the oniiename 
Greek is hq to ovo^a, that is, ijito the name : now the ^ow laktn** 
name of the Lord is often taken in scripture for some- in scripture. 

Tbe bap- 
tism into 
tbe name, 
what it is. 

Christ did 
prescribe a 
form of 
baptism io 


thing else than a bare sound of words, or literal ex- 
pression, even for his virtue and power, as may ap- 
pear from Psal. liv. 3 ; Cant. i. 3 ; Prov. xviii. 10; and 
in many more. Now that the apostles were by their 
ministry to baptize the nations i)ito this name, virtue, 
and power, and that they did so, is evident by these 
testimonies of Paul above mentioned, where he saith. 
That as many of them as were baptized into Christ, 
have put on Christ ; this must have been a baptizing 
into the name, i. e. power and virtue, and not a mere 
formal expression of words adjoining with water bap- 
tism ; because, as hath been above observed, it doth 
not follow as a natural or necessary consequence of 
it. I would have those who desire to have their faith 
built upon no other foundation than the testimony of 
God's Spirit, and scriptures of truth, thoroughly to 
consider whether there can be any thing further al- 
leged for this interpretation than what the prejudice 
of education and influence of tradition hath imposed. 
Perhaps it may stumble the unwary and inconside- 
rate reader, as if the very character of Christianity 
were abolished, to tell him plainly that this scripture 
is not to be understood of baptizing with water, and 
that this form oi baptizing in the name of the Father, 
Son, and Spirit hath no warrant from Matt, xxviii. &c. 
For which, besides the reason taken from the sig- 
nification of [the name] as being the virtue and power 
above expressed, let it be considered, that if it had 
been a form prescribed by Christ to his apostles, then 
surely they would have made use of that form in the 
administering of water baptism to such as they ba|>- 
tized with water; but though particular mention be 
made, in divers places of the Acts, who were baptized, 
and how ; and though it be particularly expressed 
that they baptized such and such, as Acts, ii. 41; 
and viii. 12, 13, 38; and ix. 18; and x. 48; and 
xvi. 15 ; and xviii. 8 ; yet there is not a word of this 
form. And in two places, Acts, viii. IG, and xix. 5, 
it is said of some that they were baptized in the name 


of the Lord Jesus ; by which it yet more appears, 
that either the author of this history hath been very 
defective, who having so often occasion to mention 
this, yet omitteth so substantial a part of baptism 
(which were to accuse the Holy Ghost, by whose 
guidance Luke wrote it), or else that the apostles did 
no ways understand that Christ by his commission, 
Matt, xxviii. did enjoin them such a form of water 
baptism, seeing they did not use it. And therefore 
it is safer to conclude, that what they did in adminis- 
tering water baptism, they did not by virtue of that 
commission, else they would have so used it ; for our 
adversaries, I suppose, would judge it a great heresy 
to administer water baptism without that, or only in 
the name of Jesus, without mention of Father or 
Spirit, as it is expressly said they did, in the two 
places above cited. 

Secondly, They say. If this were not understood of alle. 2. 
ivater baptisniy it would be a tautology, and all one with 

I say. Nay : Baptizing with the Spirit is some- answ. 
what further than teaching, or informing the under- 
standing ; for it imports a reaching to, and melting How teacb- 
the heart, whereby it is turned, as well as the under- ijfin"dirt'l^ 
standing informed. Besides, we find often in the 
scripture, that teaching and instructing are put toge- 
ther, without any absurdity, or needless tautology; 
and yet these two have a greater affinity than teach- 
ing and baptizing with the Spirit. 

Thirdly, They say. Baptism in this place must be allk. 3. 
understood with water, because it is the action of the 
apostles ; and so cannot be the baptism of the Spirit, 
which is the work of Christ, and his grace; not of 
man, &c. 

I answer; Baptism with' the Spirit, though not answ. 
wrought without Christ and his grace, is instrumen- '^^^^^^^ 
tally done by men fitted of God for that purpose ; and the Spirit 
therefore no absurdity follows, that baptism with the godi'y men" 
Spirit should be expressed as the action of the apos- as instra- 


ties. For though it be Christ by bis grace that gives 
spiritual gifts, yet the apostle, Rom. i. 11, speaks of 
HIS imparting to them spiritual gifts ; and he tells the 
Corinthians, that he had begotten them through the 
gospet^ 1 Cor. iv. 15. And yet to beget people to 
the faith is the work of Christ and his grace, not of 
men. To convert the heart is properly the work of 
Christ; and yet the scripture oftentimes ascribes it 
to men, as being the instruments : and since Paul's 
commission was, To turn people from darkness to 
light (though that be not done without Christ coope- 
rating by his grace), so may also baptizing with the 
Spirit be expressed, as performable by man as the 
instrument, though the work of Christ's grace be 
needful to concur thereunto. So that it is no absur- 
dity to say, that the apostles did administer the bap- 
tism of the Spirit. 

AiLE. 4. Lastly, They say, That since Christ saith here, that 
he will be with his disciples to the end of the world, 
therefore water baptism must continue so long. 

answ. If he had been speaking here of water baptism, 

then that might have been urged ; but seeing that is 
denied, and proved to be false, nothing from thence 
can be gathered ; he speaking of the baptism of the 
Spirit, which we freely confess doth remain to the 
end of the world : yea, so long as Christ's presence 
abideth with his children. 

Object. 3. §. IX. Thirdly, They object the constant practice 
of the apostles in the prif?iitive church, who, they say, 
did always administer water baptism to such as they 
converted to the faith of Christ ; and hence also they 
further u?ge that of Matt, xxviii. to have been jueant 
of water : or else the apostles did 7iot understand it, 
because in baptizing they used water; or that in so 
doiyig they walked ivithout a commission, 

Ai«w. I answer ; That it was the constant practice of the 

apostles is denied ; for we have shown, in the exam- 
ple of Paul, that it was not so ; since it were most 
absurd to judge that he converted only those few, 

OF BAPTISM. 415 \ 

even of the cliurcli of Corinth, whom he saith he bap- . ;- 
tized ; nor were it kss absurd to think that that was 

a constant apostolic practice, which he, who was not j 

inferior to the chiefest of the apostles, and who de- ^ 

clares he laboured as much as they all, rejoiceth he \ 

was so little in. But further ; the conclusion inferred How tie I 

from the apostles' practice of baptizing with water, to ba"tilea ^ 

evince that they understood Matt, xxviii. of water ' 

baptism, doth not hold : for though they baptized j 

with water, it will not follow that either they did it I 

by virtue of that commission, or that they mistook j 
that place ; nor can there be any medium brought, 

that will infer such a conclusion. As to the other : 

insinuated absurdity. That thti/ did it without a com- \ 

mission ; it is none at all : for they might have done ; 

it by a permission, as being in use before Chrisf s \ 

death ; and because the people, nursed up with out- ,| 

ward ceremonies, could not be weaned wholly from ] 

them. And thus they used other things, as circum- j 
cision and legal purifications, which yet they had no 

commission from Christ to do : to which we shall \ 

speak more at length in the following Proposition , ' 

concerning the Supper. \ 

But if from the sameness of the word, because object. 

Christ bids them baptize, and they afterwards in the { 

use of water are said to baptize, it be judged probable I 

that they did understand that commission^ Matt, xxviii. j 

to authorize them to baptize with water, and accord- t 

ingly practised it ; \ 

Although it should be granted, that for a season answ. \ 

they did so far mistake it, as to judge that water be- i 

longed to that baptism (which however I find no ne- i 

cessity of granting), yet I see not any great absurdity ; 

would thence follow. For it is plain they did mistake \ 

that commission, as to a main.part of it, for a season ; | 

as where he bids them. Go, teach all nations ; since ] 

some time after they judged it unlawful to teach the \ 

GeMiles ; yea, Peter himself scrupled it, until by a The apos- i 

vision constrained thereunto ; for which, after he had ^'j^^'ipie the I 


leaching the (lonc it, he was for a season (until they were better 
G«Btu«». informed), judged by the rest of his brethren. Now, 
if the education of the apostles as Jews, and their 
propensity to adhere and stick to the Jewish religion, 
did so far influence them, that even after Christ's 
resurrection, and the pouring forth of the Spirit, they 
could not receive nor admit of the teaching of the 
Gentiles, though Christ, in his commission to them, 
commanded them to preach to them; what further 
absurdity were it to suppose, that, through the like 
mistake, the chiefest of them having been the disci- 
ples of John, and his baptism being so much prized 
there among the Jews, they also took Christ's bap- 
tism, intended by him of the Spirit, to be that of water, 
which was John's, and accordingly practised it for a 
season ? It suffices us, that if they were so mistaken 
(though I say not that they were so), they did not 
always remain under that mistake : else Peter would 
not have said of the baptism which now saves. That 
it is not a putting away of thejilth of the flesh, which 
certainly water baptism is. 

But further. They urge much Peter's baptizing 
Cornelius ; in which they press two things. First, 
That water baptism is used, even to those that had re- 
ceived the Spirit, Secondly, That it is said positively, 
he commanded them to be baptized, Acts, x. 47, 48. 

But neither of these doth necessarily infer water 

baptism to belong to the new covenant dispensation, 

nor yet to be a perpetual standing ordinance in the 

Whether church. For first, all that this will amount to was, 

Petersbap- ^]^^^ Petcr at that time baptized these men ; but that 

tisiog some , ti«i • n \ •• n/r 

with water hc did it by Virtue ot that commission, Matt, xxviii. 
"■^JV*'^_ remains yet to be proved. And how doth the bap- 
dinanceto tiziug with watcr, after the receiving of the Holy 
the church. QjjQst^ provc the case, more than the use of circumci- 
sion, and other legal rites, acknowledged to have been 
performed by him afterwards? Also, it is no wonder 
if Peter, who thought it so strange (notwitlistanding 
all that had been professed before, and spoken by 


Christ) that the Gentiles should be made partakers of 
the gospel, and with great difficulty, not without an 
extraordinary impulse thereunto, was brought to come 
to them, and eat with them, was apt to put this cere- 
mony upon them ; which being, as it were, the par- 
ticular dispensation of John, the forerunner of Christ, 
seeming to have greater affinity with the gospel, than 
the other Jewish ceremonies then used by the church ; 
but that will no ways infer our adversaries' conclusion. 
Secondly, As to these words. And he commanded them 
to he baptized; it declareth matter of fact, not of right, 
and amounteth to no more than that Peter did at that 
time, pro hie et nunc, command those persons to be 
baptized with water, which is not denied : but it saith 
nothing that Peter commanded water baptism to be 
a standing and perpetual ordinance to the church ; 
neither can any man of sound reason say, if he heed 
what he says, that a command in matter of fact to 
particular persons, doth infer the thing commanded 
to be of general obligation to all, if it be not other- 
wise bottomed upon some positive precept. Why 
doth Peter's commanding Cornelius and his house- 
hold to be baptized at that time infer water baptism 
to continue, more than his constraining (which is 
more than commanding) the Gentiles in general to be 
circumcised, and observe the law ? We find at that 
time, when Peter baptized Cornelius, it was not yet 
determined whether the Gentiles should not be cir- 
cumcised; but on the contrary, it was the most general 
sense of the church that they should : and therefore 
no wonder if they thought it needful at that time that 
they should be baptized ; which had more affinity with 
the gospel, and was a burden less grievous. 

§. X. Fourthly, They object /row the signijication object. 
of the word [baptize] ichich is as much as to dip and 
wash with water ; allegiiig thence, that the very word 
imports a heiyig baptized with water. 

This objection is very weak. For since baptizing Answ. 
with water was a rite among the Jews, as Paulus 

E E 


Baptizing Riccius sboweth, even before the coming of John ; 
dlMbVor ^^^ ^^^* ^^^ ceremony received that name from the 
wMhing nature of the practice, as used both by the Jews and 
Willi waier. ^^ j^j^^ . ^^^ ^^ g^^ ^l^^^ Chrlst and his apostles 

frequently make use of these terms to a more spiritual 
signification. Circumcision was only used and under- 
stood among the Jews to be that of thejlesh ; but the 
apostle tells us of the circumcision of the heart arid 
spirit made without hands. So that though baptism 
was used among the Jews only to signify a washing 
with water, yet both John, Christ, and his apostles, 
speak of a being baptized with the Spirit, and with 
fire ; which they make the peculiar baptism of Christ, 
as contradistinguished from that of water, which was 
John's, as is above shown. So that though baptism 
among the Jews was only understood of water, yet 
among Christians it is very well understood of the 
Spirit without water : as we see Christ and his apostles 
spiritually to understand things, under the terms of 
what had been shadows before. Thus Christ, speaking 
of his body (though the Jews mistook him), said. Des- 
troy this temple, and in th?xe days I will raise it up ; 
and many more that might be instanced. But if the 
etymology of the word should be tenaciously adhered 
to, it would militate against most of our adversaries, 
Ba7rn;'« as wcll as against us : for the Greek Bottti^w signifies 
l^tbgorto i^nmergo, that is, to plunge and dip in ; and that was 
pianRe aod the propcr use of water baptism among the Jews, and 
'^ '"' also by John, and the primitive Christians, who used 
it ; whereas our adversaries, for the most part, only 
sprinkle a little water upon the forehead, which doth 
Those that uot at all auswcr to the word [baptism]. Yea, those 
Jlfatltbr^ of old among Christians that used water baptism, 
tismwere thought this dipping or plunging so needful, that 
piSngedT^ they thus dipped children : and forasmuch as it was 
and tbow judged that it might prove hurtful to some weak con- 
Id*j Tp'rlnk- stitutions, sprinkling, to prevent tliat hurt, was intro- 
led, were duccd ; yct thcu it was likewise appointed, tliat such 
ie°d to M j as were only sprinkled, and not dipped, should not be 
office ia the admitted to have any office in the church, as not being 


sufficiently baptized. So that if our adversaries will church, and 
stick to the word, they must alter their method of *'^- 

Fifthly, They object, John, iii. 5, Except a man he object. 5. 
horm of water, and of the Spirit, &c. hence inferring 
the necessity of water baptism, as well as of the Spirit. 

But if this prove any thing-, it will prove water answ. 
baptism to be of absolute necessity ; and therefore 
Protestants rightly affirm, when this is urged upon The water 
them bv Papists, to evince the absolute necessity of ^''f ^ '■^^^'"'' 

I'lr H- 1 1 1 rates, is 

water baptism, that [tvater] is not here understood of mistical 
outward water; but mystically, of an inward cleans- *"'^"'"*'^'^* 
ing and washing. Even as where Christ speaks of 
being baptized with fire, it is not to be understood 
of outward material fire, but only of purifying, by a 
metonymy; because to purify is a proper effect of 
fire, as to wash and make clean is of water; where it 
can as little be so understood, as where we are said 
to be saved by the washing of regeneration, Tit. iii. 5. 
Yea Peter saith expressly, in the place often cited, as 
Calvin* well observes. That the baptism which saves, ♦rnthe4Ui 
is not the putting away of tliejilth of the flesh. So ^."tulJs* 
that since [water] cannot be understood of outward 
water, this can serve nothing to prove water baptism. 

If it be said, that [tvater'] imports here necessitatem object. 
proecepti, though not medii ; 

I answer ; That is first to take it for granted that answ. 
outward water is here understood ; the contrary 
whereof we have already proved. Next, water and 
the Spirit are placed here together [E.vcept a man be Necessitas 
born of water and the Spirit] where the necessity of ^1^'*;^^^^^ 
the one is urged as much as of the other. Now if urged, 
the Spirit be absolutely necessaiy, so will also water; 
and then we must either say, that to be born of the 
Spirit is not absolutely necessary, which all acknow- 
ledge to be false ; or else, that water is absolutely 
necessary ; which, as Protestants, we affirm, and have 
proved, is false : else we must confess, that water is 
not here understood of outward water. For to say, 

E e2 


that when water and the Spirit are placed here just 
together, and in the same manner, though there be 
not any difference or ground for it visible in the text, 
or deducible from it, That the necessity of water is 
here prcecepti, but not niedii, but the necessitif of the 
Spirit is both medii and prcecepti, is indeed confi- 
dently to affirm, but not to prove. 

Object. 6. Sixthly and lastly, They object. That the bavtis)n 
of water is a visible sign or badge to distinguish Chris- 
tians from Infidels, even as circumcision did the Javs. 

answ. I answer ; This saith nothing at all, unless it be 

proved to be a iiecessary precept, or part of the 7iew 
covenant dispensation ; it not being lawful for us to 
impose outward ceremonies and rites, and say, they 

circumci- will distiuguisli us from infidels. Circumcision was 

■ion a seal positively commauded, and said to be a seal of the 

of llie first 1 . J ' , , . ^ . 

covenant. Jirst covtiittnt ,' but as we have already proved that 

Water bap- thcrc is uo sucli commaud for baptism, so there is not 

caTed'^l'"''^ any word in all the New Testament, calling it a badge 

badi;e of of Christianity, or seal of the nav covenant : and there- 

^^ ns lani- ^^^^ ^^ concludc it is so, because circumcision was so 

(unless some better proof be alleged for it), is misera- 

which is bly to beg the question. The professing of faith in 

of cbrtftla- ^li^^^ly ^f^d a holy life answering thereunto, is a far 

nit^. better badge of Christianity than any outward tcash- 

ing ; which yet answers not to that of circumcision, 

since that affixed a character in the flesh, which this 

doth not: so that a Christian is not known to be 

a Christian by his being baptized, especially when he 

Wbat the was a child, unless he tell them so much : and may 

Fathers sajr ^^^ ^j^^ professingr of fuith in Christ sigiiify that as 

of water ^r o J n ^ \^ ^ ^ 

bapUsm, well f 1 know there are divers ot those called the 
Ihrli oVt*h*e Fathers, that speak much of water baptism, calling 
cross. it Characterem Christianitatis : but so did they also 
of the sign of the cross, and other such things, justly 
Heathenish rejcctcd by Protestants. For the mystery of iniquity, 
inYrodScid ^^*c^^ began to work in the apostles' days, soon spoiled 
inioibe the simplicity and purity of the Christian worship;^ 
wwi'bi" insomuch that not only many Jewish rites were re- 


tained, but many heathenish customs and ceremonies 
introduced into the Christian worships as particu- 
larly that word [sacrament]. So that it is a great 
folly, especially for Protestants, to plead any thing of 
this from tradition or antiquity ; for we find that nei- 
'ther Papists nor Protestants use those rites exactly as 
the ancients did ; who in such things, not walking 
by the most certain rule of God's Spirit, but doting 
too much upon externals, were very uncertain. For 
most of them all, in the primitive times, did wholly 
plunge and dip those they baptized, which neither 
Papists, nor most Protestants, do : yea, several of the 
Fathers accused some as heretics in their days, for 
holding some principles common with Protestants 
concerning it ; as particularly Augustine doth the 
Pelagians, for saying that infants dying unbaptized 
may be saved. And the Manich^es were condemned 
for denying ^'dX grace is universally given by baptism; 
and Julian the Pelagian by Augustine, for denying 
exorcism and insufflation in the use- of baptism : all Exorcism or 
which things Protestants deny also. So that Protes- a^^J^^^a^'O"- 
tants do but foolishly to upbraid us, as if we could 
not show any among the ancients that denied water 
baptism ; seeing they cannot show any, whom they 
acknowledge not to have been heretical in several 
things, that used it ; nor yet, who using it, did not 
also use the sign of the crvss, and other things with Tbe sign of 
it, which they deny. There were some nevertheless *^* *''°"* 
in the darkest times of Popery, who testified against Many in for- 
water baptism. For one Alanus, page 103, 104, 107, Hl^^H' 
speaks of some in his time that were burnt for the against wa- 
denying of it: for they said, That baptism had ;2o »«' baptism. 
efficacy, either in children or adult persons ; and there- 
fore men were not obliged to take baptism : particu- 
larly ten canonics, so called, were burnt for that crime, 
by the order of king Robert of France. And P. Pi- 
thseus mentions it in his Fragments of the History of 
Guienne, which is also confirmed by one Johannes 


Floracensis, a monk, who was famous at that time, 

in his epistle to Oliva, abbot of the Ausonian church : 

/ willy saith he, give you to understajid comer Jiing the 

Ten cMo- hcres}/ that was in the city of Orleans on Childermas- 

r! oHeIni ^^^ » /^'' '^ '^^^ ^^^^ ^fy^ ^^^'^^ heard any thing, that 
•nd vrbj? ' king Robert caused to be burnt alive near fourteen of 
that city, of the chief of their clergy, and the more 
noble of their laicks, who were hateful to God and abo- 
miimble to heaven and earth ; for tlwy did stiffly deny 
the grace of holy baptism, and also the consecration of 
the Lords body and blood. The time of this deed is 
noted in the^e words by Papir. Masson, in his Annals 
of Fmnce, lib. iii. in Hugh and Robert, Actum Aure- 
liae publice anno Incamationis Domini 1022. Regni 
Roberti Regis 28. Indictione 5. quando Stephanus 
Haeresiarcha et Complices ejus damnati sunt et exusti 

Now for their calling them Heretics and Manichees, 
we have nothing but the testimony of their accusers, 
which will no more invalidate their testimony for this 
truth against the use of water baptism, or give more 
ground to charge us, as being one with Manichees, 
than because some, called by them Manichees, do 
agree with Protestants in some things, that therefore 
Protestants are Manichees or Heretics, which Pro- 
testants can no ways shun. For the question is. 
Whether, in what they did, they walked according to 
the truth testified of by the Spirit in the holy scrip- 
tures ? So that the controversy is brought back again 
to the scriptures, according to which, I suppose, I 
have already discussed it. 
The bap- As for the latter part of the thesis, denying the use 
fanTs'lf ha- ^^ mfunt buptisM, it necessarily follows from what is 
mantradi- abovc Said. For if water baptism be ceased, then 
''°"* surely baptizing of infants is not warrantable. But 

those that take upon them to oppose us in this matter 
will have more to do as to this lattef part : for after 
they have done what they can to prove water baptism, 


it remains for them to prove that infants ought to be 
baptized. For he that proves water baptism ceased, 
proves that infant baptism is vain : but he that should 
prove that water baptism continues, has not thence 
proved that infant baptism is necessary ; that needs 
something further. And therefore it was a pitiful 
subterfuge of Nic. Arnoldus against this, to say, That 
the denying of hifant baptism belonged to the gangrene 
of the Anabaptists^ without adding any further proof. 





The communion of the body and blood of Christ is inward and lCor.x.16, 

spiritual, which is the participation of his flesh and blood, by ^"^^ . i 

which the inward man is daily nourished in the hearts of those 30 3!'* \ 

in whom Christ dwells. Of which things the breaking of {^^^'y g^ 5 

bread by Christ with his disciples was a.Jigure, which even j 

they who had received the substance used in the church for a | 

time, for the sake of the weak ; even as abstaining from things Acts xv. 20. j 

strangled, and ^rom blood, the washing one another's feet, and ^^^'^ ^"*' 

the anointinq of the sick with oil: all which are commanded .' , , \ 

. X !!• 11 I !/• James T.14» 

With no less authority and solemnity than the former; yet 

seeing they are but shadows of better things, they cease in i 

such as have obtained the substance. 1 

§. I. The co7nmnnion of the body and blood of Christ \ 

is a mystery hid from all natural men, in their first ] 

fallen and degenerate state, which they cannot under- j 

stand, reach to, nor comprehend as they there abide ; J 

neither, as they ihere are, can they be partakers of it, \ 

nor yet are they able to discern the Lord's body. And .^ 
forasmuch as the Christian world (so called) for the . ] 

most part hath been still labouring, working, con- \ 
ceiving, and imagining in their own natural and 
unrenewed understandings, about the things of God 
and religion ; therefore hath this mystery been much 

hid and sealed up from them, while they have been ; 
contending, quarrelling and fighting one with ano- 


ther about the mere shadow, outside, and form, but 

strangers to the substance, life, and virtue. 

The body §. II. The body then of Christ, which believers 

*'[^^|'?^°^ partake of, is spiritual, and not carnal; and his hlood^ 

spirUaai. wliicli they drink of, is pure and heavenly, and not 

human or elementary, as Augustine also affirms of the 

body of Christ which is eaten, in his Tractat. Psal. 

xcviii. E.vcept a man eat my flesh, he hath not in him 

life eternal : and he saith. The words which I speak 

unto you are Spirit and life ; mider stand spiritually 

what I have spoken. Ye shall not eat of this body 

which ye see, and drink this bbod which they shall 

spill, which crucify me — / am the living bread, who 

have descended from heaven. He calls himself the 

bread, who descended from heaven, exhorting that we 

might believe in him, &c. 

Object. If it be asked then. What that body, what that 

flesh ajul blood is ? 
answ. I answer ; It is that heavenly seed, that divine, spi- 

ritual, celestial substance, of which we spake before 
What the in the Fifth and Sixth Propositions. This is that 
seedu^ ^ spiritual body of Christ, whereby and through which 
whereby hc cominunicatcth life to men, and salvation to as 
^HDdlul' ^i^^fiy f^s believe in him, and receive him ; and whereby 
now, life also man comes to have fellowship and communion 
tionwal and with God. This is provcd from the 6th of John, 
is communi- from versc 32 to the end, where Christ speaks more 
at large of this matter than in any other place : and 
indeed this evangelist and beloved disciple, who lay 
in the bosom of our Lord, gives us a more full account 
of the spiritual sayings and doctrine of Christ than 
any other; and it is observable, that though he 
speaks nothing of the ceremony used by Christ of 
breaking bread with his disciples, neither in his evan- 
gelical account of Christ's life and sufferings, nor in 
his epistles ; yet he is more large in this account of 
the participation of the body, flesh, and blood of 
Christ, than any of them all. For Christ, in this 
chapter, perceiving that the Jews did follow him foe 


love of the loaves, desires them (verse 27) to labour 
not for the meat which perisheth, hut for that meat 
which endureth for ever: but forasmuch as they, 
being carnal in their apprehensions, and not under- 
standing the spiritual language and doctrine of Christ, 
did judge the manna, which Moses gave their fathers, 
to be the most excellent bread, as coming from hea- 
ven ; Christ, to rectify that mistake, and better inform 
them, affirmeth. First, That it is not Moses, but his 
Father, that giveth the true bread from heaven, verse 
32 and 48. Secondly, This bread he calls himself, 
verse 35. / ajji the bread of life : and verse 51, / am 
the living bread, which came down from heaven. 
Thirdly, He declares that this bread is his flesh, verse 
51. l^he bread that I will give, is my flesh; and verse The origin, 
^^. For my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink "S-lc'tt'oT** 
indeed. Fourthly, The necessity of partaking thereof, the body, 
verse 53. E.vcept ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, ^xloA^oi 
and drink his blood, ye have no life in you. And Christ. 
Lastly, The blessed fruits and necessary effects of this 
communion of the body and blood of Christ. Verse 
33. This bread giveth life to the world. Verse 50: He 
that eateth thereof, dieth not. Verse 58. He that eat- 
eth of this bread, shall live for ever. Verse 54. Whoso 
eateth this flesh, and drinketh this blood, shall live for 
ever. Verse 56. And he dwelleth in Christ, and Christ 
in him. Verse 57. And shall live by Christ. From 
this large description of the origin, nature, and effects 
of this body, flesh, and blood of Christ, it is apparent 
that it is spiritual, and to be understood of a spiritual 
body, and not of that body, or temple of Jesus Christ, 
which was born of the Virgin Mary, and in which 
he walked, lived, and suffered in the land of Judea; 
because it is said, that it came down from heaven, yea, 
that it is he that came down from heaven. Now all 
Christians at present generally acknowledge, that the 
outward body of Christ came not down from heaven ; 
neither was it that part of Christ which came down 
from heaven. And to put the matter out of doubt, 


when the carnal Jews would have been so under- 
standing it, he tells them plainly, verse 63, It is the 
Spirit that quickeneth, but the Jlesh prt^teth Jiothing. 
Solid re«-C This is also founded upon most sound andsolfd rea- 
fsTis Hpiri- ^^^ J because it is the soul, riot the body, that is to 
taai body be nourished by this flesh and blood. Now outward 
•pwiksof. fl^sh cannot nourish nor feed the soul; there is no 
proportion nor analogy betwixt them ; neither is the 
communion of the saints with God by a conjunction 
and mutual participation of flesh, but of the Spirit : 
1 Cor. Ti. He that is joined to the Lord is one Spirit, not one 
^^' flesh. ) For the flesh (I mean outward flesh, even such 

as wds that wherein Christ lived and walked when 
upon earth ; and not flesh, when transformed by a 
metaphor, to be understood spiritually) can only par- 
take of flesh, spirit of spirit : as the body cannot feed 
upon spirit, neither can the spirit feed upon flesh. 
And that the flesh here spoken of is spiritually to be 
understood, appears further, inasmuch as that which 
feedeth upon it shall never die : but the bodies of all 
men once die ; yea, it was necessary that the body of 
Christ himself should die. That this body, and spi- 
ritual flesh and blood of Christ, is to be understood 
of that divi?ie and heavenly seed, before spoken of by 
us, appears both by the nature and fruits of it. First, 
It is said. It is that which cometh down from heaven, 
and giveth life unto the world: now this answers to 
that light and seed, which is testified of, John, i. to 
This spiri- be the light of the tvorld, and the life of men. For 
Inds'eed*!* *^^* Spiritual light and seed, as it receives place in 
as bread to mcu's hcarts, and room to spring up there, is as bread 
Iouk""^'^^ to the hungry and fainting soul, that ^s (as it were) 
buried and dead in the lusts of the world; which 
receives life again, and revives, as it tasteth and par- 
taketh of this heavenly bread ; and they that partake 
of it are said to come to Christ ; neither can any have 
it, but by coming to him, and believing in the appear-* 
ance of his light in their hearts ; by receiving which, 
and believing in it, the participation of this l)ody 


and bread is known. And that Christ understands 
the same thing here shy his body, flesh, and blood, 
which is understood, John, i. by the light enlightening 
je>very man^ and the life^ &c. appears ; for the light 
4iild life spoken ofr John, i. is said to be Christ ; He 
is the true light: and the bread 'd.vAjlesh^ &c. spoken 
of in John, vi. is called Christ ; I am the bread of 
life, saith he. Again, They that receive that light 
and life, John, i. 12, obtained 'power to become, the sons 
of God, by believing in his name : so also here, John, 
vi. 35, He that cometh unto this bread of life shall 
not hunger ; and he that believes in him, who is this 
bread, shall 7iever thirst. So then, as there was the Christ's ont- 
outward visible body and temple of Jesus Christ, J^^f^ *°i^ 
which took its origin from the Virgin Mary ; there is bodjdisUn- 
' also the spiritual body of Christ, by and through s'*"''*^- 
which he that v/as the Word in the beginning with 
God, and was and is GOD, did reveal himself to the 
sons of men in all ages., and whereby men in all ages 
come to be made partakers of eternal life, and to have 
communion and fellowship with God and Christ. Of 
which body of Christ, and flesh and blood, if both 
Adam, and Seth, and Enoch, and Noah, and Abra- The patri- 
ham, and Moses, and David, and all the prophets ^af^nlfe 
and holy men of God, had not eaten, they had not body of 
had life in them ; nor could their inward man have ^''"*** 
been nourished. Now as the outward body and 
temple was called Christ, so was also his spiritual 
body, no less properly, and that long before that 
outward body was in being. Hence the apostle 
saith, 1 Cor. x. 3, 4, that the Fathers did all eat the 
same spiritual meat, and did all drink the same spiri- 
tual drink : (for they drank of that spiritual rock 
that followed them, and that rock was Christ.) This 
cannot be understood otherwise than of this spiritual 
body of Christ ; which spiritual body of Christ, though 
it was the saving food of the righteous both before the 
law and under the law; yet under the law it was 
veiled and shadowed, and covered under divers types, 


ceremonies, and observations ; yea, and not only so, 
^but it was veiled and hid, in some respect, under the 
outward temple and body of Christ, or during the 
contiimance of it ; so that the Jews could not under- 
stand Christ's preaching about it while on earth : 
and not the Jews only, but many of his disciples, 
John Ti. 60, judging it a hard saying, murmured at it ; and many 
^* frohi that time went hack from hi?n, and walked no 

more with him. I doubt not but that there are many 
also at this day, professing to be the disciples of 
^ Christ, that do as little understand this matter as 
those did, and are as apt to be offended and stumble 
at it, while they are gazing and following after the 
out>vara body, and look not to that by which the 
saints, are daily fed and nourished. For as Jesus 
Christ, in obedience to the will of the Father, did by 
the eternal Spirit offer up that body for a propitiation 
The divine for the remission of sins, and finished his testimony 
CLH8t*doth ^P^^ earth thereby, in a most perfect example of 
make the patieucc, resignation, and holiness, that all might be 
ukels ofhis n^ade partakers of the fruit of that sacrifice ; so hath 
tody. he likewise poured forth i7ito the hearts of all jnen a 
measure of that divine light and seed wherewith he is 
clothed ; that thereb)r, reaching unto the consciences 
of all, he may raise them up out of death and dark- 
ness by his life and lights and they thereby may be 
made partakers of his body, and therethrough come 
to have fellowship with the Father and with the 
QoEST. §• in. If it be asked. How and after what mantier 

man comes to partake of it, and to be fed by it? 

A NSW. I answer in the plain and express words of Christ, 

John vi.35, lam the bread of life, saith he ; he that cometh to me 

^^* shall never hunger; he that believeth in me shall 

never thirst. And again. For my^ flesh is meat indeed, 

and my blood is drink indeed. So whosoever thou 

art that askest this question, or readest these lines, 

whether thou accountcst thyself a believer, or really 

feelest, by a certain and sad experience, that thou art 


yet in the unbelief, and findest that the outward body 
and flesh of Christ is so far from thee, that thou canst y 
not reach it, nor feed upon it ; yea, though thou hast 
often swallowed down and taken in that which the 
Papists have persuaded thee to be the real flesh and 
blood of Christ, and hast believed it to be so, though 
all thy senses toM thee the contrary ; or ^eing a Lu- The Lnthe- 
theran), hast tai^n that bread, in and with and under crwinTsts' 
which the Lutherans have assured thee that the flesh opinions of 
and blood of Christ is; or (being a Calvinist), hast bioorof*" 
partaken of that which the Calvinists say (though a^**"**'"*^® 
figure only of the body), gives them who take it sl real cSed! ^** 
participation of the body, flesh, and blodd of Christ, 
though they never knew how nor what way ; I say,^ 
if for all this thou findest thy soul yet barren, yea, 
hungry, and ready to starve, for want -'of something 
thou longest for ; know that that light that discovers 
thy iniquity to thee, that shows thee thy barrenness, 
thy nakedness, thy emptiness, is that bodij which thoii 
must partake of, and feed upon : but that till by for- 
saking iniquity thou turnest to it, comest unto it, re- 
ceivest it, though thou mayest hunger after it, thou 
canst not be satisfied with it ; for it hath no commu- 1 Cor. tL 
nion with darkness , nor canst thou drink of the cup of^^' 
the Lord, and the cup of devils : and be partaker of 
the hordes table, and the table of devils, 1 Cor. x. 21. 
But as thou sufferest that small seed of righteousness 
to arise in thee, and to be formed into a birth, that 
new substantial birth, that is brought forth in the How the in- 
soul, supernaturally feeds upon and is nourished by noMished." 
this spiritual body ; yea, as this outward birth lives 
not but as it draws in breath by the outward elemen- 
tary air, so this new birth lives not in the soul, but 
as it draws in and breathes by that spiritual air or 
vehicle. And as the outward birth cannot subsist with- 
ouFsome outward body to feed upon, some outward 
flesh, and some outward drink, so neither can this 
inward birth, unless it be fed by this inward flesh and 
blood of Christ, which answers to it after the same 


manner, by way of analogy. And this is most agree- 
able to the doctrine of Christ concerning this matter. 
For as without outward food the natural body hath 

John ?i. 53. not life, so also saith Christ, Eacept ye eat the Jlesh 
of the Son of rnan, and drink his blood, ye have no life 
in you. And as the outward body, eating outward 

joho vi.57. food, lives thereby, so Christ saith, that he that eateth 
him shall live by him. So it is this inward partici- 
pation of this ifiward man, of this ijnvai^d and spiri- 
tual body, by which man is united to God, and has 
fellowship and communion with him. He that eateth 

John vi. 5G. my flesh, and drinketh my blood, saith Christ, dwelleth 
in me, and I in him. This cannot be understood of 
outward eating of outward bread ; and as by this the 
soul must have fellowship with God, so also, so far 
as all the saints are partakers of this 07ie body and 
one blood, they come also to have o. joint communion. 
Hence the apostle, 1 Cor. x. 17, in this respect saith, 
that they, being many, are one bread, undone body; and 

Verse iG. to the wisc amoug the Corinthians he saith. The bread 
which we break is the communion of the body of Christ. 

Ti.e true This is the true and spiritual supper of the Lord, 

spiritual which men come to partake of, by hearing: the voice 

supper oi , -i^ ' ./ ^ o 

ibe Lord, of Christ, and opening the door of their hearts, and so 
letting him in, in the manner abovesaid, according to 
the plain words of the scripture, Rev. iii. 20 : Behold, 
I stand at the door and knock; if any man hear my 
voice, and open the door, I will cojne in to him, and 
will sup with him, and he with me. So that the sup- 
per of the L(n^d, and the supping with the Lord, and 
partaking of his flesh and blood, is no ways limited 
to the ceremony of breaking bread and drinking wine 
at particular times, but is truly and really enjoyed, as 
often as the soul retires into the light of the Lord, 
and feels and partakes of that heavenly life by which 
the inward man is nourished ; which may be and is 
often witnessed by the faithful at all times, though 
more particularly when they are assembled together 
to wait upon the Lord. 


§. IV. But what confusion the professors of Chris- 
tianity have run into concerning this matter, is more 
than obvious ; who, as in most other things they have 
done, for want of a true spiritual understanding, have Man is not 
sought to tie this supper of the Lord to that ceremony J,^^^*^^^ ^^^^jf 
used by Christ before his death, of breaking bread hresikiag 
^ and drinking wine with his disciples. And though ^^f^*^j^°** 
they for the most part agree generally in this, yet wine which 
how do they contend and debate one against ano- asJwith'his 
ther ! How strangely are they pinched, pained, and difcipies; 
straitened to make the spiritual mystery agree 10*^*,°°]^- 
that ceremony ! And what monstrous and wild opi- dow. 
nions and conceptions have they invented, to enclose 
or affix the body of Christ to their bread and wine ? 
From which opinion not only the greatest, and fiercest, 
and most hurtful contests, both among the professors 
of Christianity in general, and among Protestants 
in particular, have arisen ; but also such absurdities, what 
irrational and blasphemous consequences have ensued, cbri!tia.r 
as make the Christian religion odious and hateful religion 
to Jews, Turks, and Heathens. The professors of jg^" 
Christianity do chiefly divide in this matter into three Tur^s. and 

. . "^ '' Heathens. 


The first is of those that say, The substance of the The Pa- 
^ bread is transubstantiated into the very substance o/'Sf chri!t's 
that same body, fleshy and blood of Christ, which was flesh. 
born of the^ Virgin Mary, and crucified by the Jews; 
so that after the words of consecration, as they call 
them, it is no rmre bread, but the body of Christ, 

The second is of such who say, The substafice of The unhe- 
the bread remains, but that also that body is in, and '*"' ^*'^ * 
with, and under the bixad ; so that both the substance 
of bread, and of the body, flesh, and blood of Christ, 
is there also. 

The third is of those, that, denying both these, doTheCaivin- 
affirm, That the body of Christ is ^lot there corporally ''^'' *"*'^^* 
or substantially, but yet that it is really and sacramen' 
tally received by the faithful in the use of bread and 
ivkie : but how or what way it is there, they know not, 


nor can they tell; only we must believe it is there, yet 
so that it is only propeiiy in heaven. 

It is not my design to enter into a refutation of 
these several opinions ; for each of their authors and 
assertors have sufficiently refuted one another, and 
are all of them no less strong both from scripture and 
reason in refuting each their contrary parties' opinion, 
than they are weak in establishing their own. For I 
often have seriously observed, in reading their respec- 
tive writings, and so it may be have others, that all 
of them do notably, in so far as they refute the con- 
trary opinions; but that they are mightily pained, 
when they come to confirm and plead for their own. 
Hence I necessarily must conclude, that none of them 
had attained to the truth and substance of this mys- 
• last. lib. tery. Let us see if Calvin*, after he had refuted the 
ir. cap. 17. ^^Q former opinions, be more successful in what he 
affirms and asserts for the truth of his opinion, who, 
after he hath much laboured in overturning and 
refuting the two former opinions, plainly confesseth, 
that he knows not what to affirm instead of them. 
J. Calvin's For after he has spoken much, and at last concluded 
ci.Hst'^8 ^^'^^ ^^'^ ^^^^y 9f ^f^i^isl is there, and that the saints 
flenh and must needs partake thereof, at last he lands in these 
certain." words, scct. 32 ! But if it be asked me how it is ? I 
shall not be ashamed to confess, that it is a secret too 
high for me to^ comprcheyid in my spirit, or cvplain in 
words. Here he deals very ingenuously; and yet 
who would have thought that such a man would have 
been brought to this strait in the confirming of his 
opinion ? considering that a little before, in the same 
chapter, sect. 15, he accuseth the schoolmen among 
The like the the Papists, and I confess truly, in that they neither 
Papists, understand nor explain to others how Christ is in the 
eucharist, which shortly after he confesseth himself 
he cannot do. If then the schoolmen among the Pa- 
pists do neither understand, nor yet explain to others 
their doctrine in this matter, nor Calvin can compre- 
hend it in his spirit, which I judge is as much as not 


to understand it, nor express it in words, and then 
surely he cannot explain it to others, then no certainty 
is to be had from either of them. There have been 
great endeavours used for reconcilement in this mat- 
ter, both betwixt Papists and Lutherans, Lutherans 
and Calvinists, yea, and Calvinists and Papists, but 
all to no purpose ; and many forms and manners of 
expressions drawn up, to which all might yield ; which 
in the end proved in vain, seeing every one under- 
stood them, and interpreted them, in their own way ; 
and so they did thereby but equivocate and deceive 
one another. The reason of all this contention is, 
because they had not a clear understanding of the 
mystery, and were doting about shadows and exter- 
nals. For both the ground and matter of their con- 
test lies in things extrinsic from, and unnecessary to, 
the main matter. And this hath been often the po-satanbasies 
licy of Satan, to busy people, and amuse them with JJuiJ^^a^rd" 
outward signs, shadows, and forms, making them signs, sha- 
contend about that, while in the mean time the sub- f,°^^,' *" 
stance is neglected ; yea, and in contending for these whilst tber 
shadows he stirs them up to the practice of malice, "uLtalice.* 
heat, revenge, and other vices, by which he esta- 
blisheth his kingdom of darkness among them, and 
ruins the life of Christianity. For there have been 
more animosities and heats about this one particular, 
and more bloodshed and contention, than about any 
other. And surely they are little acquainted with the w hat i.adi 
state of Protestant affairs, who know not that their ^^l',''"^''^!'^^' 
contentions about this have been more hurtful to the Reforma- 
Reformation than all the opposition they met with 
from their common adversaries. Now all those un- 
certain and absurd opinions, and the contentions there- Two errors 
from arising, have proceeded from their all agreeing onhrc"oa- 
in two general errors concerning this thing ; which tention 
being denied and receded from, as they are by us, supper, 
there would be an easy way made for reconciliation, 
and we should all meet in one spiritual and true un- 
derstanding of this mystery ; and as the contentions, 

F F 


SO would also the absurdities which follow from all 
the three forementioned opinions, cease and fall to 
the ground. 

The first of these errors is, in making the commu- 
nion or participation of the body, flesh, and blood of 
Christ to relate to that outward body, vessel, or tem- 
ple, that was bom of the Virgin Mary, and walked 
and suffered in Judea ; whereas it should relate to the^ 
spiritual body, flesh, and blood of Christ, even that 
heavenly and celestial light and Ufe^ which was the 
food and nourishment of the regenerate in all ages, 
as we have already proved. 

The second error is, in tying this participation of 
the body and blood of Christ to that ceremony ured 
by him with his disciples in the breaking of bread, 
&c. as if it had only a relation thereto, or were only 
enjoyed in the use of that ceremony, which it neither 
hath nor is. For this is that bread which Christ in 
his prayer teaches to call for, terming it r^v aprov rov 
iwi8aiovy i. e. the supersubstantial bread, as the Greek 
hath it, and which the soul partakes of, without any 
. relation or necessary respect to this ceremony, as shall 
be hereafter proved more at length. 

These two errors being thus laid aside, and the 
contentions arising therefrom buried, all are agreed 
Believers' iu thc maiu positions, viz. First, that the hody, Ji^^ih, 
reai'ijl-eed ^'^^^^ ^^^^^ ^f Chvist is tiecessavy for the nourishing 
upon the of the soul. Sccoudly, that the souls of believers do 
Wood*of f^c^lly and truly partake and feed upon the body, flesh, 
Christ. and blood of Christ. But while men are not content 
with the spirituality of this mystery, going in their 
own wills, and according to their own inventions, to 
strain and wrest the scriptures to tie this spiritual 
communion of the flesh and blood of Christ to out- 
ward bread and wine, and suchlike carnal ordinances, 
no wonder if by their carnal apprehensions they run 
into confusion. But because it hath been generally 
supposed that the communion of the body and blood 
of Christ had some special rel?ition to the ceremony 


of breaking hread^ I shall first refute that opinion, and 
then proceed to consider the nature and use of that 
ceremony, and whether it be now necessary to conti- 
nue ; answering the reasons and objections of such 
as plead its continuance as a necessary and standing 
ordinance of Jesus Christ. 

§. V. First, It must be understood that I speak of a i. 
necessary and peculiar relation otherwise than in a 
general respect : for inasmuch as our communion with That tie 
Christ is and ought to be our greatest and chiefest ^f^Tod" 
work, we ought to do all other things with a respect and blood 
to God, and our fellowship with him ; but a special Sas^n"spe- 
and necessary respect or relation is such as where the ciai relation 
two things are so tied and united together, either o/'mon/oT'^ 
thtir own nature^ or by the commaM of God, that the i>reaking 
one cannot be enjoyed, or at least is not, except very therbyna- 
extraordinarily, without the other. Thus salvation ^"""^ ""*" 
hath a necessary respect to holiness, because without 
holiness no man shall see God ; and the eating of the 
flesh and blood of Christ hath a necessary respect to 
our having life, because if we eat not his flesh, and 
drink not his blood, we cannot have life; and our 
feeling of God's presence hath a necessary respect to 
our being found meeting in his name by divine pre- 
cept, because he has promised where two or three mx 
met together in his name, he will be in the midst of 
them. In like manner our receiving benefits and 
blessings from God has a necessary respect to our 
prayer, because if we ask, he hath promised we shall 
receive. Now the communion or participation of the 
flesh and blood of Christ hath no such necessary re- 
lation to the breaking of bread and drinking of wine ; 
for if it had any such necessary relation, it would 
either be from the nature of the thing, or from some 
divine precept ; but we shall show it is from neither ; 
therefore, &c. 

First, It is not from the nature of it ; because to 
partake of the flesh and blood of Christ is a spiritual 
exercise, and all confess that it is by the soul and 

F F 2 


Spirit that we become real partakers ^f it, as it is the 
soul, and not the body, that is nourished by it. But \ 
to eat bread and drink wine is a natural act, which in .: 
itself adds nothing to the soul, neither has any thing i 
that is spiritual in it ; because the most carnal man \ 
that is can as fully, as perfectly, and as wholly eat ; 
bread and drink wine as the most spiritual. Se- 
condly, Their relation is not by nature, else they i 
would infer one another; but all acknowledge that 
many eat of the bread and drink of the wine, even 
that which they say is consecrate and transubstantiate 
into the very body of Christ, who notwithstanding ! 
have not life eternal, have not Christ dwelling in J 
them, nor do live by him, as all do who truly partake j 
of the flesh and blood of Christ without the use of \ 
The pairi- this ccrcmouy, as all the patriarchs and prophets did 
pronhel's^ before this ordinance, as they account it, was insti- i 
witbout ' tuted. Neither was there any thing under the law \ 
inonv'Yuse, ^^^^ ^^^ ^^7 ^ircct or ucccssary relation hereunto ; ', 
were trne though to partake of the flesh and blood of Christ in 
ch'^4!it's"° all ages was indispensably necessary to salvation. For i 
flesh and as fdr the paschal lamb, the whole end of it is signi- '; 
The paschal A^d particularly, Exod. xiii. 8, 9, to wit. That the Jews j 
lamhits mio^ht thereby be kept in remembrance of their deli- 

verance out ot bgypt. , 

Secondly, It hath not relation by divine precept; 

for if it had, it would be mentioned in that which | 

our adversaries account the institution of it, or else in j 

the practice of it by the saints recorded in scripture ; ' 

but so it is not. For as to the institution, or rather j 

narration, of Christ's practice in this matter, we have j 

it recorded by the evangelists Matthew, Mark, and ! 

Luke. In the first two there is only an account of the 

Matt. xxni. matter of fact, to wit, That Chiist brake bread, and 

iiirk, xi». ^^^^^^ '^ '^ ^^^ disciples to eat, saying. This is my body; 

22. and blessing the cup, he gave it them to drink, saying, 

19. *'**"' This is my blood; but nothing of any desire to them 

The inati. to do it. In the last, after the bread (but before the 

the wpiLr. blessing, or giving them the wine), he bids them do 


it in remembi^ance of him. What we are to think of or narration 
this practice of Christ shall be spoken of hereafter, p^.^f'^f * 
But what necessary relation hath all this to the be- thtrei;.. 
liever's partaking of the flesh and blood of Christ ? 
The end of this for which they were to do it, if at all, 
is to remember Christ; which the apostle yet more 
particularly expresses, 1 Cor. xi. 26, to show forth 
the Lord's death ; but to remember the Lord, or de- 
clare his death, which are the special and particular 
ends annexed to the use of this ceremony, is not at all 
to partake of the flesh and blood of Christ ; neither 
have they any more necessary relation to it than any 
other two different spiritual duties. For though they 
that partake of the flesh and blood of Christ cannot 
but remember him, yet the Lord and his death may 
be remembered, as none can deny, where his flesh 
and blood is not truly partaken of. So that since the 
very particular and express end of this ceremony may 
be witnessed, to wit, the remembrance of the Lord's 
death, and yet the flesh and blood of Christ not par- 
taken of, it cannot have had any necessary relation to 
it, else the partaking thereof would have been the end 
of it, and could not have been attained without this 
participation. But on the contrary, we may well 
infer hence, that since the positive end of this cere- 
mony is not the partaking of the flesh and blood of 
Christ, and that whoever partakes of the flesh and 
blood of Christ cannot but remember him, that there- 
fore such need not this ceremony to put them in re- 
membrance of him. 

But if it be said, That Jesus Christ calls the bread 
here his body^ and the wine his blood, therefore he 
seems to have had a special relation to his disciples 
partaking of his flesh and blood in the use of this 
thing ; 

I answer. His calling the bread his body, and the answ. 
wine his blood, would yet infer no such thing ; though 
it is not denied but that Jesus Christ, in all things he 
did, yea, and from the use- of all natural things, took 


occasion to raise the minds of his disciples and hearers 
The woman to Spirituals. Hence from the woman of Samaria her 
of s»m»ria, Jrawing water, he took occasion to tell her of that 
living water, which whoso drinketh of shall 7iever 
thif'St ; which indeed is all one with his blood here 
The well, spoken of; yet it will not follow that that well or 
the bread ' ^atcr had any necessary relation to the living water, 
and wine, Of thc Uving watcr to it, &c. So Christ takes occa- 
^'"cMion^" sion, from the Jews following him for the loaves, to 
from, to tell them of this spiritual bread 2ind Jlesh of his body, 
J,^7rdfeed. wluch was morc necessary for them to feed upon ; it 
'^f' will not therefore follow that their following him for 

the loaves had any necessary relation thereunto. So 
also Christ here, being at supper with his disciples, 
takes occasion, from the bread and wine which w^as 
before them, to signify unto them. That as that bread 
which he brake unto them, and that wine which he 
blessed and gave unto them, did contribute to the 
preserving and nourishing of their bodies, so was he 
also to give his bodi/ and shed his blood for the salva- 
tion of their souls. And therefore the very end pro- 
posed in this ceremony to those that observe it is, to 
be a memorial of his death. . 

But if it be said, 77iat the apostle, 1 Cor. x. 16, 
calls the bread which he brake thc conwuinion of the 
body of Christ, and the cup the communion of his 

' I do most willingly subscribe unto it ; but do deny 
that this is understood of the outward bread, neither 
can it be evinced, but the contrary is manifest from 
the context : for the apostle in this chapter speaks not 
one word of that ceremony ; for having in the begin- 
ning of it shown them how the Jews of old were made 
partakers of the spiritual food and water, which was 
Christ, and how several of them, through disobedi- 
ence and idolatry, fell from that good condition, he 
exhorts them, by the example of those Jews whom 
(iod destroyed of old, to flee those evils; showing 
them that they, to wit, the Corinthians, are likewise 


partakers of the body and blood of Christ ; of which 
communion they would rob themselves if they did 
evil, because they could not dr'mk of the cup of the 
Lord and the cup of devils, and partake of the Lords 
table and the table of devils^ verse 21, which shows 
that he understands not here the using of outward 
bread and wine ; because those that do drink the cup 
of devils, and eat of the table of devils, yea, the wick- The wick- 
edest of men may partake of the outward bread and '^^^^!^l^ 
outward wine. For there the apostle calls the bread outward 
one, verse 17, and he saith, We being many, are Ofie^^^l'^^ 
bread, and one body ; for we are all partakers of that 
one bread. Now if the bread be ojie, it cannot be the 
outward, or the inward would be excluded ; whereas 
it cannot be denied but that it is the partaking of the 
inward bread, and not the outward, that makes the 
saints truly one body and one bread. And whereas 
they say, that the one bread here comprehendeth both The sacra- 
the outward and the inward, by virtue of the sacra- If,fi"n"pre- 
mental union ; that indeed is to affirm, but not to tended, a 
prove. As for that figment of a sacramental union, I 's™^°*- 
find not such a thing in all the scripture, especially 
in the New Testament ; nor is there any thing can 
give a rise for such a thing in this chapter, where the 
apostle, as is above observed, is not at all treating of 
that ceremony, but only, from the excellency of that 
privilege which the Corinthians had, as believing 
Christians, to partake of the flesh and blood of Christ, 
dehorts them from idolatry, and partaking of the sa- 
crifices offered to idols, so as thereby to offend or hurt 
their weak brethren. 

But that which they most of all cry out for in this object. ) 
matter, and are always urging, is from 1 Cor. xi. 
where the apostle is particularly treating of this mat- 
ter, and therefore, from some words here, they have 
the greatest appearance of truth for their assertion, as 
verse 27, where he calls the cup the cup of the Lord; 
and saith, That they ivho eat of it and drink it unwor- 
thily, are guilty of the body and blood of the Lord ; 
and verse 29, Eat and drink their oimi damnation ; 


intimating hence, that this hath an immediate or ne- 
cessary relation to the body, flesh, and blood of Christ. 

Though this at first view may catch the unwary 
Answ. reader, yet being well considered, it doth no ways 
evince the matter in controversy. As for the Corin- 
thians being in the use of this ceremony, why they 
were so, and how that obliges not Christians now to 
the same, shall be spoken of hereafter : it suffices at 
this time to consider that they were in the use of it. 
Secondly, That in the use of it they were guilty of 
and committed divers abuses. Thirdly, That the 
apostle here is giving them directions how they may 
do it aright, in showing them the right and proper 
use and end of it. 

These things being premised, let it be observed, 
that the very express and particular use of it, accord- 
ing to the apostle, is to show forth the Lord's death, 
&c. But to show forth the Lord's death, and partake 
of the flesh and blood of Christ, are diflerent things. 
He saith not. As often as ye eat this bread, ami drink 
this cup, ye partake of the body and blood of Christ : 
but, ye show forth the Lord's death. So I acknow- 
ledge that this ceremony, by those that practise it, 
hath an immediate relation to the outward body and 
death of Christ upon the cross, as being properly a 
memorial of it ; but it doth not thence follow that it 
hath any inward or immediate relation to believers 
communicating or partaking of the spiritual body and 
blood of Christ, or that spiritual supper spoken of 
Rev. iii. 20. For though, in a general way, as every 
religious action in some respect hath a common rela- 
tion to the spiritual communion of the saints with 
God, so we shall not deny but this hatli a relation 
as others. Now for his calling the cup the cup of 
the Lord, and saying, They are guilty of the body 
and blood of Christ, and eat their own damnation in 
not discerning the Lord's body, &c. I answer. That 
this infers no more necessary relation than any other 
religious act, and amounts to no more than this. That 
since the Corinthians were in the use of this cere- 


mony, and so performed it as a religious act, they 
ought to do it worthily, or else they should bring con- 
demnation upon themselves. Now this will not more 
infer the thing so practised by them to be a necessary 
religious act obligatory upon others, than when the 
apostle saith, Rom. xiv. 6, He that regarcUth the 
day, regardeth it unto the Lord, it can be thence in- 
ferred that the days that some esteemed and observed 
did lay an obligation upon others to do the same. 
But yet, as he that esteemed a day, and placed con- 
science in keeping it, was to regard it to the Lord, 
and so it was to him, in so far as he dedicated it unto 
the Lord, the Lord's Day, he was to do it worthily ; 
and if he did it unworthily, he would be guilty of the 
Lord's Day, and so keep it to his own damnation ; so 
also such as observe this ceremony of bread and wine, 
it is to them the bread of the Lord, and the cup of the 
Lord, because they use it as a religious act ; and for- 
asmuch as their end therein is to show forth the Lord's 
death, and remember his body that was crucified for 
them, and his blood that was shed for them ; if, not- 
withstanding they believe it is their duty to do it, and 
make it a matter of conscience to forbear, if they do 
it without that due preparation and examination 
which every religious act ought to be performed in ; 
then, instead of truly remembering the Lord's death, 
and his body and his blood, they render themselves 
guilty of it ; as being in one spirit with those that 
crucified him, and shed his blood, though pretending 
with thanksgiving and joy to remember it. Thus the 
Scribes and Pharisees of old, though in memory ofThePhari- 
the prophets, they garnished their sepulchres, yet are *f^he^bioid 
said by Christ to be guilty of their blood. And that of the pro- 
no more can be hence inferred, appears from another ^'^^*'* 
saying of the same apostle, Rom. xiv. 23 : He that 
doubteth is damned if he eat, &c. ; where he, speaking 
of those that judged it unlawful to eat flesh, &c. saith, 
If they eat doubting, they eat their own damnation. 
Now it is manifest from ail this, that either the doing 


or forbearing of this was to another, that placed no 
conscience in it, of no moment. So I say, he that 
eateth that which in his conscience he is persuaded 
it is not lawful for him to eat, doth eat his own dam- 
nation : so he also that placeth conscience in eating 
bread and wine as a religious act, if he do it unpre- 
pared, and without that due respect wherein such 
acts should be gone about, he eateth and drinketh his 
owfi damnation^ Jiot discerning the Lord's hody^ i. e. 
not minding what he doth, to wit, with a special re- 
spect to the Lord, and by way of special commemo- 
ration of the death of Christ. 

§. VI. Having now sufficiently shown what the 

true communion of the body and blood of Christ is, 

how it is partaken of, and how it has no necessary 

relation to that ceremony of bread and wine used by 

II. Christ with his disciples; it is fit now to consider 

Whether ^^ nature and constitution of that ceremony (for as to 

thw cere- , » . i i i . "^ ^ , 

mony be a the propcr use ot it, we have had occasion to speak 
part oHbe ^cforc), whcthcr it be a standing ordinance in the 
new cove- church of Christ obligatory upon all, or indeed whe- 
obUgatoi. ^^^^ ^* ^ ^^y necessary part of the worship of the 
new covenant dispensation, or hath any better or more 
binding foundation than several other ceremonies ap- 
pointed and practised about the same time, which the 
riiost of our op posers acknowledge to be ceased, and 
now no ways binding upon Christians. We find this 
ceremony only mentioned in scripture in four places, 
to wit, Matthew, Mark, and Luke, and by Paul to the 
Corinthians. If any would infer any thing from the 
frequency of the mentioning of it, that will add no- 
thing ; for it being a matter of fact, is therefore men- 
tioned by the evangelists ; and there are other things 
less memorable as often, yea, oftener mentioned. 
Malt. xxti. Matthew and Mark giva only an account of the raat- 
Miirk, xir. ^r of fact, witliout any precept to do so afterwards ; 
iSk • ^^"^P^y declaring, that Jesus at that time did desire 
19. ' ^"* them to eat of the bread, and drink of the cup ; to 
1 Cor. xi. vvhich Luke adds these words, This do in remembrance 

23, ac. ' 


of me. If we consider this action of Christ with his \ 
apostles, there will appear nothing singular in it for a ; 
foundation to such a strange superstructure as many ] 
in their airy imaginations have sought to build upon \ 
it ; for both Matthew and Mark express it as an act ] 
done by him as he was eating. Matthew saith, And The break- 
as they were eating, and Mark, And as they did eat, |"fs°no sln^ \ 
Jesus took bread, &c. Now this act was no singular guiar thing, - 
thing, neither any solemn institution of a gospel ordi- amoVg^the" \ 
nance ; because it was a constant custom among the Jews. \ 
Jews, as Paulus Riccius observes at length in his Ce- p. Riccins. 
lestial Agriculture, that when they did eat the pass- 
over, the master of the family did tEike bread, and i 
bless it, and breaking it, gave of it to the rest; and 
likewise taking wine, did the same ; so that there can \ 
nothing further appear in this, than that Jesus Christ, 
ivho fuljilled all righteousness, and also obsei*ved the i 
Jewish feasts and customs, used this also among his ] 
disciples only, that as in most other things he laboured \ 
to draw their minds to a further thing, so in the use ] 
of this he takes occasion to put them in mind of his j 
death and sufferings, which were shortly to be ; which i 
he did the oftener inculcate unto them, for that they '1 
were averse from believing it. And as for that ex- | 
pression of Luke, Do this in rxmembrance of vie, it will what it \» 
amount to no more than this, that being: the last time !° **" **"* ! 
that Christ did eat with his disciples, he desired them, brance of \ 
that in their eating and drinking they might have^^'"** 
regard to him, and by the remembering of that oppor- i 
tunity, be the more stirred up to follow him diligently 
through sufferings and death, &c. But what man of j 
reason, laying aside the prejudice of education, and \ 
the influence of tradition, will say, that this account | 
of the matter of fact given by Matthew and Mark, or \ 
this expression of Luke, io* do that in remembrance \ 
of him, will amount to these consequences which the '\ 
generality of Christians have sought to draw from it ; ; 
as calling it Augustissimum Eucharistici: Sacramen- \ 
turn ; venerabile altar is Sacramentum : the principal ■ 


seal of the covenant of grace, by which all the bene- 
fits of Christ^s death are sealed to believers; and such 
like things ? But to give a further evidence, how these 
consequences have not any bottom from the practice 
of that ceremony, nor from the words following. Do 
this, &c. let us consider another of the like nature, as 
it is at length expressed by John, chap. xiii. 3, 4, 8, 
cfcrirt's 13, 14, 15 : Jesus riseth up from supper, and laid 
f^etl"a"nd^u ^-^^^^ his garments, and took a towel, and girded him- 
nianner re- self: after that, he poureth water into a bason, and 
began to wash the disciples feet ; and to wipe them with 
the towel wheravith he was girded : Peter said unto 
him, Thou shalt never wash my feet ; Jesus answered 
him, If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me. 
So after he had washed their feet, — he said, Know ye 
what I have done to you 1 If I then your Lord and 
Master have washed your feet, ye also ought to wash one 
another s feet : for I have given you an exajuple, that 
ye should do as I have done to you. As to which, let it 
be observed, that John relates this passage to have 
Compared bccu douc at the same time with the other of break- 
br'eaking of ^^g bread ; both being done the night of the passover, 
bread. after suppcr. If we regard the narration of this, and 
the circumstances attending it, it was done with far 
more solemnity, and prescribed far more punctually 
and particularly than the former. It is said only, ^4* 
he was eating, he took bread; so that this would seem 
to be but an occasional business : but here he rose up, 
he laid by his garments, he girded himself, he poured 
out the water, he washed their feet, he wiped them with 
a towel: he did this to all of them; which are cir- 
cumstances surely far more observable than those 
noted in the other. The former was a practice com- 
mon among the Jews, used by all masters of families 
upon that occasion ; but this, as to the manner, and 
person acting it, to wit, for the master to rise up, and 
wash the feet of his servants and disciples, was more 
singular and observable. In the breaking of bread, 
and giving of wine, it is not pleaded by our adversa- 


ries, nor yet mentioned in the text, that he particu- 
larly put them into the hands of all ; but breaking it, 
and blessing it, gave it the nearest, and so they from 
hand to hand : but here it is mentioned, that he 
washed not the feet of one or two, but of many. He 
saith not in the former, that if they do not eat of that 
bread, and drink of that wine, they should be preju- 
diced by it : but here he saith expressly to Peter, that 
if he wash him not, he hath no part with him ; which 
being spoken upon Peter's refusing to let him wash 
his feet, would seem to import no less, than not the 
continuance only, but even the necessity of this cere- 
mony. In the former he saith, as it were passingly, 
T>o this in remembrance of me ; but here he sitteth 
down again, he desires them to consider what he hath 
done, tells them positively, that as he hath done to The wash- 
them, so ouQ-ht they to do to one another: and y et if ^ ?"^ *"•" 

• 1 1111 1 11- 1 7 tliersfeet 

agam, he redoubles that precept, by teihng them, he was left as 
has given them an example, that they should do so like- *" ^'''""p'*- 
wise. If we respect the nature of the thing, it hath 
as much in it as either baptism or the breaking of 
bread ; seeing it is an outward element of a cleansing 
nature, applied to the outward man, by the command 
and the example of Christ, to signify an inward puri- 
fying. I would willingly propose this seriously to 
men, who will be pleased to make use of that reason 
and understanding that God hath given them, and 
not be imposed upon, nor abused by the custom or 
tradition of others : Whether this ceremony, if we 
respect either the time that it was appointed in, or the 
circumstances wherewith it was performed, or the 
command enjoining the use of it, hath not as much to 
recommend it for a standing ordinance of the gospel, 
as either water baptism, or bread and wine, or any 
other of that kind ? I wonder then what reason the 
Papists can give, why they have not numbered it 
among their sacraments, except merely Voluntas Eccle- 
sia et Trad it io Fat rum. 

But if they say, That it is used among them, in that object. 


the Pope, a?id some other persons among them, use to 
do it once a year to some poor people ; 
answ. I would willingly know what reason they have why 

this should not be extended to all, as well as that of the 
eucharist (as they term it) or whence it appears from 
the text, that* [Do this iii remembrance of me] should 
be interpreted that the bread and wine were every 
day to be taken by all priests, or the bread every day, 
or every week, by the people ; and that that other 
command of Christ, Ve ought to do as I have done to 
you, &c. is only to be understood of the Pope, or some 
other persons, to be done only to a few, and that once 
a year ? Surely there can be no other reason for this 
The Pro- difference assigned from the text. And as to Protes- 
Iio*ubl* "'* tants, who use not this ceremony at all, if they will 
wwbing of but open their eyes, they may see how that by custom 
^^^' and tradition they are abused in this matter, as were 

their fathers in divers popish traditions. For if we 
look into the plain scripture, what can be thence 
inferred to urge the one, which may not be likewise 
pleaded for the other ; or for laying aside the one, 
which may not be likewise said against the continu- 
ance of the other ? If they say. That the former, of 
washing the feet, was only a ceremony ; what have 
they, whence they can show, that this breaking of 
bread is more ? If they say. That the former was only 
a sign of humility and purifying ; what have they to 
prove that this was more? If they say. That one was 
only for a time, and was no ermngelical ordinance ; 
what hath this to make it such, that the other wanted ? 
Surely there is no way of reason to evade this; nei- 
ther can any thing be alleged, that the one should 
cease, and not the other; or the one continue, and 
not the other ; but the mere opinion of the affirmers, 
which by custom, education, and tradition hath be- 
gotten in the hearts of people a greater reverence for, 
and esteem of the one than the other ; which if it 
had fallen out to be as much recommended to us by 
tradition, would no doubt have been as tenaciously 


pleaded for, as having no less foundation in scripture. 
But since the former, to wit, the washing of one ano- 
ther's feet, is justly laid aside, as not binding upon 
Christians; so ought also the other for the same 

§. VII. But it is strange that those who are so The break- 
clamorous for this ceremony, and stick so much to it, J^"^ nser^** 
take liberty to dispense with the manner or method now in the 
that Christ did in it ; since none that ever I could ^e^asCbrist 
hear of, except some Baptists, who now do it, use it did. 
in the same way that he did : Christ did it at supper, 
while they were eating ; but the generality of Pro- 
testants do it in the morning only by itself What 
rule walk they by in this change ? 

If it be said, These are but circumstances, and not object. 
the matter ; and if the matter he kept to, the alteratmi 
of circumstances is but of small moment ; 

What if it should be said the whole is but a cir- answ. 
cumstance, which fell out at that time when Christ 
eat the passover ? For if we have regard to that which 
alone can be pleaded for an institution, viz. these 
words. Do this in remembrance of me ; it doth as 
properly relate to the manner as matter. For what 
may or can they evince in reason, that these words, 
T)o this, only signify cat bread, and drink wine, but 
it is no matter when ye eat, nor how ye eat it ; and 
not as ye have seen me eat it at supper with you, who 
take bread, and break it, and give it you ; and take the 
cup, and bless it, and give it you ; so do ye likewise ? 
And seeing Christ makes no distinction in those 
words. Do this, it cannot be judged in reason but to 
relate to the whole ; which if it do, all those that at 
present use this ceremony among Christians, have not 
yet obeyed this precept, nor fulfilled this institution, 
for all their clamours concerning it. 

If it be said. That the time and manner of doing object. 
it by Christ was but accidentally, as being after the 
Jewish passover, which was at supper; 

Besides that it may be answered, and easily proved, Answ. 



that the whole was accidental, as being the practice 
The brMk- of a Jcwish ccremony, as is above observed ; may it 
wM°a je*w? not the same way be urged, that the dri f iking of wine 
ith oeremo- IS accidental^ as being the natural product of that 
■^' country ; and so be pleaded, that in those countries 

where wine doth not grow, as in our nation of Scot- 
land, we make use of beer' or ale in the use of this 
ceremony ; or bread made of other grain than that 
which Christ used ? And yet would not our adver- 
saries judge this an abuse, and not right performing 
of this sacrament? Yea, have not scruples of this 
kind occasioned no little contention among the pro- 
Contestsbe- fessors of Christianity ! What great contest and strife 
iTr^ek ami ^^^^ ^^^^ bctwixt tlic Grcck and Latin churches con- 
Latin cerning the bread ! While the one will have it im- 
concernbR leavcncd, reckoning, because the Jews made use of 
the leaven- unleaveucd bread in the passover, that it was such 
Teavrtied kiud of bread that Christ did break to his disciples ; 
bread in the (he othcr leavcncd I therefore the Lutherans make use 
"^*'*'' of unleavened bread, the Calvinists of leavened. And 
this contest was so hot, when the Reformation was 
Fareiius. beginning at Geneva, that Calvin and Farellus were 
forced to fly for it. But do not Protestants, by these 
uncertainties, open a door to Papists for their exclud- 
ing the people from the cup: Will not \T>o this] 
infer positively, that they should do it in the same 
manner, and at the same time, as Christ did it; as 
well as that they should use the cup, and not the 
bread only ? Or what reason have they to dispense 
with the one, more than the Papists have to do with 
the other ? Oh ! what strange absurdities and incon- 
veniences have Christians brought upon themselves, 
by superstitiously adhering to this ceremony ! Out of 
which difticulties it is impossible for them to extricate 
themselves, but by laying it aside, as they have done 
The ciergj othcrs of the like nature. For besides what is above- 
bre'ad*! do "mentioned, I would gladly know how from the words 
bieas and they cEn bc certainly resolved that these words [X)o 
Wxxj mi»\ * ^his] must be understood to the clergy, Take, bless, 


and break this bread, and give it to others ; but to the take and 
laity only, Take and eat, but do not bless, &c. hI'^T)!. 

If it be said, That the clergy were only present ; object. 

Then will not that open a door for the popish argu- answ. 
ment against the administration of the cup to the 
people ? Or may not another from thence as easily 
infer. That the clergy only ought to partake of this 
ceremony ; because they were the apostles only then 
present, to whom it was said, Do this ? But if this 
[Z)o this^ be extended to all, how comes it all have 
not liberty to obey it, in both blessing, breaking, and 
distributing, as well as taking and eating? Besides 
all these, even the Calvinist Protestants of Great Bri- fiot con- 
tain could never yet accord among: themselves about ^f^^'' ^'"'"^ 

■1 r I ' • 1 ^ • ' T ^"^ manner 

the manner oj taking it, whether sittmg, standmg, or of taking it, 
kneeling ; whether it should be given to the sick, and ^"fo^°,o 
those that are ready to die, or not ? Which contro- give it. 
versies, though they may be esteemed of small mo- 
ment, yet have greatly contributed, with other things, 
to be the occasion not only of much contention, but 
also of bloodshed and devastation ; so that in this 
last respect the Prelatick Calvinists have termed tlie 
Presbyterians schismatical and pertinacious ; and 
they them again superstitious, idolatrous, and papis- 
tical. Who then that will open their eyes, but may 
see that the devil hath stirred up this contention and 
zeal, to busy men about things of small moment, that 
greater matters may be neglected, while he keeps 
them in such ado about this ceremony ; though they 
lay aside others of the like nature, as positively com- 
manded, and as punctually practised ; and from the 
observation of which half so many difficulties will not 
follow ? 

§. VIII. How then? Have we not reason, not find- 
ing the nature of this practice to be obligatory upon 
us, more than those others which our adversaries have 
laid aside, to avoid this confusion ; since those that 
use it can never agree, neither concerning the nature, 
efficacy, nor manner of doing it? And this proceeds, 




com moo, 
ing the 

because they take it not plainly, as it lies in the scrip- 
ture ; but have so much intermixed their own inven- 
tions. For would they take it as it lies, it would import 
no more than that Jesus Christ at that time did 
thereby signify unto them, that his body and blood 
was to be offered for them ; and desired them, that 
whensoever they did eat or drink, they might do it 
in remembrance of him, or with a regard to him, 
whose blood was shed for them. Now that the primi- 
tive chtirch, gathered immediately after his ascension, 
did so understand it, doth appear from their use and 
practice, if we admit those places of the Acts, where 
Bj break- breaking of bread is spoken of, to have relation here- 
thf °htd"u ^^' which as our adversaries do, so we shall willingly 
tbiDgsin agree to: as first. Acts, ii. 42, A)2d they contbiued 
steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and 
in breaking of bread, &c. This cannot be understood 
of any other than of their ordinary eating; for as 
nothing else appears from the text, so the context 
makes it plain ; for they had all things in common : 
and therefore it is said, verse 46, And they continuing 
daily with one accord in the temple, and breaking 
bread from house to house, did eat their meat with 
gladness and singleness of heart. Those who will 
not wilfully close their eyes may see here, that the 
breaking being joined with their eating, shows, that 
nothing else is here expressed, but that having all 
things in common, and so continuing together, they 
also did break their bread, and eat their meat toge- 
ther: ill doing whereof, I cannot doubt but they 
remembered the Lord; to follow whom they had, 
with so much zeal and resignation, betaken them- 
selves. This is further manifest from Acts, vi. 2 ; 
for the apostles, having the care and distribution of 
that money, which the believers, having sold tlieir 
possessions, gave unto them, and finding themselves 
overcharged with that burden, appointed deacons for 
that business, that they might give themselves eonti- 
nually to prayer, and to the ministry of the word ; 

for serviog 


not leaving that, to serve tables. This cannot be 
meant of any sacramental eating, or religious act of 
worship; seeing our adversaries make the distributing 
of that the proper act of ministers, not of deacons : 
and yet there can be no reason alleged, that that 
breaking of bread, which they are said to have con- 
tinued in, and to have done from house to house, was 
other than those tables which the apostles served ; but 
here gave over, as finding themselves overcharged 
with it. Now as the increase of the disciples did 
incapacitate the apostles any more to manage this ; 
so it would seem their further increase, and dispers- 
ing in divers places, hindered the continuance of that 
practice of having things in common : but notwith- 
standing, so far at least to remember or continue that 
ancient community, they did at certain times come 
together, and break bread together. Hence it is said, 
Acts, XX. 7, on Paul's coming to Troas, that upon the 
first day of the week, when the disciples came together At Tr< ris 
to break bread, Paul preached unto them, ready to ief.' 
depart on the morrow, and continued his speech u?2til midm^hu 
midnight. Here is no mention made of any sacra- 
mental eating ; but only that Paul took occasion from 
their being together to preach unto them. And it 
seems it was a supper they intended (not a morning- 
bit of bread, and sup of wiiie) else it is not very proba- 
ble that Paul would from the morning have preached 
until midnight. But the 1 1th verse puts the matter 
out of dispute, which is thus : When he therefore was 
come up again, and had broken bread, and eaten, and 
talked a long while, even till break of day, so he de- 
parted. This shows, that the breaking of bread was 
deferred till that time ; for these words \and when he 
had broken bread, and eaten] do show, that it had a 
relation to the breaking of bread beforementioned, 
and that that was the time he did it. Secondly, 
These words joined together [and when he had broken 
bread, and eaten, and talked] show, it was no religi- 

G G 2 



PROP. XI 11. 

Tbej onlj 
did eat for 
the bod jr. 

Bj some 
called a 
lore feast. 

The Chris- 
tians began 
bj degprees 
to depart 
from the 

1 Cor. xi. 

the sapper 
of the Lord 
(so called) 

ous act of worship, but only an eating for bodily re- 
freshment, for which the Christians used to meet 
together some time ; and doing it in God^sfeai^ and 
shfgitness of heart, doth notwithstanding diti'erence it 
from the eating or feasting of profane persons. And 
this by some is called a love-feast, or ^ being together, 
not merely to feed their bellies, or for outward^ends ;: 
but to take thence occasion to eat and drink together,* 
in the dread and presence of the Lo|^d, as his people; 
which custom we shall not condemn. But let it be 
observed, that in all the Acts there is no other nor 
further mention of this matter. But if that ceremony 
had been some solemn^sacrifice, as some will have it, 
or such a special sacrament as others pleaa it to be, 
it is strange that that history, which in many less 
things gives a particular account of the Christians' 
behaviour, should have been so silent in the matter : 
only we find, that they used sometimes to meet' toge- 
ther to break bread and eat. Now as the early Chris- 
tians began by degrees to depart from that primitive 
purity and simplicity, so did they also to accumulate 
superstitious traditions, and vitiate the innocent prac- 
tices of their predecessors, by the intermixing either 
of Jewish or Heathenish rites ; and likewise in the 
use of this, abuses began very early to creep in among 
Christians, so that it w^as needful for the apostle Paul 
to reform them, and reprove them for it, as he doth at 
large, 1 Cor. xi. from verse 1 7 to the end : which 
place we shall particularly examine, because our ad- 
versaries lay the chief stress